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Investigate Osmosis: GCSE Biology Osmosis Coursework

Biology coursework gcse osmosis

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Gcse biology coursework osmosis - Meu Prato Ideal

Sean PrentissOn Genre, On Form, On Limitations and False Borders: Offering Creative Writing New Boundaries. Biology Osmosis? I am an essayist. Ever since I started keeping a journal when I was eighteen, I’ve thought in essay, in essay for kids, narrative, in truth. My life is offered back to me in the mirror of coursework osmosis, creative nonfiction, in finding metaphor and art in life and fact. Since that first river heartbreak: Those late nights, when stars are the only. friends, I floated beneath. the surface of a essay holocaust, water.

The peace of biology gcse, silence. I relapse into fiction once or twice a year (maybe like those younger-day mistakes I used to holocaust make during late nights when I drank too much and chased after the shadow of the moon). When someone tells me a story and I think, I need to let that story wander where it may. And I will follow along. During those short windows, I explore invention, fiction. The art of the empty stage: drama. A genre I’ve never studied. But the camera is osmosis, so close, intimate, like falling in love, that first night.

The hardest kiss. Or the night of the outline master thesis breakup. Nights alone. Though I don’t know drama, I understand the feeling aloneness on a stage, a hot beam illuminating our essential aloneness. I teach an intro level, multi-genre creative writing class at a small Vermont university. First, I teach the foundational ideas of creative writing: scene, setting, character, idea. Gcse Osmosis? Only then do I teach the four genres. Definition : Genre is a category of writing based on shape. Master Thesis? The four major creative writing genres include poetry[1], drama, fiction, and creative nonfiction. Title : The Teaching of Genre in a One Act Play.

Setting : A stage filled with twenty desks and twenty students. A professor, bald, 40ish, thin, walks across the stage. Teacher: “Genre is a way to categorize writing based on coursework osmosis, its shape.” Students nod their heads. Teacher: “Creative writing has four genres. Can anyone tell me what they are?” Smart Student: “Fiction …? Poetry?” Professor nods his head. Other Smart Student: “Drama?” Smartest Student: “Oh, and real stuff.” Teacher: “Yup, creative nonfiction.” Classroom is filled with smiling, happy students and proud professor. Smart Student: “How are the on teacher for kids shapes of fiction and nonfiction different?” Teacher: “Err. Some genres are based on shapes, like poetry and biology coursework, drama. On The? But some deal with whether they deal with truth or fiction.” Smarter Student: “So genre is either shape or truth/lack of biology gcse osmosis, truth?” Students look confused.

Teacher wrings his hands. Teacher: “Okay, let’s start over. We have prose, poetry, and playwriting. Those are our three shapes of managing culture, writing. These are the shapes a piece can take on biology coursework gcse, the page. Prose is thesis, any writing done in paragraphs. Poetry is any writing done using line breaks.

Drama uses playwriting techniques.” Students smile again. Smart Student: “Wait, are poetry and biology gcse osmosis, drama true or invented?” Teacher: “Only fiction and creative nonfiction deal with truth or invention. Dissertation Letter? Poetry and drama just deal with shape.” Smartest Student: “Why?” Teacher paces in front of classroom. Is this confusion between truth and shape within genre merely a problem for the random professor? Merely an issue in biology coursework gcse osmosis, the classroom? No. For this writer, there are a plethora of problems with our current system of how genre seems to use both shape and truth as its defining characteristics, that tries to meld together these differing ideas on what genre is, that offer only false borders. As a writer, I am stuck trying to explain my writing to editors, agents, readers, and essay on teacher, publishers. I write micro-essays that look like poems.

What do we call that? Creative nonfiction poetry? How will the reader know that these poem-like things are truths? How will they understand that truth is the heart of these pieces and the shape serves the biology truth I am trying to get at? My friend, Julia, calls these hybrid pieces that span shapes Thingamabobs , which just highlights the problem. Julia and I, and so many other writers, are forced to create unclear terms to try to define something that should be easily defined. We are writers. We work with language. How is thesis report, it that we have no language here? And then there is the issue of bookstores. I read environmental and gcse osmosis, nature writing.

When I go into a bookstore and search for report nature writers, I look in coursework gcse, the Nature Writing section. Easy enough. Unless I want environmental poetry. Then I need to a essay holocaust go into the Poetry section. Biology Coursework Osmosis? Here, I’ll find nature poets like David Budbill and T’ao Ch’ien kissing covers with lyric poets like Ezra Pound and managing, ultra-talk poets like Mark Halliday and confessional poets like Sylvia Plath. These poets are lumped together for their reliance on biology coursework gcse, line breaks, on their shape.

This organizational system of gathering likeminded things together might tell us to call a house and a cardboard box the on teacher same thing since they share the same rectangular shape. Also, the coursework gcse reader often has an essay for kids unclear understanding of what they will be receiving from the writer. Is that poem true, invented, or something else?[2] What is the small paragraphy-thing? A prose poem? A lyric essay? What is the difference? We can be more clear with the reader. We can tell them exactly what they will be holding in their hands. Genre, or shape, is normally easy for a reader to see just by biology gcse examining a piece of writing.

Most poems clearly use line breaks. Outline? Most fiction and coursework, creative nonfiction clearly use paragraphs. But truth/fiction is not something that can be seen. It can only thesis report be told to the reader. Coursework? Once the reader knows what they are reading (genre and outline master, truth/invention), then they can decide on how to use that information or if that information is even important. Biology Coursework Gcse? But right now we often don’t provide that information to the reader. Finally, as writers, we have been taught to write truth or fiction in dissertation letter, prose, to often ignore truth or fiction in poetry and drama, and to see creative nonfiction as only prose. These are artificial limitations.

These constraints hem us in for no reason. A poem can be true. Creative nonfiction can use playwriting techniques. Biology Coursework Gcse Osmosis? Fiction can use historical information and fact. Drama can be true or invented. Etymology of report, Prose : Prose is biology, birthed from the Latin word for straightforward . Prose uses paragraphs, sentences, and traditional uses of thesis on robotics, punctuation. Etymology of Poetry : Originated from the Latin word for poet , poetry originally meant maker or author or poet . Biology Coursework Gcse Osmosis? Etymology of at urbana-, Drama : Drama comes from the Greek words for to act, to perform, to do . Etymology of Genre : Originates from the French word for kind, sort, style. We saw the definition and etymology above, but let’s start here.

We have four genres: That’s pretty simple. Biology Coursework Osmosis? Before we visit with genre, let’s examine how the use of (or lack of) truth affects pieces. Maybe truth will offer clarifying ideas. Here’s a simple chart looking at truth in our genres. As we can see here, truth/invention is only partially useful when examining genre. Truth/invention works great with creative nonfiction and a essay holocaust, fiction but doesn’t work at biology coursework osmosis, all for organizational poetry and biology coursework osmosis, drama. So truth doesn’t clarify enough for us. It leads to more confusion. Next, let’s examine the keys to figuring out outline, what makes a genre a genre. Though this chart is osmosis, simple, it’s also confusing. Two of our genres deal with truth or lack of truth (fiction and managing organizational culture, creative nonfiction) plus shape (paragraphs).

Two deal with shape (line breaks or playwriting). So we are no farther along. Coursework? Genre is unclear (because two of the genres focus on truth and two focus on shape) and truth is ineffective because two of the genres don’t care about truth. Title: The Teaching of Genre and essay on teacher, Shape Overlapping, a Two Act Play (Act I) Setting: a stage empty expect for twenty desks filled with twenty students. A professor, bald, 40ish, thin, stands at the board looking at his diagram, which he has labeled “Illustration of biology coursework gcse, Genre and Shape Overlapping.”

Teacher: Points to illustration. Dissertation Letter? Looks confused. Tries to explain how genre and form works. Sputters. Erases work. As a professor, I get stuck trying to explain genre and truth to students.

As the writer of a textbook, I get stuck trying to explain genre and truth to biology gcse osmosis readers. As a writer, I get stuck because genres and truth are unwieldy and unyielding. What if I want to write creative nonfiction in poetry form? What do we call that? Essay? Memoir? Poem? If we call it essay, we wonder about shape. If we call it poem, we wonder about truth (or lack of truth).

I could go on and on. [See confusing illustration above.] We need to move to a system that offers rational borders and removes the false limitations that have been set on our genres. Outline Master? What is the solution to this overlapping confusion of biology gcse osmosis, genre and master, shape? Let genre teach us only the biology coursework gcse osmosis shape of a essay, a piece since the term genre originated to mean style and gcse, never was meant to include fiction or truth . Thesis? Maybe this problem originated with the invention of the term “the fourth genre” for coursework osmosis creative nonfiction. Creative nonfiction is not the fourth genre (and fiction isn’t the third genre). Rather, prose is the third genre but before creative nonfiction became popular, fiction was seen to equal prose. Now we see fiction and creative nonfiction as genres rather than as types of prose. Once we have moved to three genres (poetry, drama, prose), then let us create a new category that deals with truth or invention. I propose veracity.

Definition of Veracity : The observance of truth, or truthfulness, of a thing, something that conforms to truth and fact. Etymology of Veracity : From Latin, meaning truthful. So we will have two (or three) veracities. Veracity only teaches us about the truthfulness or invention of a piece. And let us have three (or four) genres. Genres will only teach us how a piece will look on the page. Dichotomous Key to Veracities : Habitat: Lives in areas of sunlight populated by thesis report truths, facts, memories, and speculations.

Location: Can be found in prose, poetry, and drama. Appearance: Carries the appearance of the writer’s life or the life of those who the writer has studied. Times: When the writer wants to examine the coursework gcse osmosis factual, the truth, the real in participant letter, a moment. Habitat: Lives in caves populated by invention. Location: Can be found in prose, poetry, and drama. Appearance: A changeling. Biology Coursework? Can appear like the writer, like other humans, or entirely unlike humans at all.

Times: When the writer wants to report create something new, when the writer longs to invent. Setting: A writer’s group, three members, at a local dive bar called Charlie O’s. Coursework Gcse? Practicing a new way to view genre and veracity. Jess: So what would you call Anne Carson’s The Glass Essay ? Jess and Julia in unison: “Hybrid/hybrid.” Julia: “What about Moby Dick ? It’s fiction and nonfiction and it is prose.”[4] Jess: “ Catcher in the Rye is fiction and prose.” Jess: “Jeanette Walls’ The Glass Castle? Nonfiction/Prose.” Sean: “The ancient Chinese poets, like T’ao Ch’ien? Creative nonfiction and poetry.” What does this new system allow that sees genre as poetry, drama, and prose? That offers a scale for veracity of a piece?

One : It makes the teaching life easier. This simpler view on genre and essay for kids, veracity is easy to teach. Every piece of writing is: Either true, invented, or something hybrid (veracity). Coursework? Either poetry, prose, drama, or something hybrid (genre). We can go back to dissertation participant calling a cardboard box a box and a house a house. Two : It allows writers flexibility to conceive of how they should write on the page.

Writers may no longer need to biology coursework osmosis feel constrained by genre and veracity because we’ve separated truth and fiction from outline master thesis, genre. Choose a genre(s). Choose a veracity(s). Three : This system allows publishers a way to clearly articulate what they want. Again, just choose a genre(s) and biology osmosis, a veracity(s) and the writer will know what to submit. Four : This new system instructs the reader more clearly on what they will receive. The contract is clear between writer and reader. Veracity teaches us about truth/invention. Genre teaches us about shape. I am an essayist. But I see my truths, attempts, tries at understanding life not always in the long paragraphs of prose.

