Write My Essay : 100% Original Content -
Digital Theses - UTM Library
Welcome To All Competitive Exams Portal. Arise, Awake And Stop Not Till The Goal Is Reached. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) is an important component of Business Strategy of major organizations worldwide. BPO is positively related to the quest for more efficient organizational designs: cost reduction, productivity growth and innovative capabilities. Utm Fka? Hence, BPO is important source for essay summary strategic advantage. Many recent market research surveys have indicated the CEO’s around the world across all the companies feel that BPO is key strategy for survival in today extremely competitive business environment. Utm Fka Thesis? BPO offers many benefits. It allows the organization to helper concentrate on their core activities by releasing resources which have constrained in non-core activities. It helps organization cut costs by utm fka reducing HR Costs – salary bills, perks, employee benefits, administration overheads. The client only has to pay for useful quality work duly completed by BPO. It helps to reduce recruitment and training expenses.
It helps Improve quality of service and productivity by writing helper bringing greater accountability and transparency in production standards. It enables an organization to get increasing volume of paperwork and routine administration work done quicker and at significantly lesser cost. BPO also offer 24 x 7 x 365 service availability which is utm fka very important in customer service related operations. ABOUT A CENTURY AGO, GEORGE SANTAYANA noted that, “Those who cannot remember the past, are condemned to novel writing helper repeat it.” Today, that sentiment is applicable to utm fka Indian BPO aspirants. When I hear about companies—Indian and foreign—creating a near frenzy in setting up BPO operations in India and thesis, dominating the world back office processing marketplace, I only utm fka hope that they have spent time studying the novel, history of the Indian IT Services industry. Let's look at this history. Today, Indian IT services providers are enjoying tremendous growth in their revenue. The success of IT services providers has been based on offering skilled IT services at a much lower cost than comparable American or European companies. This business model is rooted in thesis, the history of Indian companies offering low cost data entry services. Writing? The formula for “winning” business from thesis indigenous, well-established companies was based on creating a market by schreyer thesis providing programming services at a much cheaper rate. Y2K helped feed this frenzy and many Indian IT services companies got into the business.
It also helped that India produced well-qualified software engineers from utm fka thesis its schools, and that there was a ready labor pool available to do low cost programming. The mantra became: “Come to India, where IT is done cheaper.” BPO or Business Process Outsourcing is an anu physics honours entire industry in itself wherein businesses in a certain country outsource some of their operations (usually back office) to other locations in the world to cut costs by using the cheap labor in these countries. This helps them to increase their profits as well as concentrate on utm fka, their core operations. The Business Process Outsourcing industry in India caters mostly to Western operations of multinational corporations. Research Paper? Annual revenues from BPOs are around $11 billion, around 1% of GDP. Outsourcing to India began in utm fka thesis, the early 1980s when many European airlines started using Delhi as a base for back office operations.
Later, American Express consolidated its JAPAC (Japan and anu physics thesis, Asia Pacific) back office operations into New Delhi. This center was headed by Raman Roy. In the utm fka, 1990s, Jack Welch of GE was persuaded to developing consider Gurgaon as a base for back office operations. By 2002, all major Indian software organizations were into BPO, including Infosys, HCL, Satyam, TCS and Patni. The entry of international 3rd party BPO players like Convergys and utm fka thesis, SITEL also strengthened the BPO movement in India.
Service arms of organizations like Accenture, IBM, Hewlett Packard and Dell also set up shop in India. The BPO industry flourished in India because it could deliver services at a low cost. But increases in infrastructure costs, real estate costs, and writing helper, salaries raised BPO costs significantly. So Indian BPOs began shifting their operations from utm fka thesis Tier-1 cities like Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Delhi and Mumbai to Tier-2 and helper, Tier-3 cities like Mysore, Trivandrum, Kochi, Chandigarh, Mohali, etc. The transformation of rural India kicked off with the emergence of rural BPOs.
The global BPO Industry is utm fka thesis estimated to perfect competition research paper be worth 120-150 billion dollars. India enjoys 5-6% share of the total industry, and 63% share of the offshore component. BPOs have spawned many industries which depend on them like Catering, BPO training and recruitment, transport vendors, (for home pick up and drops for night shifts), Security agencies, Facilities management companies, etc. Indian IT companies achieved quality certifications (CMM, ISO etc.) in order to utm fka thesis create a service value in developing, addition to lower labor rates. However, my experience has been that little has changed. Lower cost is still the key value proposition presented by Indian companies.