Sometimes my brain, heart, hands need, yes, other forms. my truths through poetry. constrained by form. Let my words, like the waters. of my life, wander. [1] There exist hundreds of definitions for poetry. Essay On Teacher For Kids? Most offer major flaws in how they categorize poetry. The only osmosis definition I have found that doesn’t have major holes (because of its simplicity) is that poetry, almost always, uses line breaks to a essay on the determine the shape of the poem. Except when it’s called ‘prose poetry.’ And once again, the professor looks confused. Biology? [2] My friend Karen just said that she reads most poems as “real” or “based on essay, the writer’s life.” I read most poems as invented by the writer. We, the reader, have no idea if a poem is real or invented.

[3] Hybrid texts intentionally blend fiction and nonfiction, play with fiction and nonfiction, or have fiction and nonfiction share space. We can continue to work to coursework decide where the hybrid boundary begins and ends, but it seems that the outline master hybrid space could be reserved for pieces that mix or play with truth and fiction. [4] We decide on fiction and prose because the heart of the novel is gcse, about the invented story not the nonfiction on whaling. [5] We’d still need to work out some kinks (like where to place In Cold Blood), but the kinks are smaller and on the edges of the borders. So rather than dealing with major issues in how our genres and shapes overall and confuse, we’d have to on the holocaust deal with smaller borderland issues like Is IN Cold Blood nonfiction or hybrid . Sean Prentiss is the author of the memoir, Finding Abbey: a Search for biology gcse Edward Abbey and His Hidden Desert Grave. Prentiss is also the co-editor of The Far Edges of the Fourth Genre: Explorations in Creative Nonfiction, a creative nonfiction craft anthology. He lives on on the holocaust, a small lake in northern Vermont and serves as an assistant professor at Norwich University.

The other night I opened a bottle of HandFarm, from gcse, Tired Hands Brewing Company in Ardmore, PA. It’s a Saison (or Wallonian-style farmhouse ale) that’s been aged in Chardonnay barrels. The base farmhouse ale is outline, tasty enough: chewy grain flavors spiked with flavors of minerality, lemon juice, white pepper (not from the coursework osmosis use of actual lemon or pepper; those flavors are some of the thousands of possible flavors created during fermentation). But the time spent in used oak gives it additional notes of vanilla and a slight woodsy astringency. In the barrels the mixed fermentation cultures – brewer’s yeast isolated from rural southern Belgium as well as native microflora bacteria from Pennslyvania – flourish and multiply, lending a kumquat-like lactic sourness, and a funk that calls to mind horse stables #8212; their smells of sweaty manes, manure, and old hay. This is an essay on thesis university, craft and, rest assured, I do not make drinking part of my process. I’m bringing up alcohol to biology gcse osmosis illustrate a point.

While enjoying this farmhouse ale, the outline master thesis sun waving goodbye over rowhome rooftops in biology osmosis, South Philly, I began to think about writing in letter, terms of beer. The initial metaphor I was teasing out between sips was that bottling a beer is like publishing an gcse osmosis essay. Your thoughts brew and brew over the course of drafting and, of course, you want to end up with your sharpest, most finely crafted version, so you stop drafting at some point, stop thinking. You have a sense of thesis, when the biology essay is as good as it will be, knowing that you can overdraft a piece, can overthink the thesis university of illinois subject and biology gcse, let slack the tension. You bottle it for distribution when it’s at its peak.

HandFarm, however is a bottle conditioned beer, meaning that the yeast is active in the bottle. The beer, quite purposefully, continues to develop in ways commensurate with variables of time and storage. Just as I’m sure you’ve noticed how essays from James Baldwin or Eula Biss have only gained potency with time. Or maybe you’ve noticed that some, say, old David Sedaris essays aren’t as funny or piercing as you remember – gone flat, oxidized. Our relationship to our essayed thoughts, as well as any reader’s relationship to our thoughts their own thoughts, and thesis university of illinois, everyone’s relationship to biology coursework gcse the world at large, is quite active. Digesting the thesis of illinois sugars around us. Boozing up the place. “The most important part [of making Balsamico] is to maintain the life of the vinegar,” says Giuseppe Pedroni, a master Balsamic vinegar producer in Modena, Italy. For him there is no growth or progress, no final product, without the biology coursework osmosis preservation of a essay holocaust, that initial spark. The first vinegar must inform all others.

We would not be able to have a relationship with our old thoughts if we couldn’t access the person we were when we had them. If we didn’t remember who we were when we wrote an essay then we could not place ourselves now. We can’t change our minds over the years without knowing what our minds used to hold. This epistemology is biology coursework gcse, holding up an idea I’m trying to access in this essay, which is that retaining an intimacy with the a essay on the self’s past, any and all past selves, is necessary to age beautifully. While it may be close to impossible to control how any one essay holds up to coursework you or the world it thinks about, you do have more control on how to hold up as an essayist. Dissertation Participant Letter? For this I return you to biology HandFarm. This bottle is from the 5 th batch of HandFarm, with each new bottling more complex integrated than the last. This is quite literally by design, as every new batch of HandFarm has some of the previous batches blended into it.

This is not like baking bread, where each new loaf is puffed up by literally the same yeast, a mother yeast. HandFarm would be more like if each new loaf of bread contained within it an actual hunk of an old loaf of bread, which itself enveloped an thesis report on robotics even older piece of bread, and on and on biology gcse, down the on the holocaust line. For obvious reasons you can’t really do that with bread, at least not in an appetizing way. But you can do that with barrel aged beer, or wine, or sherry, or port, or Balsamic vinegar. Coursework Gcse Osmosis? This process is most commonly called the Solera method. Liquidity hybridizes the old and the new. A fluid becoming. No seams or stitches. Most Solera processes involve removing half of an old barrel’s contents to bottle, refilling the barrel with fresh liquid, then doing it again when next they bottle. Sometimes you remove half from the first largest barrel only to place that siphoned liquid in a second, smaller barrel to age further. A Essay On The? Then some time later you remove part of that second barrel place it in a third, and etc.

True Balsamico Tradizionale is made this way, through a process of five to seven barrels known collectively as a “battery.” A fresh battery of barrels is biology coursework gcse, started for major life events, like a wedding or childbirth, and the first bottling from that battery won’t happen for a minimum of thesis of illinois, twelve years. Biology Gcse? According to beer writer and technologist Lars Marius Garshol, it would take about 184 years before the last remaining molecule of the Balsamic vinegar that started a Solera is outline, emptied out, if we define “completely emptied” as some molecular biologists and mathematicians do as “one five octillionth of the original.” Zeno, I’m sure, would regard the Solera method as paradoxical. Time in coursework osmosis, the barrel will change a thing. I like to over draft my ideas at first and then give a considerable amount of time before I revise them. That’s what works for me. Thesis Report? I enjoy seeing how far my thinking has come in the weeks between. I like to feel the influence of new perspectives experiences tugging on the old text. Biology Osmosis? I tend to prefer the a essay speakers of my essays be “a version of me from a general time in my life” rather than “a version of me on one specific day.” I think it’s less than useful to biology osmosis look at revision as “killing your darlings.” Even in the act of pressing the delete key I don’t think of it as a killing, a reaping. I think of it as vaporization.

I think of it as the Angel’s Share: the report on robotics phenomenon where some of the biology coursework gcse water volume of organizational culture, liquid aging in a barrel will evaporate, leaving the barrel filled with something more concentrated, more potent, than before. Osmosis? Solera, in Spanish, means “on the ground,” referring to where sherry barrels were quite naturally kept before artisans started experimenting with subterranean and lofted storage. In English, we have plenty of cliches and idioms about the ground. Keeps me grounded; on the ground floor; common ground; break new ground; cut the ground out from dissertation participant letter, under my feet; lose ground; hold your ground; gain some ground; I’m just run down to the ground; old stomping ground; doesn’t know his head from a hole in the ground; what moral ground do you have. There’s a sense of commonality with the word. Biology Osmosis? We share it, even when we frame it antagonistically (lose/hold/gain). Organizational? It unites us. Everyone walks upon gcse, it. Everyone recognizes it as the starting point – ground level.

So if you think of your essays, your body of work as an essayist, as functionally a Solera method, then the process makes sense. We can’t not ground our essays. Our essays can’t help but walk the land they share with each other. Even now I’m re-using thoughts and descriptions I’ve had about HandFarm, since I’m currently writing a book on farmhouse ale. It’s partly a memoir of my family’s farming history as a way to master access why I love farmhouse ale so much and partly a more journalistic look into why farmhouse ale is sharply rising in popularity in biology coursework osmosis, the United States and I’m not saying any of participant letter, this as a plug to prospective agents (though my email is in my contributor note!) but rather to demonstrate that this beer is working its way into many of my seemingly disparate thoughts, and biology gcse, that’s not a mistake to let the subject of my book project creep into other things I’m working on. The realization I’m having here is that it’s entirely natural. I try to write about my grandparents escaping a hardscrabble agrarian life and managing organizational, along the way this beer, or another like it, shows up in coursework osmosis, my essaying, creating tension, trying to smooth away the managing cracked-earth of a droughtstruck farm with its gestures towards the beauty and romance of the biology coursework osmosis pastoral. I try to write about the craft of essay writing using this beer merely as a way in but it fights me for university of illinois the focus.

And this is biology coursework gcse osmosis, nothing to outline master thesis shy away from or edit out. This is epistemological. This is osmosis, how we stay connected to our thoughts, how none of thesis university at urbana-, our essays are truly written in a vacuum. Osmosis? Looking at my folder of current drafts there’s not a single piece that doesn’t bear the mark of the others. There’s the interviews I did at Boulevard Brewing Company for this Saison book, looking out on on robotics, the brewery’s big roof towards fields of corn and soy north of Kansas City. There’s the Missouri pastoral coming up in a different essay as evidence of privilege and coursework gcse osmosis, as contrast for citizen outrage over police fascism across the state in Ferguson. Thesis Report On Robotics? There’s the emotionally draining late nights spent watching livestreams of Ferguson juxtaposed with the elation of the World Series run for biology coursework gcse my Kansas City Royals in another.

There’s the last baseball games my grandfather would see before he passed away, and organizational, there’s the coursework news around the time of his passing that my mother got diagnosed with cancer, and there’s the weeks I spent this past semester in something like depression, and there’s the first draft I wrote after weeks of on the holocaust, not writing #8212; wherein a jean jacket I bought reminded me of Roger, a poet/teacher/friend, who passed away a few years ago the biology coursework gcse osmosis memory that Roger introduced me to craft beer in the first place. This is a Solera. Somewhere in every essay I write, yours too, is a bit of the previous blended in, which itself had some of the one prior to thesis it, which in turn implies a whole cosmology for every essay. The process is a seamless cycle for any essayist who keeps up with the work. Just because we finish an essay doesn’t mean those thoughts the emotions they kicked up don’t get blended back in with the coursework gcse next barrel. This is participant, how we think, learn, live.

Either we age our thinking and blend it back into new thoughts or we must regularly go back and gcse osmosis, make current each of our essays, as Montaigne felt the on the pressure to do. You tell me which feels more natural. In Marsala, Scicily, a solera method is biology coursework, used to make Marsala wine. The term in Italian that the a essay on the winemakers use is in biology osmosis, perpetuum . Steven Church, talking about his essay “Seven Fathoms Down” ( DIAGRAM , 13.5), explains “This is the third essay that I#8217;ve written and published about the report on robotics same event, each one a different essay, exploration, and attempt. Biology Coursework? I suppose it#8217;s some sort of testament to the lasting power of such things, though not a testament I set out to thesis write. It may seem like bullshit, but the biology coursework essay found its way to the drowning and I didn#8217;t see it coming.

I just followed the pull.” At the NonfictionNOW conference in 2010, I underlined in managing, my notebook four times a statement from Bonnie J. Rough, who on a panel told the audience “If you want to tile a fish, tile a fish!” That’s great advice. So often I’ll hear someone – a student, a colleague #8212; say that they can’t write about, say, their parents’ divorce again because they’ve “already written The Divorce Essay.” Nah, son. If that divorce keeps wanting to come up in your writing then let it. You don’t get just one shot at any subject. These things are a part of gcse, you forever and they are yours to use, to frame with and re-shape and reconsider, forever. I wrote a Grandparent Cancer Essay while I was in undergrad, learning the moves. I revisited the dissertation jaundice, the funeral, the anxiety in a different form years later in one of my first published pieces. I find myself revisiting it all again now that all of my grandparents are dead, now that my head is as bald by choice as that grandfather’s head was by nature, now that I’m cleaning his old work cap and wearing it around to biology coursework gcse protect my scalp. Thesis University Of Illinois? You carry all of your prior essays with you from new draft to new draft. You just might not be aware of the blend percentage. The first essay you ever published is there in your most recent.

Most of the words have evaporated, sure, sent up to the angels, but the potent essence remains because that essence changed you, that essay changed you. To even recognize it means it’s still there. Biology? Barry Grass is originally from Kansas City but now lives in Philadelphia, where he teaches writing at Hussian College. His chapbook, #8220;Collector#8217;s Item,#8221; was released in 2014 by Corgi Snorkel Press. On The? Work appears in The Normal School, Hobart, Sonora Review, and biology coursework gcse, Annalemma, among other journals.

If you have a solera going, send samples for judgment to Kirk WislandGoodbye to thesis report All of Those. Biology Osmosis? I used to say write like everybody you know is organizational, dead. It was my signature phrase, a gentle cudgel used to subdue the kind of self-questioning fear that often stunts a writer wading into uncharted waters. An exhortation to osmosis write wild, brave and free. On The Holocaust? Of course this was also when I wrote mostly about the living, when I wrote about the dead primarily as a passing referent, a milepost on gcse osmosis, my narrative journey. After my grandfather died.

Before my grandmother died. When my cat, or aunt, or grade-school choir director was still alive. Mostly I wrote about those who would never read my words. I didn’t worry about my mean-spirited (but true!) rendition of my choir director, even when he was still alive, because I knew he’d never read it. And on those rare occasions when I did write about the dead, I wrote mostly flattering things, gentle odes to those passed on. Thesis University At Urbana-? But when a longtime friend shows up in your newly-adopted state and drinks himself to death in your presence—a real-life Leaving Las Vegas played out over biology coursework gcse osmosis, several weeks—then you will write the dead. The imperative of essay on teacher, knowing, of witnessing—whether it be for atonement, or to honor, or to punish—you will write the dead. I am still writing the dead, although the story has trickled out on me at ninety pages—too short for coursework gcse osmosis a book, too long for managing organizational an essay.

An Essayvella? Last summer I started writing by hand again, scrawling away in a gray composition notebook. Perched on the balcony of biology coursework gcse, our carriage house apartment, surrounded by my potted palms and tropical plants, I let the summer breeze lull me into believing that I was playing the part of Hemingway in dissertation, Key West, rather than Appalachian Ohio. I hadn’t written with any serious intent in a notebook for six years, having finally trained myself during my MFA program to “be creative” on my laptop. I had been cursed with a stubborn certainty from the earliest years of my literary dabbling: a certainty that one could not—or at least I could not—type creatively in the same manner as I scrawled my barely-legible notebook odysseys. Coursework Gcse? But after a decade of writing longhand, and then turning around and essay, typing those words into a Word document, my wrists were perpetually sore, and my forearms plagued by biology osmosis a recurrent tingling numbness. Fear of Carpal Tunnel Syndrome, of a hand clenched into a useless claw, scared me enough to alter my habits. So I pushed on past my ingrained superstition and discovered that in fact I could conjure expression from the percussion of my fingers on the keys. And every muscle and nerve from my knuckles to my shoulder blades thanked me.

Part of my decision to return to writing longhand was about trying to rediscover the joy of writing I used to culture know before I was a “Writer.” I am captive now to a weird writer’s vanity—the vanity of believing all my written words might be significant. It’s an absurd idea. I still generate far more future trash than I do marketable prose. But I no longer feel good “free-doodling.” Writing has become a commodity, or more accurately the time I have for writing is a commodity, and biology coursework gcse osmosis, thus I feel the report pressure to make that time count. Each word part of coursework gcse osmosis, a sentence, part of a paragraph, part of a final essay to a essay on the holocaust be submitted, part of a book of said essays to be offered up as sacrifice to the capricious gods of publishing. By getting “serious” about writing, I robbed the act of fun. I used to spend hours maniacally scribbling away in coffee shops, putting mostly future-less prose to page. Sure I was going to biology coursework gcse osmosis be a writer someday. But I wasn’t there yet, and my 90s daydreams of writer greatness were barely more realistic than my previously imagined futures as a rock star or NBA power forward. Outline Thesis? Somewhere out there people were publishing, but that was no concern of mine.

I was just sharpening my teeth, blasting out hyper-caffeinated prose, working myself into shape, a writing Rocky with the theme song in my head. Then one day you publish something. Then you get into an MFA program. Publish a few more things. Become Nonfiction Editor for a lit journal. Biology Gcse Osmosis? Go to some conferences.

Get into thesis a PhD program. Compile a big enough Word document to have a book or two or three. And where once I merrily dashed off reams of sketches without intent, now I agonize over all the work—the finished pieces still searching for homes, all my megabytes of coursework osmosis, stalled stories, embers of essay. Now I cringe when the word-flow dams up, when the “essayer” fails to bear fruit. Now I feel the pressure to produce. Now that I have stepped into the ring I have to on teacher for kids confront, each time I write, the fear that it might not happen, that nobody is guaranteed a book contract just for gcse finishing their work, that I might peak with a few good essays and then fade away… I wrote the dead swamped in grief. I wrote in regret. I wrote in anger. Lambasted myself on holocaust, the page for being unable to biology gcse save my alcoholic friend. Lambasted him on the page for being unwilling to save himself.

I wrote in forgiveness. I wrote in love. I wrote in remembrance. Thesis? As the years scrolled by and the coursework gcse death receded back in the rear-view mirror I wrote with increasing detachment, when I wrote him at all. The tidal wave of early words slowed to a river, then a stream, then a trickle. I had said all I could say, disgorged my pages and turned instead to dabbling with rearrangements, trying to make the puzzle pieces fit into some semblance of a whole. I missed his April birthday this year, for essay for kids the first time since his death.

Today, May 13 th , is three years since we got that call—three years plus a couple days dead and gone. The past is malleable; we shape it and polish it until it resembles what is most palatable to our current selves, and our reflection of those previous incarnations. But the biology gcse past is also unpredictable, and like magma oozing along underneath our tectonic plates it occasionally burbles up and essay on teacher for kids, breaks through the surface in ways we can’t fathom. Early October, the mid-George W. Bush years, waiting for a train at the Milan airport. It had been six years since that summer in Holland, my brief interlude as romantic expat abroad, and yet waiting for the train I could feel the swell of nostalgia and sorrow bursting up from a long-dormant core, spurred by coursework gcse the simple fact that it was the report on robotics first time I’d been back in biology, Europe since those events. Melancholy seeping from my pores like magma, and a visceral certainty that I could punch through the wall of the thesis tunnel to coursework gcse find that other me, that other past lurking in shadows just outside the corner of my vision.

I think part of the allure of blogging is not just the immediacy of your words, the timeliness in response to current events, but also the immediacy of the organizational self. This is who I am, right now. This is my life, my ideas, my brain on biology, the page at this moment , date-stamped for perpetuity. For Kids? This is the real-time wine and wafer; eat and drink and biology, be one with me. Because even in the quickest publication turnarounds there is normally a lag-time of on the holocaust, months or sometimes years between those words you wrote at gcse, that moment when they were fully you, and the day those words go public.

By the time my words see the light of thesis at urbana-, day I am often tired of them, having rolled the coursework gcse osmosis Sisyphean literary boulder up the hill, writing, shaping, re-shaping. And then you see those words from master thesis, this lag-time, where they are always that younger you, always a slightly different version, so that in reading yourself at gcse, the moment of organizational culture, publication you are reading your own history. Some of my oldest Word documents pre-date the Millennium. Coursework? I can read these stories and attempted memoirs and see myself, but only a refracted version. In a sense I reclaim my history every time I reread them, which is why it is simultaneously exhilarating and frightening to read those old pieces—or to delve into dissertation letter my old journals, which date back nearly a quarter-century. In the osmosis intervening decades those memories were sanded down and sun-bleached, but then I will re-read that passage from the journal of an angst-ridden 19-year-old and be viscerally reminded of who I was then, of thesis university of illinois, that younger, smaller me that still exists in gcse osmosis, this older form, still forms the thesis on robotics inner rings of the tree of biology gcse, me. The faces within the face, “preserved like fossils on superimposed layers,” as Christopher Isherwood says in A Single Man. And some part of me in the present will be changed by this re-engaged history, the dredging revisions of the factually erroneous silt accumulated over time. Thesis Report? Aren’t we writers, particularly we Nonfictioneers, just like Leonard Shelby, the protagonist in Memento— who, having lost all short-term memory, must constantly reconstruct himself from his scrawled notes? Those important truths tattooed all over biology coursework gcse osmosis, his torso, never to be forgotten.

Aren’t we writers tattooing ourselves every time we publish? The first two times I was published, I celebrated by dissertation participant treating myself to a new tattoo as reward. I had decided that each new publication would merit a new tattoo, that I would web myself in meaningful ink, become a respectable, literary, non-murderous Leonard Shelby. But I haven’t kept up that tradition. I meant to, but as subsequent publications happened I realized that they were not all of equal significance, and probably not all worthy of their own ink.

And I had other things to spend money on, other people to osmosis consider. Tattoos are expensive, and other than my first publication, which paid for the tattoo and even left some spare change— thank you Milkweed! —none of the subsequent publications, if they have paid at all, have paid enough to cover new ink. I have moved on, for the moment, to writing the living. Writing a book about my biological father, or more accurately about our relationship, and what it meant to grow up with a gay father in thesis, the 1980s during the height of the AIDS crisis. This is a story I’ve always known I had to tell, one that friends and professors alike have chided me for delaying. I had originally thought that maybe I wouldn’t write this book until my father died. That maybe out of respect for him, I ought to wait. But I realized something important, in the process of osmosis, writing the book of the dead friend: it isn’t easier when they’re gone. In many ways it’s harder.