It makes one wonder: what is the value proposition? Cheaper rates; where is the service advantage? Cheaper rates. Where is the differentiation with the Western market place? Cheaper rates.
The new mantra still is: “Come to India, where CMM level 5 IT service is done cheaper.” Yet given their history of moving from low priced data entry services to low price programming services, Indian companies apparently have not learned the utm fka, lessons of the past. What do you find when you look at the offerings from these companies? Most of anu physics honours them are touting “low level” transaction processing services at a cheaper cost. For example, they offer a staffed call center (glamorized as Customer Relations Management (CRM) services), or an thesis accounts payable/receivable operation made important as Cash Management services. A bankcard application data entry and processing center is called a “Credit Management services center” and keypunching services are disguised under a new name-medical transcription services. In the name of BPO, these companies are creating a business niche where rates will become the battleground, cheaper services will be the grant, value proposition and competition will be among each other.
To me, the mantra has become: “Come to India where transaction processing services are done cheaper.” Some controversies have erupted around the industry. BPO employees are scornfully described as cyber coolies. Also, the rape and murder of a few female employees by car drivers raised safety issues. Despite all this, there is no doubt that the BPO industry has raised the thesis, standard of life for many young Indians thereby swelling the ranks of the novel writing helper, Indian middle class and creating an economic boom. However the utm fka, recent global economic downturn has impacted the industry negatively as new contracts from the novel, US and other client nations might dry up in the wake of demands that jobs in these countries should remain within their borders.
How to buy essay cheap with no worries -
E thesis fka utm - SINDISAT
Parents As Role Models Education Essay. The reason for the choice to study a child's perceptions of their parents was influenced by previous research (REF), finding parents to be the most influential social agent during childhood. This study attempts to contribute to knowledge by examining parental influence over a child's lifetime, as, to the authors knowledge, this has not been extensively analysed. Previous research (REF) has largely focused on the impact of parents during the utm fka thesis, early years of examiners a child's lifetime sport involvement, as it is argued that other social agents (e.g. Thesis! peers, teachers and perfect paper coaches), are more influential during the utm fka, later stages of a child's life. In order to fulfil the current study's objectives the researcher conducted a study that assessed the way that parents' beliefs and the motivational climate that they create, can influence or affect their child's choices, attitudes and motivation towards sport and developing an essay exercise. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to utm fka, obtain information regarding the perceived parent-created motivational climate, from an adult-child's perspective. Comments! Socialisation influences from parents, and utm fka thesis social-cognitive perspectives were used to direct the research and ultimately influence the design for competition research, the interview guide. The first set of questions attempted to establish the degree of role modelling demonstrated by utm fka thesis parents, and whether this had a positive or negative effect on their child's choices and attitudes towards sport and exercise. Questions such as Does/did your mum and dad play any sports? and thesis comments Is your mum/dad involved with coaching any sports to you or another organisation?; were asked in order to establish the type of sport (if any) that the child's parents were involved with, in order to ascertain any correlations between the child's chosen sport and that of utm fka their parents. Responses to these questions were mixed, therefore finding little or no link between parent and developing child activity habits. CHANGE THIS TO MIXED BUT MORE SAID THAT PARENTS WERE ACTIVE?
The narratives below from Participants 3 and utm fka thesis 4 respectively, reflect the range of opinions regarding parents as role models: EL: Did your mum and dad play any sports from what you can remember? P1: Um. yes my mum was netball and hockey, my dad did cross country; and they both go to the gym all of the time. EL: Oh, so their quite athletic? P1: Yes quite athletic yes, they probably go to the gym two, three times a week.
Despite the variety in an essay response to parents as role models, findings also suggested that if parents were involved with coaching a sport, it generally tended to be the same sport that their child was involved with. Utm Fka! This implies that parents can influence their child's choices towards a similar, if not the summary, same sport that they are involved with. Additionally, in the instance where a parent took on the role of the sports coach; results demonstrated a strong trend, revealing that the father would be the parent who would take on utm fka thesis, this coaching role. The two examples below from participant 1 and participant 3 respectively, illustrate this point: EL: Cool. Um. so is your mum and dad involved with coching any sports to you or any other youngsters? P1: Um. my mum isn't but when, well i used to play basketball a few years ago and my dad used to help coach the team so, when i was younger about 14/15. EL: Ok. Um. are they involved, either of developing an essay them involved in thesis coaching any sports to you or anyone else? P3: Um. my dad used to be a coach for; well he used to perfect research, coach the swimming club that I used to swim for. These findings illustrate that the child perceives their parents to be actively involved with sport, either through participation or coaching.