What you might think of as the advantage of avoiding those awkward moments— they’ll never read it —are offset by thesis the guilt one feels for writing them without the possibility of coursework gcse, correction. Thesis Report? Of being able to biology coursework osmosis say anything you want. Of presenting their likeness without consent. Part of me fears certain passages I’ve written already about my father, things that will surely hurt him to thesis report on robotics read. Part of me also fears the passages I haven’t written yet, the stories I’m slowly working myself up to, the ones I can’t imagine having a conversation with my father about. But we can do that. We can talk . And maybe in talking about these events, the stories themselves will become better, truer—more purely Nonfiction—as we hash out the differences in our memories to find a palatable shared truth. Biology Osmosis? Isn’t that much more likely to be true than my singular version of events? Isn’t that more fair, more honest? Those old Microsoft Word documents are in danger of becoming outdated, of living past the dissertation participant letter current technology’s ability to reach back and speak to them.

It’s weird to think about because we always assume that technological improvements are without consequence, inherently positive. But of course with each passing year the incentive diminishes for the engineers at Microsoft to make sure that the newest version of Word is still configured to be compatible with antique, pre-Millennium versions of itself. Coursework? And I keep ignoring the compatibility messages when I open one of these ancient scrolls, confident in the fact that we no longer live in on the, the dark ages of technology when Apple and coursework, Microsoft spoke separate languages, warring across a tech channel like the French and the British. But I know that one day—maybe not next year, or ten years from now—but some day in the future my precious scrawls from 1997 will no longer be readable. Which leads to a counter-intuitive and strangely exhilarating thought: let them die. Delete all. Delete them all. Outline Master Thesis? Like John Steinbeck burning The Oklahomans —his first attempt at The Grapes of Wrath— and biology osmosis, starting over from scratch. Imagine the weightlessness of returning to a blank slate. Of digitally burning everything not already in print.

Of saying thanks for all the at urbana- practice, now toss those canvasses into the bonfire and begin anew. What if we could start over? What if we could erase everything we’d ever written, and truly forget? What would my next sentence be if I knew I would never re-read my old words? Kirk Wisland’s work has appeared in The Normal School, Creative Nonfiction, The Diagram, Paper Darts, Electric Literature, Phoebe, Essay Daily, and the Milkweed Press Anthology Fiction on biology osmosis, a Stick. He is a doctoral student in Creative Writing at managing organizational culture, Ohio University. Biology Osmosis? He has not yet hit #8220;delete all.#8221; Lying in Translation: Notes Towards a Truthful MemoirBrooke Champagne. In the grocery stores, dime stores, department stores of the New Orleans East neighborhood where I grew up, my grandmother stole and holocaust, I lied. It became part of the rhythm of our days: Lala brought us into the English-speaking world, where the Americans talked like chirping, or was it squawking birds—I can’t pin down the analogous word, but I knew she didn’t like the sound of gcse osmosis, it, ese maldito ingles —and she spoke only Spanish, so I served as translator. Very quickly I learned I must lie.

Because at TGY off Michoud Boulevard, Lala deigned to dissertation participant letter purchase household items like toilet paper or detergent, but stole whatever tchotchke it was I wanted. In the check-out line the cashier might ask how we were doing, to biology coursework which Lala would reply in participant, Spanish, “I’m fantastic, you dummy, because I’m stealing from you, and there’s nothing you can do about it.” All those sad cashiers from my memory thought our routine so cute: the Ecuadorian woman and the granddaughter who spoke for her. That nice lady who complimented their haircuts, or the orderliness of the biology gcse osmosis store. The woman who, no matter what inexplicable foreign sounds were coming from her mouth, was, according to her granddaughter, always having a nice day. Lying in dissertation participant letter, translation was simply part of my childhood. I couldn’t tell the biology osmosis world the truth about who Lala was. At home she was my world, and I hers— mi amor , mi vida , mi tesoro —but in public she made me cringe. She couldn’t even speak English, and it didn’t matter that she declined to learn by abstention because she hated the language so.

All the world’s books, as far as I knew, were written in a essay on the, English. In this language, learning happened, so in my estimation, Lala refused to learn. I identified Spanish with fierce love and anti-intellectualism, and English where rules were made and coursework osmosis, followed. My English expanded through school and the limitless stories and worlds offered by books. My Spanish had one character, one plot, one god, and that was Lala. She both admired and begrudged my time with reading, and I knew the day would come when I was forced to pick a language. The more ensconced I became in dissertation participant letter, the English-speaking world, especially when I was at home with Lala, the more of coursework gcse, a traitor I became.

Sometime in master, my adolescence I permanently defected to coursework osmosis English. I spent the first ten years of my life speaking Spanish every day, and in the subsequent twenty-five years I may have spoken three months’ worth of the language. I learned to love American boys and thesis, men in English, but because of Lala, I thought for some time I’d never be able to grapple with complex ideas in biology coursework gcse, Spanish. In Spanish I only felt. In Spanish one was either the betrayer or the betrayed. Spanish was my dreamy past, and English the a more certain, stolid present and future. The irony is that when I became a writer I had no interest in writing fiction, or at least in fictionalizing our story. I didn’t want to create a zany Hispanic grandmother performing zany stunts. I had to outline thesis write her . But through force of childhood habit, I was out of practice in biology coursework osmosis, telling her truthfully. And for all the dissertation letter “what is coursework gcse osmosis, truth in essay on teacher, memoir?” debates surrounding this genre, I think the foremost strategy for writing it is coursework, pretty straightforward: try not to essay on teacher lie.

Tell the truth as you remember it: don’t make more or less of anything or anyone, including yourself. Coursework Gcse Osmosis? For me this has been complicated by not only my early propensity to lie, but that the truth as I remember it happened in report, Spanish. Translating these memories and Lala’s actions into English feels false. In considering this false feeling, I’m reminded of a moment in Richard Rodriguez’s memoir Hunger of Memory , when as a boy he’s asked by a friend of his, a gringo , to translate what Rodriguez’s Mexican grandmother has just yelled out to osmosis him from her window: “He wanted to know what she had said. I started to tell him, to say—to translate her Spanish words into English. The problem was, however, that though I knew how to translate exactly what she had told me, I realized that any translation would distort the dissertation participant letter deepest meaning of her message: It had been directed only to me.

This message of intimacy could never be translated because it was not in coursework gcse, the words she had used but passed through them. So any translation would have seemed wrong; her words would have been stripped of any essential meaning. Essay? Finally, I decided not to tell my friend anything. I told him that I didn’t hear all she had said.” What Rodriguez expresses here is the untranslatability not of language, but of people and their intimacies. I feel already the person I’ve sketched so far is more Latina imp than Lala.

How to capture her largeness, her generosity followed by gcse osmosis her startling moments of pettiness, without allowing the reader to hear and understand her voice directly? And I cannot, as some bilingual authors do, write our story first in the language closest to the experience. My Spanish is no longer, and perhaps never was, that strong. Today I can still tell Lala I love her and narrate the thesis university of illinois at urbana- changing details of my life; I can still make her laugh. Gcse? But if she were unable to on the hear, I couldn’t write any of it for her in a language she could understand. Biology Coursework Gcse? In his 1800 essay “On Language and Words,” philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer proposes a specific marker for the mastery of participant, a language: when the speaker is capable of translating not words but oneself into the other language. This issue of biology gcse osmosis, retaining one’s personality and authentic self across languages remains troubling because in my distance from for kids, Spanish, I’m not sure how much I can accurately define who I was when I lived in that language, or who I am within Spanish even now. I recall my young, primarily Spanish-speaking self as devoid of personality, as completely dependent on Lala’s love alone, as a vessel in coursework gcse osmosis, which the only thing more powerful than the will to please was the silently-brewing mutiny over my leader and her language. When I think of thesis, who I am in Spanish now, when I speak it with Lala, I wonder if I’m still more who she would like me to be—the loud, brash, fearless woman she once was—than I actually am. In Spanish I search more vigilantly for the humor, the absurdity, the biology coursework gcse magic of living, I find colors and sounds bolder and more daunting, I hear in every sentence a song. It’s an exhausting way to live, which may be why I don’t do it (or speak it) often.

To be an always-on vaudevillian in master thesis, one’s second language is osmosis, no small task. With that in mind, let me translate a joke from master thesis, Spanish. Last winter I visited Cuba to prepare for a writing exchange this summer between my students at the University of Alabama and Cuban students at the University of San Geronimo in Havana. As part of our exploration, a colleague and I visited the Tropicana Club, famous for its lush tropical gardens, stunning light shows, and nearly-nude dancers. We arrived early and as I was served my first drink, an icy Cristal cerveza in its tall green bottle, a bird shat all over the left side of my head, shoulder, dress. The mortified waiters hastily brought me napkins and, more promptly than they did the surrounding tables, my complimentary bottle of Havana Club Rum. Everyone apologized profusely: disculpeme , perdoname , que pena . But one waiter knew just what to say as he dabbed my shoulder with a moist napkin: mejor un pajaro que un caballo . Better a bird than a horse. And the waiter’s joke made me laugh. Made me forget all about the bird shit. But the more I’ve thought of the joke since, what it would be like if someone told it to me in English after I’d been shat on by an Alabamian bird, I don’t think it would hold the same weight.

I don’t know if it would be as fun. Magical realism isn’t just a writing genre in gcse, Latin American cultures: it’s a way of seeing the world. For a second at the Tropicana, I thought, yeah, I really do need to watch for a essay on the the flying horses. No: los caballos que volan . Biology Coursework Osmosis? As alluded to earlier, Schopenhauer asserts that we think differently in every language, that we construct new ways of seeing that don’t exist in our original language, where there may be lacking a conceptual equivalent. A further inference might be made, which is that we feel differently in every language, too. A bird will more readily shit on me in essay on teacher, Spanish, in the language where I’ll more readily laugh at it. It makes sense for me to momentarily fear flying horses in Spanish, as ludicrous as that sounds when I’m translating it now. When I write about Lala, I could tell just the gcse osmosis facts: when she was five years old she watched her mother die of tuberculosis, choking on her blood; she was taken in by three vindictive aunts who chopped off her hair, made her kneel on rice so often she rarely had skin there; she’s a raised eyebrow away from five feet tall, but in my memory she’s massive, capable of flooding the kitchen and drowning us with her tears when she cried, and she cried often, in her fear and her anger that I didn’t love her enough. In her I saw all those sad stories manifested in her body.

She could literally drown me. I did my best not to outline master thesis make her cry. Coursework? That’s the problem with facts. The truth of how I read her and thesis report on robotics, felt about biology coursework osmosis, her slips in around them. Translating words and thesis, phrases from Spanish to English, while a vigorous academic exercise, isn’t my greatest difficulty in writing about my past with Lala. Biology Gcse Osmosis? What’s most confounding is finding a way to translate her actions.

What if I told you of one of the specific ways in which Lala loved: how she kissed me as a child, kissed every place, every powdered part? And that she kissed there well into on teacher for kids the years I have memory, kissed even when I could name those private parts, in osmosis, those days before I felt ashamed of them? How can I translate her intention which, despite all of Lala’s failings, I’ve only ever read as absolute love? I can tell you that in English-speaking MFA workshop critiques, Lala’s love has been compared to the destructive, perverse one found in Kathryn Harrison’s The Kiss , the memoir in which the narrator recounts her love affair with her biological father. What happened to me was abuse, I’ve been informed, and was advised by on the holocaust some peers not to write about it. Biology Osmosis? Or at least fictionalize my story, with the thesis university tacit implication it would make readers more comfortable. Is it through these kisses, they asked, that I want to biology osmosis be known as a writer?

Now, long out of the MFA workshop, I still ask myself whether or not I can be trusted now to know what I felt across not just languages, but cultures. To express my struggles with language and interpretation, I need English. To express the most important parts of myself, how I learned to thesis university of illinois at urbana- love and how I learned to be, I need Spanish. But what does it mean if my facility with Spanish isn’t what it used to be? Through losing a great deal of one of my languages, have I lost significant parts of myself? Now just one more story (or is it a riddle, or a joke, a puzzle?), one that Lala told me dozens of times growing up. It’s the refrain of biology osmosis, my childhood: el cuento del gallo pelon . The story of the bald rooster. Here’s how the story often went: Lala: Do you want me to culture tell you the story about the biology coursework osmosis bald rooster? Lala: I didn’t say anything about yes . I asked you if you wanted to hear the dissertation story of the bald rooster. Coursework Gcse Osmosis? Me: Please, just tell me! Lala: I don’t understand what you mean by please . I’m simply asking if you want to hear the story of the a essay on the bald rooster.

Me: I want to coursework osmosis hear the managing story! You’re getting on biology gcse osmosis, my nerves! Lala: Here you sit talking about nerves and thesis, stories when I’m trying to tell you my story of the bald rooster. And on and on this non-story would nightmarishly go. Through this story neither teller nor listener ever leave the question—the story is never finished. It requires perhaps the devotion of biology osmosis, a child to continuously ask for more when resolution is this improbable, and a lover of language to thesis begin the circuitous dialogue in coursework gcse, the first place. This story, as is turns out, is an appropriate metaphor for dissertation participant letter my work on the Lala memoir. I’ve been writing parts of it for eleven years, off and on. Friends say “tell me more, tell me more,” and I respond, I am telling it . Lala.

Memoir. What are you writing? I’m writing it. This story. That story. And on gcse osmosis, and on thesis, the dialogue goes with no resolution. I don’t know if there’s any solution to the “how do I write this memoir?” dilemma other than to write first and worry over potential problems later. If there’s a solution to my own, it may be in its tentative title. Translating my Lala stories requires necessary lies across my languages. Though translation may be maddening, may feel false, may require stops and coursework gcse osmosis, starts, the alternative is the silence Richard Rodriguez answered with when asked what his grandmother had said.

My grandmother is report on robotics, called Lala. I want to tell you what she said and what she did. How her love could be frightening, and coursework osmosis, sublime. Through the best words I can find, if not always the of illinois at urbana- exact ones, I’ll try to show you. Rodriguez, Richard. Hunger of Memory: The Education of Richard Rodriguez . New York: Random House, 1982. Print. Schulte, Rainer and John Biguenet, eds. Theories of Translation: An Anthology of biology, Essays from Dryden to Derrida . Managing Organizational? Chicago: Chicago UP, 2002. Print. Brooke Champagne was born and raised in New Orleans, LA and now writes and coursework osmosis, teaches in Tuscaloosa, AL.

Her work appears or is managing, forthcoming in Los Angeles Review , New Ohio Review , Prick of the Spindle , and Louisiana Literature , among other journals. She is at work on her first collection of personal essays, and her memoir about her grandmother, Lala. I used to think I was born for big. things. I would be well-known, admired. Change the world. But fame is for the dead. Van Gogh, Once, Francesca Cuzzoni refused to. sing the first aria in Handel’s. opera. Biology Coursework? Madame, he said, I know you. Outline Master Thesis? are a veritable devil, but I would. have you know that I am Beelzebub, chief of biology coursework, them all. Handel was either a musical genius. or, if Sir Isaac Newton can be. trusted with anything, unremarkable. save for the elasticity of his. Then Handel took the. soprano by the waist and swore that. he would throw her from the essay on teacher window… Michelangelo in a. late at night.

Picture him by. candlelight, working tendon. from bone, muscle from muscle. as if untwining lengths of. Or Professor von Hagen in a. black leather fedora exchanging. fluids for plastic in the most. splendid parts of the human. lungs laced with purple veins, translucent sheets of biology gcse, flesh. Watch bones bend in his hands. Watch him fashion, form, sculpt, create. What is art if not tender. revelation?

What is on robotics, art if not. dedicated to love? Look to the. body. Touch it. Run your. fingers over the shapes of it. Taste it. Smell it. The ecstasy of an ear drove Van.

Gogh to madness, forgetting. Coursework Gcse? hunger and thirst in the sun. with his canvas empty before. When I connect the freckles on. the back of university at urbana-, my left shoulder, I. have a Chagall. Aqueous sky. Coursework Gcse Osmosis? An anchorless range of. mountains. A tilty, four-layer, rum chocolate cake.

A man, drunk, is for kids, dismembered by biology coursework gcse a. passing train. His wife buys a red. dress, her heart filled with wet. ash. Of Illinois? The dress is blue red, cold red. Coursework Gcse? She licks sugar from her fingers. The scrape of her shoes on cement. make her think of rats. Managing Organizational Culture? She sits in the kitchen with her feet on a stepstool. Coursework? wearing the same expression she puts on for church.

Sir Isaac Newton heard the opening of the dawn. Thomas Edison was afraid of the dark. Lord Carnarvon and his dog died at the precise moment. the power failed in Cairo. Think of the clipped light caught. in thesis, the wife’s kitchen window: a measure of blue, a stitch of green, a ribbon of osmosis, pink across. the bridge of managing organizational, her nose.

How it comes on swift wings, such small disturbances of. Traci O. Connor is a novelist, poet, flash-memoir writer, and author of the coursework gcse osmosis short story collection, Recipes for Endangered Species (Tarpaulin Sky Press). Thesis? She has been a professor, a radio talk-show host, and a construction worker. Biology? She also played college basketball a long time ago, plays the piano sporadically now, cooks without recipes, and loves TV. She lives with her spouse, the writer Jackson Connor, in Athens, OH with a various number of children depending, one labradoodle, and a cat named Fred.

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Biology Coursework: Osmosis in Potato Cells - GCSE Science

Lovely Bones Critical Analysis Paper. Lovely bones Critical Analysis Paper. Losing a loved one can be such a difficult thing to accept. But what if you kept believing she was still there? Definitely not in body, but lingering in spirit. Coursework Gcse? In The Lovely Bones, by Alice Sebold, we dive into the mind of Susie Salmon; a 14 year old, dead girl. When Susie Salmon is murdered on her way home from organizational, school, she leaves behind a family and friends who care deeply for her. As each person deals with her death, most of them deal with a large amount of coursework gcse osmosis, survivor’s guilt. The two characters that seem to have the dissertation participant, hardest time accepting Susie’s death and their own survival are Lindsey Salmon and Ruth Connors.

Lindsey deals not only with the drama in her family’s personal lives, but she also must learn to biology osmosis live her life and on robotics, enjoy the milestones that she reaches, even while acknowledging that Susie will never have those special moments. Ruth deals with Susie’s death by delving into the spirit world. Despite the biology gcse, fact that she did not know Susie Salmon very well during her life, the dead girl is the primary focus of Ruth’s life after the murder. The novel takes place over a period of eight years after Susie Salmon’s death. However, it is filled with flashback scenes where Susie remembers things in her life and the lives of her family and friends and which are inserted into the story. There is a mini prologue, which involves Susie’s memory of her father and the snow globe.

This causes the reader to focus on the idea of a perfect world. The whole novel then becomes a search for that perfection in the midst of overwhelming grief. Dissertation? There is an interlude called “Snapshots” between Chapters 16 and 17. (Sebold 212) This is coursework gcse osmosis meant to emphasize the idea that the pictures Susie had taken are snapshots of many lives and the memories they retain. They also help to analyze why the. Critical Thinking Application Paper. . Critical Thinking Application Paper Eva Carter University of thesis of illinois, Phoenix MGT 350 Critical Thinking: Strategies in Decision Making David I. Hammond, J.D.

July 7, 2010 Critical thinking affects all facets of our lives; professional, personal, as a student, and as a parent. Few people realize the coursework gcse osmosis, powerful role thinking plays in of illinois their lives. People can be their worst enemies without realizing how their thinking causes them distress. Critical thinking helps individuals take charge of their outcomes. Critical thinking is essential to biology gcse osmosis effective learning and productive living. Critical thinking is the intellectually disciplined process of actively and thesis at urbana-, skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and biology osmosis, /or evaluating information gathered from, or generated by, observation, experience, reflection, reasoning, or communication, as a guide to belief and action. On Teacher For Kids? In its exemplary form, it is based on universal intellectual values that transcend subject matter divisions: clarity, accuracy, precision, consistency, relevance, sound evidence, good reasons, depth, breadth, and fairness. (Scriven Paul 1987). Critical thinking also means correct thinking in the pursuit of relevant and reliable knowledge about the world. Biology Coursework Gcse? It is reasonable, reflective, responsible, and outline master thesis, skillful thinking that focuses on decisions based on what to do.

Critical thinking involves asking appropriate questions, gathering relevant data, sorting through the data, and coming to a. Words: 783 - Pages: 4. Critical Thinking Application Paper. . Critical Thinking Application Paper Whatever we are doing right now is decided by the way we are thinking. Whatever we feel (emotions) are decided by what we are thinking. Biology Osmosis? Whatever we want (desires) are decided by our thinking. For many people who think unrealistic the ending results could end up in on the disappoint for them.

There are countless routes to express the ideas of critical thinking, at the same time as there are numerous ways to biology coursework gcse express the definition of essay on teacher for kids, any abounding and substantive idea. Biology Coursework Gcse? Yet, as with any idea, there is a core to critical thinking that cannot be ignored. Intellectual origins of critical thinking are as early as its study, visible eventually, to the philosophical procedure and foresight of thesis, Socrates 2,500 years ago who exposed by a method of questioning the idea that people could not reasonably justify their confident claims to knowledge. Paul R., Elder L. Biology Coursework Osmosis? Bartell T (1997) Petress describes the outline master thesis, importance of critical thinking, declaring that”…critical thinking examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence and assesses conclusions.” ([5] Petress, 1984). Biology? [6] Critical thinking enables individuals with the ability to comprehend what they have been shown or read, as well to develop that insight without increased guidance. Understanding critical thinking enables individuals with knowledge that is smooth and constructed upon itself. Critical thinking is not simply routine learning or the skill to soak up information. The.

Words: 1179 - Pages: 5. Critical Thinking Application Paper. . Critical Thinking Application Paper MGT/350 Critical Thinking Application Paper In life, decisions must always be made. These decisions could be based on anything from thesis report on robotics, a business decision, to whether or not you should buy one car over another. Biology Coursework? The decision could be something minor, such as if you want peanut butter and outline master, jelly or a ham sandwich. Conversely, the decision could be something major, such as whether you should pay the expensive bill to save a sick pet or simply put them down and end their suffering. Both ways one looks at biology coursework gcse osmosis it the decisions must be made, and critical thinking is simply a process one uses to make these decisions. defines critical thinking as “the mental process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing, applying, analyzing, synthesizing, and evaluating information to thesis university at urbana- reach an answer or conclusion”. Simply put, critical thinking is considering your options and making the best decision based on the information you are given. I would venture to say that critical thinking would be the opposite of making a “blind-decision” or an coursework gcse, uninformed decision.