Dixon et al (2008) recognised that parents are the most influential social agents for children. Therefore it is reasonable to thesis, assume that their role modelling behaviour would see them involved in sport by either competing or participating in physical activity themselves or by coaching, in developing an essay order to lead by example and thus influence their child's choices towards sport and exercise. Previous to this, Bandura proposed the 'Social Learning Theory' (1986), which claimed that parents exhibit behaviours that children may later imitate. In addition, Bandura maintained that the task of learning would be a most tedious task if there was reliance solely on the effects of the utm fka thesis, learner's own actions. This therefore identifies that there is a heavy reliance on role models (e.g. Perfect Research! parent's) to demonstrate desirable behaviours, for example: participating in regular physical activity, and finding enjoyment in sport. It is also important to stress to parents that they only have a limited time in utm fka thesis which to demonstrate this role modelling behaviour ,since that, as children grow older they spend the majority of their day outside of direct parental contact (Welk et al., 2003). Welk (2003) also recognised the need to distinguish between positive and negative forms of role modelling in order to better explain this construct. Although participants from the schreyer thesis grant, present study were not affected by utm fka negative role modelling; social agents (e.g. teachers, peers, sporting heroes and parents alike) will need to take this into summary consideration in practice, when conducting themselves as role models, so that children are not influenced by negative behaviours. Utm Fka! For example, a sedentary parent may model inactive, unhealthy behaviours; therefore demonstrating to schreyer thesis grant, their child that this kind of lifestyle is acceptable.
MIGHT NEED A CONCLUDING SENTANCE HERE. Parents as Providers of the Experience. Parents can serve as role models not only by participating in the activity or sport themselves but also by utm fka providing the sports participation experiences for children through transport, funding and spectating at their sporting events. Results from this study regarding the thesis, participants' perceptions of their parents' sport involvement were mixed; with some viewing their parents as active, whereas others did not view their parents to thesis, be athletic at all. Nevertheless, it is novel possible that parents demonstrate role modelling characteristics (i.e. Utm Fka Thesis! transmitting beliefs and camp essay values) through other means of utm fka thesis support such as transport, funding and general encouragement to join clubs and become active. Competition! It is also possible that due to the amount of time parents devote to their child's sport involvement (e.g. Thesis! transporting them to and from events, and thesis working in thesis order to be able afford to summary, invest in their child's sporting future through membership and equipment); that they actually have little time left for themselves in order to participate competitively. Thus, for this reason it is understandable that the majority of utm fka participants stated that their parents do not currently participate in physical activity and camp some who ascertain that their parents have never been overly athletics. With this in mind, the additional ways in which parents can demonstrate their role modelling behaviour, will be discussed under three separate headings: Game attendance, transport and utm fka funding, and developing an essay encouragement/ importance placed on sport. In order to investigate how the presence of a parent at competition, influenced the participants attitudes towards that event, questions regarding parental sideline support and attendance at school or club fixtures were raised. Results illustrated a general trend, demonstrating that at least one parent would be present at every competition. All participants considered parental support through competition attendance as extremely important.
The following narratives from participants 4 and 5 respectively, demonstrate the importance to utm fka thesis, those individuals. EL: Ok. With regards to anu physics, parental support now, and utm fka thesis attendance. Did you mum or dad ever attend your school fixtures? After-school clubs. P4: Um. Grant! they, i wouldn't say in secondary school but in primary school they would be at, well there to support. EL: Yea. Do you think, what do you think that is utm fka because of? Do you think maybe they thought you needed them? P4: Um, i guess when your younger its nice to have your parent on the sideline, haha, sort of camp essay cheering you on. EL: Yea ok.
Um. in what ways was them being at your competitions important to you? Did you like having them there or not? P4: Yea, because then you know that there is thesis someone definitely watching you when your swimming or doing a competition, i don't know, its nice to feel that someone is there looking on writing, and they will be proud of you. EL: Ok. Um. was this important to you. Did you like having them there or? P5: Um. I liked having my dad there because he was like a personal coach, he helped me through all things like; it was good when he was there because he could tell me what was going right and wrong.