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In the first stage (1881-1945) a gentleman by the name of August Vollmer established the biology gcse, first forensic laboratory, criminal investigators had access to an increasing array of technological expertise that continued to increase exponentially throughout the development of law enforcement (Law enforcement in the 21st century). Some examples of essay on teacher, technology used in biology coursework osmosis Vollmer's crime laboratory was the use of the polygraph, as well as fingerprint and handwriting classification systems (Seaskate 1998). According to Soulliere (1999), these early technological advances impacted the police organization by the development of increasingly complex police organizations through the creation of on teacher, specialized sections within large police organizations to handle the new technology, such as radio communications and biology gcse, forensic labs (law enforcement in the 21st century). Essay On Teacher For Kids? Other technology that enhanced from police organizations ability to function was. Words: 1167 - Pages: 5. . tolerances or proprietary processes, along with all the gcse, creative functions (concept testing, product design, and product? prototype development) were handled in?house at the company’s headquarters facilities in Sacramento. Managing Organizational Culture? New Heritage’s Retail Division The second division of New Heritage Doll Company was the retail division, which generated $190 million of New Heritage’s revenue and biology coursework osmosis, $4.8 million in operating profit.

The retail division managed the sale of the dolls and accessories that the thesis, production division designed, assembled and packaged. Biology Coursework Osmosis? The retail division sold its merchandise through three channels: a website (42%), a mail?order paper catalog (33%), and a network of retail stores (25%). In addition to a essay selling merchandise online, the internet home page offered membership clubs that girls could join, organized around favorite doll characters, and “doll and girl” fashion newsletters to biology gcse osmosis which girls could subscribe. The paper catalog sales were declining, but it was still an important distribution channel for New Heritage . Words: 2246 - Pages: 9. . Critical Thinking Paper: Revised Shaun M White Renee Pistone PHI 210 – Critical Thinking June 10, 2012 Critical Thinking Paper: Revised “God bless America, land that I love. Outline Master? Stand beside her, and guide her through the night with a light from coursework, above. From the mountains, to the prairies, to university the oceans, white with foam God bless America, my home sweet home…” If you were raised anywhere within the borders of the United States of America, you have heard these lyrics of “God Bless America” multiple times throughout your years.

Just as the lyrics suggest, we should stand by our country, but we are also charged to guide our country. Coursework Osmosis? There would be no need to guide, if there wasn’t an area in which the culture, country is lacking. The area in which America needs some guidance is in the area of coursework osmosis, employment benefits, specifically vacation mandates by the great America herself. America is the greatest place to live, don’t get that wrong, but there are some changes that need to be made to thesis on robotics reward the people who contribute to making America the greatest country there is. The biggest change that needs to be made is to incorporate more time away from work. According to coursework gcse The Everything HR Kit, a person should be rewarded for their continuous hard work.

The text believes that after 25 years of service, an employee should receive a total of five weeks paid vacation. Coming from an individual who is master thesis but 25 years old, five weeks does sound pretty nice, which is until statistics of what other. Words: 1271 - Pages: 6. . Did you know bone cancer can start at any age and osmosis, can grow in anyone’s bones? This usually occurs to young adults and teens. There are different types of bone cancers. The most common one is Osteosarcoma. It’s a type of participant letter, bone cancer that starts off as a tumor and later on the cells start to change and become abnormal. Your height could be a sign that you can develop bone cancer in your arms or legs. In other words, if you are tall for you age group or bigger that’s a bigger chance of you getting bone cancer. Bone cancer if very common and many people have it. Coursework? Especially people who are larger than their age group.

Guys develop it more than girls some times because of their different growth periods. A Essay On The Holocaust? Girls have different growth periods and are usually shorter than men which makes it more difficult for females to get bone cancer. Sometimes if you’ve had a different type of cancer before in biology gcse osmosis your life, there is an even greater chance of dissertation participant letter, you getting bone cancer. Biology Gcse? If you have a bone disease of thesis of illinois, any type that is another way of you getting bone cancer. There is coursework one disease named chondroma, is on robotics causes non-cancerous tumors to grow in the bones. This cancer affects your body during rapid growth period in the body.

The legs and biology, arms tend to develop tumors more than fingers toes neck or backs. The bones which have the report, cancer is easier to break than your regular bones because the center of the biology coursework osmosis, bone where our morrow is contained has been replaced by cancer cells. Words: 271 - Pages: 2. Lovely Bones Critical Analysis Paper. . Lambro Golloshi ENG 102 17 Prof.

Tappin 4-23-2012 Lovely bones Critical Analysis Paper Losing a loved one can be such a difficult thing to essay for kids accept. But what if you kept believing she was still there? Definitely not in body, but lingering in spirit. Gcse Osmosis? In The Lovely Bones, by Alice Sebold, we dive into outline thesis, the mind of Susie Salmon; a 14 year old, dead girl. When Susie Salmon is murdered on her way home from school, she leaves behind a family and friends who care deeply for her. As each person deals with her death, most of them deal with a large amount of survivor’s guilt.

The two characters that seem to have the hardest time accepting Susie’s death and their own survival are Lindsey Salmon and Ruth Connors. Lindsey deals not only with the drama in her family’s personal lives, but she also must learn to live her life and enjoy the biology gcse, milestones that she reaches, even while acknowledging that Susie will never have those special moments. Ruth deals with Susie’s death by delving into the spirit world. Despite the fact that she did not know Susie Salmon very well during her life, the dead girl is the participant letter, primary focus of gcse osmosis, Ruth’s life after the murder. The novel takes place over a period of eight years after Susie Salmon’s death. Outline Master? However, it is filled with flashback scenes where Susie remembers things in her life and the lives of her family and friends and which are inserted into the story. There is a mini prologue, which involves Susie’s memory of her father and the snow globe. This. Words: 2151 - Pages: 9. . Critical Issue Paper eSports in the Olympics Christian Miller 10/21/12 Pd. Biology Coursework Gcse Osmosis? 3 Economics What comes to mind when you think of the Olympic Games?

Physical contact? Medals? Glorious Victory? Since the Greeks performed the first olympiad in 776 B.C. the games have stood as a test for the worlds greatest athletes to compete against each other and bring glory in the form of a medal to on robotics their home country. Coursework Gcse? But what exactly can we limit the term “sport” to? Must it require running or swimming or throwing something? Technically, a sport can be defined as any activity performed using specific skills or tactics competetively.

Now, what exactly are eSports? eSports stands for Electronic Sports and for kids, is a term labeling the competetive gameplay of video games, generally online multiplayer games. The first known organization of coursework gcse, competetive gameplay occurred in 1980 at a tournament for the Atari game Space Invaders, hosted by Atari themselves. Since then, many games have been used in online and local tournaments, often rewarding the victor with a monetary prize. Games that are often played today include Starcraft II, FIFA World Cup Soccer, and Call of Duty. Since the internet has begun making leaps and bounds in a essay on the holocaust speed and performance and availability, the games and tournaments themselves have grown larger and more popular.

This has resulted in a high number of people requesting the ultimate goal for devoted gamers: to bring sanctioned eSports to the Olympic Games. Biology Coursework Gcse? Numerous. Words: 835 - Pages: 4. . CRITICAL RESPONSE PAPER #2 I would be addressing how I would set up a government system in Nigeria, a country with three major religion beliefs. In conjunction with the legislators we will create a law that will allow citizens to a essay practice the religion they wish in order to be able to coursework gcse osmosis persecute people who kill others because they didn’t accept their religious beliefs. Also, whenever a government official is to be sworn into office, he/she will be required to use the books of the main religions in the country which are Christianity, Islam, and managing culture, traditional religion. This will help to coursework osmosis minimize the belief that one religion is superior than the on teacher, other.

Also, there will be public holidays for the celebration of biology gcse, each religion so as to maintain equality. Institutions will be set up in a way that all religious worshippers will have access to employment and services all the institutions are offering. Dissertation Participant? All the religious worshippers will all attend the same schools so as to create peace among them and also create a good relationship among different religious worshippers. Also, different worshippers will work in the same organization, In other words the workforce will be more diverse. Also, all men and women will be able to work and have access to basic amenities irregardless of coursework gcse, what their religion might have said. All this will help to reduce stereotypes and racism in essay on teacher for kids our society. Political parties will continue to represent groups of interest but in a different context, no political. Words: 639 - Pages: 3. . Chulin Deng BA 3103 Critical Analysis Paper 1 According to the article “BlackBerry Posts Loss as Phones Go Unsold”, BlackBerry performs a poor performance. Business has a quarterly loss in 2013 for $965 million.

The revenue had drop 45% that down to coursework gcse $1.57 billion from on the, $2.86 billion compares with a year earlier. BlackBerry lost $248 million, or 47 cents a share, and gcse osmosis, analysts forecast 49 cents a share loss for the quarter ended August 31. The net loss is $235 million which excluding inventory charge and restructuring charges in the latest quarter. The cash position also down to $2.6 billion from $3.1 billion at quarter-end. Smartphone maker report a hefty operating loss of nearly $1 billion charge on inventory of unsold phones. Fairfax Financial Holdings to take the company private for about $4.7 billion, or $9 a share. Essay On Teacher? As a former mobile king, BlackBerry faces to exit the biology coursework gcse osmosis, handset business. Report? This report will conduct a situation analysis of biology coursework, potential causes of declining sales and profits of Black Berry.

And also would identify internal company and external environment for the poor performance. A particular reason of the sales declining is BlackBerry cannot satisfy enough to thesis report the market and product demand for customers. Sales declining imply to revenues declining. Osmosis? BlackBerry recognized most phone’s revenue is from the older models, which means the new phones are not much attract to university of illinois at urbana- customers. Ian Austen (2013) noted that BlackBerry could soon be leaving the business of. Words: 834 - Pages: 4. . Critical paper for My Name is Khan My Name is Khan is a 2010 Indian drama film directed by Karan Johar, written by Shibani Bathija and starring Shah Rukh Khan and Kajol in the lead roles.

It is a movie which shows a great discrimination towards a particular group of culture. The dark side of identity is gcse also pointed out in on robotics the movie. Indeed, this movie indicates of how the coursework, people claim of being superior to any other culture. First thing first, I am greatly touched by the character of the main star named Rizwan (Shah Rukh Khan) I feel his emotions and I am surprise towards his abilities like repairing mechanical things though he has a syndrome. Participant? Second, is Mandira who is strong enough and I appreciate her for marrying someone who has a syndrome. Biology Osmosis? Thirdly, is his brother who look for Rizwan to U.S, although, they don’t have good relation when they are young. I feel the characters as real, complex and fleshed out.

Actually in this movie many characters have showed dedication and as a whole they correspond to letter the entire movie. The entire story has its twist and conflicts but the characters overcome from this until the end. Rizwan Khan is gcse a Muslim from India who has Asperger syndrome. He is culture frightened by the color yellow and biology coursework osmosis, sharp sounds or noise. His brother, Zakir, get Rizwan to live in United States after their mother passed away. All is well, until Rizwan meet her special someone Mandira. Mandira is a Hindu woman who works as hairdresser. She is essay for kids a single mother with a. Words: 1264 - Pages: 6. . Title: Bone Mechanics Objectives:- -To become familiar with LabView software and National Instruments, in order to record and coursework gcse osmosis, observe the on teacher for kids, strain signals from chicken bone and an aluminum rod. Background: Data acquisition is the use of computer software connected to gcse a measuring device.

Signals and measurements are recorded, which is converted into a digital signal only organizational culture, understood by biology coursework gcse, a computer. Thesis? Data is recorded at a certain speed that is processed in real time, and biology osmosis, can be immediately interpreted by the user. Thesis? For this lab, LabView Software was used as the main hub of the data acquisition system. LabView mainly consists of the Front Panel and Block Diagram, of biology coursework gcse, which the Front Panel is the user interface and the Block Diagram is where the graphing codes are written for the application. In this lab the strain response of two different materials were measured as stress was applied to them. Report On Robotics? The materials were an aluminum rod and a chicken bone. Biology Coursework Osmosis? Strain (?) is the thesis at urbana-, change of gcse osmosis, length of the material over the initial length. As we increase the stress on organizational culture the material, there will be an increase on the strain on coursework gcse osmosis the material as well. Stress is the force (F) over cross-sectional area (A) applied on on the the material.

The area is constant, so stress can be assumed to be directly proportional to gcse osmosis the force applied. In this lab, heavy objects (metal bolts) were hung from the chicken bone to thesis report apply stress. Coursework Gcse Osmosis? Gravity (G) is mass. Words: 610 - Pages: 3. . Sally James EXP-201 Professor Atlas The Lovely Bones The story “The Lovely Bones” by Alice Sebold takes place in the 1970s in a essay holocaust Philadelphia, and focuses on a 14 year old, Susie Salmon, and coursework gcse, her family’s methods of coping with her murder. On her way home from report, school, Susie is taking a shortcut through a cornfield near her house, and is stopped by a neighbor, George Harvey, who says that he wants to osmosis show her an underground room. Mr. Thesis Of Illinois At Urbana-? Harvey, however, ends up raping and murdering Susie that day. Susie watches from her heaven as her family struggles with their emotions about her death. Biology Coursework Osmosis? She follows her father as he takes the investigation of her murder into his own hands, her mother as she drifts from her father and has an holocaust, affair and her siblings as they do things that Susie knows she will never have the opportunity to do. As Susie watches her sister start a relationship with a boy named Samuel, she longs for her life back, and wishes that she could start a relationship with Ray Signh, her first and only love. While her father suspects that George Harvey is the murderer, the detective in charge of Susie’s case, Len Fernerman, doesn’t have the evidence to prove that he is guilty because Mr.

Harvey dumps Susie’s remains into a sink hole and collapses he underground room. Meanwhile, as Susie’s father attempts to gather evidence; her mother begins an affair with Len. Gcse Osmosis? In the Fall Susie’s sister, Lindsey, breaks into Mr. Harvey’s home and finds evidence to connect him to Susie’s. Words: 896 - Pages: 4. Worldview Critical Thinking Paper. . ------------------------------------------------- Critical Thinking Assignment Part One: The origin of life can be confusing because Hindus worship many gods and have many sects. However, Hindus all believe in thesis Braham and see him as God.

They believe he is impersonal and an impersonal force. (Halverson p.1) Hindus believe that God and the universe are the same. (Weider/Gutierrez p.65) (Hindson/Caner p.265) Hindus believe that all life form is manifested from God. Hindus often worship plants and animals because they are a source of food. “Mankind should not be viewed or valued as superior in biology gcse species”. (Weider/Gutierrez p.66) “Humans and animals have a similar essence and should be regarded as partnership in search of eternal oneness”. (Weider/Gutierrez p.67) The Hindu religion has four goals in the meaning/purpose of outline, life. Osmosis? Pleasure, wealth, harmony and liberation. The first two consume the individual as it causes evil and suffering. The other two fulfill the individual.

True salvation is to abandon the evil desires (pleasure and wealth) and master thesis, become liberated (moksha). Biology Gcse Osmosis? (Hindson/Caner p.263) Hindus believe that they should release all evil desires and egos and therefore they live through spiritual practices. Yoga, mental discipline and good deeds to all life forms. (Hindson/Carner p.264) Hindus believe in organizational culture karma and by doing good deeds you receive good karma. Hindus believe in reincarnation, which is where you are born again in biology osmosis a new different body.

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essays by palto Justice and the Self: A Reading of Plato’s Gorgias. B.A., M.A., PH.D (Commun.-Rhetoric) Assistant Professor, University of North Carolina at Charlotte. The Gorgias is the most ‘modern’ of Plato’s dialogues. Gcse Osmosis! The twin problems which it exposes–how to thesis university control the power of propaganda in a democracy, how to biology coursework re-establish moral standards in a world whose traditional standards have disintegrated–these are the central problems of the twentieth century. (1959:386) –E.R. Dodds. Although the Gorgias is still not as often discussed among non-specialists as Republic or Symposium , it is increasing read in courses taught in Communication and English departments throughout the United States.

Its popularity is increasing because, as is pointed out by Dodds in the passage quoted above, it deals with the related problems of civic standards and the ethics of mass persuasion that still trouble us today. What the Gorgias has to teach us about these problems has been well explored in any number of commentaries (Dodds 1959; Plochmann and Robinson; Benardete). In this essay, I propose a reading of the Gorgias from a somewhat different, but complementary, angle. I will propose that the Gorgias has an underlying theme that is for kids, also strikingly modern: the nature of the self. A disagreement about the nature of the self, I will argue, is at biology coursework gcse osmosis, the root of the dispute between Socrates and a essay holocaust Callicles about the nature of justice. The Debate About Justice in the Gorgias.

Plato’s dialogues are generally divided into three chronological groups–early, middle, and late–and the Gorgias is generally acknowledged to have been written towards the end of the first group of dialogues (Brandwood), during which Plato was most defensive of Socrates and most hostile toward the Athenian democratic order that had condemned him to death. The Gorgias contains one of the rawest confrontations with the biology gcse osmosis negative side of populist democracy, embodied in the person of Callicles, that one finds anywhere in Plato’s dialogues. Gorgias, after whom the dialogue was named, was an eminent personage from the city of Leontini on the island of Sicily, a teacher of the art of essay rhetoric or political speech (prominent speakers in assembly were called rhetores ). Biology! Gorgias’ speaking style combined hypnotic rhyme and rhythm with a powerful kind of situational logic and antithesis. It so impressed Periclean Athens and the rest of the Greek world that he was able to build a solid gold statue of himself at dissertation letter, Delphi with the money he earned in instruction fees (DK A 7; see Sprague 34), a feat that is biology coursework, well beyond the means of most speech instructors today. University! Although Gorgias himself has only a relatively minor role in the conversation, the dialogue as a whole investigates the relationship between Gorgias’ style of political rhetoric and justice. The dialogue begins with a mild conversation between Socrates and coursework osmosis Gorgias about the substance of the art of rhetoric. Gorgias takes the position that persuasive speech is a morally neutral technique which, like any instrument, can be used either for on teacher for kids, good or ill. Socrates easily gets Gorgias to gcse osmosis admit that the good political orator must know the difference between justice and the appearance of justice. If the organizational culture end of politics is a just society, Socrates argues, and osmosis if rhetoric is master, political speech, how could one excel at rhetoric without knowing what justice is? Gorgias’ young student Polus is incensed by the mild submission of his master and takes up the argument.

Justice be damned, he says, rhetoric is a way to power. But he is soon cornered into making an osmosis admission that it is even more difficult than Gorgias’: that a rhetoric that makes injustice seem just is bad for both the speaker and the audience because it is better to managing organizational culture suffer than to commit injustice. Now Callicles, a leading citizen of democratic Athens in whose house the conversation is taking place, thinks that Socrates’ claim that it is better to suffer than to commit injustice is utter nonsense, and is angered that Socrates would dare to teach such foolishness. Callicles makes a counter-argument that might strike us as having been uttered by a social Darwinist run amok: In my view nature herself makes it plain that it is right for the better to have the gcse advantage over the worse, the more able over the less. For what justification had Xerxes in invading Greece or his father Scythia? And there are countless other similar instances one might mention. But I imagine that these men act in accordance to nature’s own law, though not perhaps by the law we frame. We mold the managing organizational best and strongest among ourselves, catching them like young lion cubs, and by spells and incantations we make slaves of them, saying that they must be content with equality and that this is coursework gcse, right and on the holocaust fair. But if a man arises endowed with a nature sufficiently strong, he will, I believe, shake off all these controls, burst his fetters, and break loose. And trampling on biology our scraps of paper, our spells and report incantations, and our unnatural conventions, he rises up and reveals himself our master who was once our slave, and there shines forth nature’s true justice (483d-484a, W.D.

Woodhead’s translation). Laws are written by the weak to protect themselves from the coursework gcse osmosis strong, according to Callicles. Managing Organizational Culture! But these laws are not the justice of nature, and cannot stand forever against it. In Callicles’ view, Socrates’ excessive concern to avoid committing injustice leaves him easy prey for those who would do him injury: For now if anyone should seize you or any others like you and drag you off to prison, claiming you are guilty when you are not, you would realize that you would not know what to do, but would reel to and fro and gape openmouthed, without a word to say. (486a-b). Prophetic words indeed, as Plato intended, for that are very nearly a description of Socrates’ ultimate fate.

Callicles saw such vulnerability as unmanly and shameful. Socrates’ reply is that in doing injustice one injures one’s own soul. Not primarily in the sense that it might be punished in some afterlife, but in the sense that doing injustice leads to the soul becoming disorderly and chaotic, leads to becoming a slave of coursework gcse desires that can never be fulfilled, and thus leads to deep misery in this life. As important as the issue of the nature of justice is, there is an even larger question at stake in the exchange between Callicles and Socrates: the nature of human identity. Socrates agrees with Callicles that one must do whatever is necessary to avoid serious injury to at urbana- one’s self.

Their basic disagreement is about the biology coursework osmosis nature of the self, and secondarily about the sort of things that can do it the greatest injury. Neither Socrates nor Callicles is a coward. Both would rather die than submit themselves to disfiguring injury of the self. Socrates did die rather than flatter the assembled judges during his trial or flee Athens. Callicles and men like him would rather die than have injury done to their honor. On a deep level, the conflict between Socrates and Callicles is not between the selfless and the selfish, for both men sought to on teacher for kids care for coursework osmosis, their selves, as they understood them. Instead, it is a confrontation between someone with a highly introverted sense of self (Socrates) and someone with a highly extroverted sense of self (Callicles). University! Socrates, like the philosophers of the Pythagorean school, saw the self as a soul ( psuche ) that could be injured by becoming attached to the world of matter and illusion through which it was passing. Callicles understood the self as a public reputation that could be injured by the shameful vulnerability to humiliation.

The Heroic Self and the Cosmopolitan Self. Socrates was in the vanguard of biology coursework gcse a revolution of the ego (Greek for “I”). Where the traditional heroic values of the thesis Greek aristocracy conceived of the self primarily in terms of social reputation, Socrates and Plato grounded the biology gcse osmosis self not in social status but in cosmic destiny of the soul and argued on this basis that there is thesis, more to biology gcse being a good and just leader than power and popularity. Although there were precedents for the Platonic deconstruction of self as reputation, it definitely went against the grain of the Hellenic culture of competitive display, whose roots ran deep into the twilight of prehistory. The preservation of the reputation of the public self was of utmost importance to early Greeks because the only meaningful forms of immortality were remembrance in songs and stories, and thesis of illinois remembrance by one’s descendants. Early Greeks could not identify with an inner soul that was fundamentally different from the outer person. The immortal part of the self was the reputation: the biology coursework gcse socially known self. Homeric Greeks did not believe their souls would be rewarded or punished in the underworld. Souls simply ceased to a essay change, retaining the identity they had last possessed while alive.

They lacked consciousness and had to be given blood to drink in coursework gcse osmosis, order to recollect who they had been in life and speak ( Od. 10.495; 11.207; 24.6-9). Like characters in stories told again and again, they repeated endlessly in Hades the words and thesis university of illinois deeds, triumphs and tragedies, of life. The reputation one died with was one’s destiny for all eternity (Burkert 194-7). When Callicles is defending what he takes to be the principles of natural justice, he is defending the very ground upon which he believes his immortality rests. Anything that damages the reputation damages the immortal part of the self. In The Human Condition , Hannah Arendt argued that the main function of the biology coursework osmosis polis (city-state) was to provide for a essay holocaust, the doing and saying of great things and the remembrance of great things done and said (22-78). Callicles certainly saw his political career in this light. The Hellenic polis -culture was built around ancient rituals of public display that were designed to promulgate the reputations of the strong, the well-born, the gcse osmosis wealthy, and the wise–those who possessed the quality of general excellence the Greeks called arete . Athletic, military, and even musical and oratorical excellence were tested in public contests and rewarded with public recognition. Public sacrifices and festivals were sponsored by wealthy nobles.

Like the Potlatch ceremonies of the Native Americans of the Pacific Northwest, these festivals were opportunities to dissertation participant letter earn the gratitude of the population. Nobles displayed their power not only in athletic and oratorical contests, but also by providing the sacrificial animals. Coursework Gcse Osmosis! In the classical period, it was the responsibility of wealthy individuals to sponsor liturgies ( leitourgia ), public services such as financing dramas or building boats for the navy. For these services, they were awarded tripods and allowed to managing culture build monuments to publicly display them. Biology Coursework Gcse Osmosis! It was in university of illinois, this field of biology competitive generosity and display that the Greeks constituted their selves. Archaic and even classical Greeks lived in what has been termed a shame-culture where the greatest moral wrong was public disgrace, as opposed to the private knowledge that one had done wrong (Dodds 1951 28-63; Adkins 151-171).

In fact, there were no private wrongs. Participant Letter! As Alister MacIntyre explains in biology gcse, After Virtue morality and thesis report social structure are in gcse, fact one and thesis on robotics the same in heroic society (116). This is to say that to biology osmosis possess status and reputation is to be good, and to not have these is to be bad. The word for a noble, the agathos , actually meant good, as the word for one of a essay holocaust lower class, kakos , meant bad. Biology! In a shame-culture the only moral evil is managing organizational culture, failure to live up to one’s status, and the only moral sanction is a reduction in status. In such a world, any failure of biology coursework gcse osmosis others to acknowledge the rightful status of an individual is a great slight that demands retribution. The anger of Achilles which is the subject of the Iliad is prompted by the highly public slight of Achilles by Agamemnon, a slight that causes him to withdraw from the battle. Why fight and dissertation letter die if one would not be honored for coursework osmosis, it? The warrior fights for the sake of honor and remembrance, not because his cause is right in any abstract moral sense.

The values of the shame culture are speaking through both Polus and Callicles as they assert that it is better to commit injustice than to suffer it. To suffer injustice shows weakness and is a shame; to at urbana- commit injustice is less of biology gcse a shame. Immortal reputation for most, however, was an report elusive and tragic dream. Herodotus, the historian of the Persian War, tells a story about a meeting of the sixth century Athenian leader Solon with Croesus, the legendarily wealthy ruler of Sardis. This story dramatizes how heartbreaking an attachment to the changeable world of public opinion can be. Croesus asked Solon which man he considered the most fortunate in the world, expecting Solon to give that distinction to gcse Croesus himself. Instead, Solon said that it was Tellus of Athens, who was wealthy for an Athenian (surely not nearly as wealthy as Croesus, though), lived in a stable polis , had fine sons, died honorably in battle, and was buried at a great polis funeral.

Croesus asked on, thinking that, if he was not first, he must at least rank highly on the list of the blessed. But Solon next gave the names of two dead Athenian brothers. Baited still further by on the Croesus, Solon answered: The whole of life is but chance, Croesus. Now if I am to speak of biology coursework you, I say that I see you are very rich and the king of organizational many men. But I cannot yet answer your question before I hear that you have ended your life well (Herodotus 1: 30-32). Solon and Croesus agreed on what made a person fortunate: wealth, position, and strong children were signs of honor and portents of coursework a lasting reputation. But where Croesus took only managing organizational culture, present reputation into his accounting, the wise Solon understood that reputation and honor are precarious and can be destroyed by misfortune at any time. The tragic dream of achieving immortal reputation in biology coursework, the world of change eventually proved too heartbreaking for many Greeks to pursue. In the sixth century, some segments of Greeks society began to reject the culture of competitive display and turn to mystery religions that promised a meaningful kind of immortality for a essay, the individual psuche . The new religious beliefs of coursework gcse osmosis Orphics, Dionysians, and Pythagoreans laid the foundations for the idea of outline master self as soul rather than reputation.

There was, first of all, the belief that the psuche will be judged and receive reward or punishment in the afterlife. Biology Coursework! Second, there was a belief in the transmigration of on teacher souls, in coursework osmosis, which one’s psyche , after death, would pass to another body. Some sources have it that souls are judged after death and those that are found wanting are sent back to earth (Pindar Olympians 2, 56-77; Plato Gorgias 523-527; Republic 10.614-621). Other sources mention a cycle of reincarnations, of 3,000 years, which all souls must endure, seemingly without being judged (Herodotus 2, 123; Porphyry Life of Pythagoras 19). But the movement towards viewing the self as a soul was philosophical as well as religious. While Orphics, Dionysians, and other mystery cults created new rituals centered around secrecy and initiation, Pythagorean, Eleatic, and Platonic philosophers reversed the very ontology of the culture of display, regarding appearance and reputation as unreal and ephemeral, and what was hidden as immortal and real. In all these new doctrines, a new vision of the self was taking shape.

I was no longer only a social reputation, but more importantly, was the possessor of a psuche . The fate of the psyche was not connected to the reputation of the man. The psuche was not essentially tied to any family or city, nor was it social or political in nature. Whether it was judged by Rhadamanthys or continued on at urbana- in a cycle of biology coursework gcse osmosis reincarnations, its fate was intelligible in the order of the cosmos , not in the order of the polis . Those who believed in these doctrines of the psuche would appear to have a new sort of individuality, at least to those who did not share their beliefs. They might live in the polis , but care nothing for what the a essay holocaust polis thought of them, being citizens of the cosmos , following what they took to be the universal laws rather than the laws of biology gcse osmosis their state. While Callicles invokes nature ( phusis ) to legitimate his position, it is Socrates whose argument is most coherently underwritten by Greek cosmology, specifically Pythagorean cosmology: Wise men, Callicles, say that the heavens and thesis report on robotics the earth, gods and men, are bound together by fellowship and friendship, and order and biology coursework gcse temperance and justice, and for this reason they call the sum of ordered thing the ordered universe [ cosmos –which means “order”], my friend, not the world of disorder and riot. It seems to me that you pay no attention to these things in spite of your wisdom.

You are unaware that geometric equality is of great importance among gods and men alike, you think we should practice overreaching others, because you neglect geometry (508a). The geometry that Socrates is talking about here is more than the working out of the hypotenuse of a triangle; it is principle of the Pythagorean cosmos , a principle with spiritual and thesis university moral implications. Socrates understands his self to be a soul with a place in the cosmos , not as a reputation to be maintained. In his vision, injustice is harmful to the self because it puts it at odds with the biology coursework gcse osmosis order of the outline thesis cosmos , a state which is bound to cause deep unhappiness in gcse osmosis, the long run. The Callicles-Socrates Debate as a Product of Differing Vision of the Self.

Callicles was admired by Friedrich Nietzsche as someone who did not bow to the “slave-morality” of the masses, and Adkins finds in him a certain expression of traditional Homeric values. These assessments are true enough, but to fully understand Callicles’ position we need to understand the primacy of social status and thesis reputation in the idea of the self that he holds. Coursework Gcse Osmosis! It is only in light of the extroverted heroic self that some of Callicles’ answers to Socrates become intelligible. When Socrates asks: When you say the best should have the advantage over the worst, what do you mean by “best”? Callicles admits he does not mean those strongest physically, for if that were the case the organizational culture slaves would be the rulers. The wisest should have the coursework osmosis advantage then, says Socrates, but the wisest at organizational, what, and what sort of advantage should he be given? Should doctors be given more food and gcse osmosis drink?

No, says Callicles. Should good farmers be given more land? Certainly not, says Callicles: The best and most courageous rulers should be allowed to thesis report on robotics rule over their inferiors. But what is a good ruler? Although Callicles cannot answer this directly, he seems to biology osmosis believe that a good ruler is anyone who is essay for kids, able to take power, and the more powerful they are, the better. There is biology gcse osmosis, a logical circularity here: rulers should be rulers because they are rulers. This is why Callicles cannot stand against Socrates in report, debate. But his thinking does make some sense if one considers that for him status is of primary importance: a man is a ruler because he has high social status, but he has status because he is a ruler. The logic of biology osmosis status is circular, but for Callicles status is all-important.

The circularity of the logic of status seems senseless to Socrates. Thesis Report! In his conversation with Callicles, Socrates produced an biology coursework gcse analogy in which the desiring soul is a essay on the, compared to biology gcse a leaky jar that can never be filled (493a-d). Status, likewise, is a dream that slips through the hands of desire like water through a sieve. He who would be master becomes a prisoner of his own reputation, always needing make it, to live up to thesis university of illinois at urbana- it, or restore it. There seems to gcse be no point to the endless pursuit of status unless one understands status as the university at urbana- ultimate good which is an end in itself, as Callicles apparently does. Only then is it worth the struggle. But if Socrates can not understand status as an end in itself, neither can Callicles understand the Socratic sensibility that discounts reputation entirely in favor of a vision of the self rooted in the cosmic destiny of the biology coursework soul. When I see an older man still studying philosophy and not deserting it, he says, That man, Socrates, is asking for a whipping. Dissertation Letter! such a man, even if exceptionally gifted, is doomed to prove less than a man, shunning the city center and biology gcse market place, in which the poet said that men win distinction, and essay on teacher for kids living the rest of his life sunk in a corner whispering to three or four boys, and incapable of any utterance that is coursework osmosis, free and lofty and brilliant. University At Urbana-! (485 d-e) For the life of him, Callicles cannot understand why Socrates has not employed his gifts in biology gcse, building a proper political reputation.

Display Culture as a Bridge between Classical Athens and thesis the 21st Century. If we are still faced with the problems of propaganda and the constitution of coursework osmosis public morality explored in the Gorgias , we are also still faced with the underlying question of whether the self is a more public reputation or a player in a hidden cosmic drama. Letter! Twenty-five hundred years after the writing of the Gorgias the spirits of Socrates and Callicles enjoy an uneasy coexistence in Western culture. Biology Coursework Gcse! Although the monotheistic religions have given it deep resources of interiority, the thesis West is, in many ways, a culture of display. The culture of display is perhaps stronger in contemporary America than it has been anywhere in the West since late antiquity.

Americans thrive on the myth that we can be whoever we want, that we can change identity, reinvent ourselves, at will. Biology Osmosis! While we say that it is dissertation participant, who one is on the inside that really counts, we spend billions of dollars on biology gcse cosmetics, plastic surgery, and fashion magazines. Public figures hire image consultants. Corporations employ public relations specialists and invest profits in advertisements and to perform charitable “liturgies.” The products of our culture of display can certainly not be universally condemned. Nor can the products of the culture of interiority be universally lauded, as hidden cosmic dramas have proven time and essay on teacher again the perfect motive and justification for the most bloody kinds of actions. The very fact of our cultural conflictedness over the nature of the self is perhaps the best bridge we have to the world in biology coursework, which Plato wrote the Gorgias .