Scanlan (1996) predicted that during the early years, parents are likely to be present at utm fka thesis, their children's games and sport fixtures; therefore giving them ample opportunity to express their values and beliefs of sport to their children. The results support this hypothesis as all participants view parental support through game attendance as a dominant influence to their sport involvement choices. The next point of discussion relates to the degree of support that parent's demonstrate through the provision of transport and funding, in thesis examiners comments order for their child to attend clubs and take part in sport. Findings generated a general concencus amoungst the participant's, that financial parental support is imperative during the early stages of development; but drops off significantly when a child reaches adulthood, as they will usually find a part time job and begin to fund themselves. Participant's also identified parents as the thesis, key providers of support in the form of transport to and from novel writing training and utm fka thesis competition. This type of support could also become less important to thesis, the child as they grow older; as the coming of age brings multiple oppourtunities for the child to become increasingly indepedant, for example learning to drive so that they could then transport themselves to their sporting fixtures. Thesis! This was reflected through the responses given by participant 1 and participant 8, as shown below: EL: Ok, and did that, did you find that changed when you got older at all? P1: Um. well when i learnt to paper, drive i started driving myself to training and things, so i paid for the petrol and stuff so that was like less money for them to spend but, they still paid for membership and things so. EL: Ok, um, ok alrite with regards to thesis, transport and funding, um desbribe how your mum and dad supported you with regards to transport to and from training and matches?
P8: They took me to, obviously training before i could drive, um. to grant, where i had to be picked up to go to matches and thesis stuff, they took me everywhere. EL: Ok, but um. once you started driving. P8: I drove myself. Conclusively, parents were the research, key providers for both transport and funding. The findings support the views of Eccles et al (1998), pronouncing that parent time and financial investment are positive predictors of utm fka children's achievements in academic and comments non-acedemic contexts. A reason for thesis, this may possibly be a matter of respect and appreciation from the children; wanting to give something back to their parents for all their devotion, hard work and investment that allowed them to participate in their chosen activities.
There are various ways in which parents can financially provide positive experiences; such as, enrolling their child in athletic memberships and purchasing equipment for perfect competition paper, their child's skill development (Green and Chalip, 1998). Synder and Purdy (1982) acknowledged that active parents provide more equipment and support for utm fka thesis, their children in an essay sports than inactive parents. The current study presents conflicting evidence to reject such claims; indicating that despite the thesis, parents' varied sporting backgrounds and diverse physical activity levels, the support demonstrated to their child was not at a lesser degree just because the parents were not active themselves. For example, participant 2 described their parents as Not very athletic; however this child responded positively to the questions regarding their parental support through transport and funding, claiming that They always used to take me and They still pay for me now. This demonstrates that the degree of parental support was just as strong regardless of the an essay, parents' activity levels. NEED TO WRITE WHY I THINK THIS WAS FOUND? In order to make a definitive conclusion with regards to utm fka, this area; further studies will need to be conducted whereby an novel writing even split of participants with active and inactive parents are invited to utm fka thesis, take part in the study. This will then allow for two separate sets of grant data to be collected on the support that those with active parents receive and the support that those with inactive parents perceive to be available to them; thus allowing for thesis, a more succinct comparison in order to validate or decline previous literature. STAY HERE OR MOVE TO LIMITATIONS?
Encouragement/importance placed on sport. The third sub-category of questions concerning 'parents as providers of novel writing helper experience'; aimed to establish the degree of encouragement into thesis sport that the participant's experienced by their parent's, and the perceived importance that their parents placed on participation in sport and exercise. The discussion centred around the participants' description of how their parents first recognised their interest in sport; whilst also commenting on the degree of pressure placed on them by their parents, in order to compete. The responses demonstrated an agreement between the perfect research paper, participants' in thesis that none of them felt pressured to compete by novel writing their parents, but they did experience pressure to train. Utm Fka Thesis! Reasoning for this, suggests that; parents have invested their time and money into their child's sport involvement, therefore, in addition to research, supporting and utm fka encouraging their child they want to writing, make sure that this is a worthwhile investment. Utm Fka Thesis! Lavoi and Stellino (2008, p472) support this, believing that 'children maintain certain expectations of themselves based largely on the influence of their parents'. With reference to the current study, as a result of their parent's financial investments; participants have perceived an expectation of them to train hard, in order to demonstrate to their parents that their money is well spent.
Below, participant 2 and grant participant 8, account for utm fka thesis, the pressure that was placed upon them to perform due to the sacrifices that their parent's had made: P2: i always felt the further we had to developing an essay, travel to get to a competition, because remember before i could drive she was the utm fka, one who would always ferry me around the country. P2: . the longer we had to drive, that was when she put most pressure on me. EL: Ok, um. so did you ever feel pressured to compete by your mum and dad? P8: Um, at school level i did because if i was training after school and they wanted me to play in the matches and the tournaments and helper things and utm fka then try and go on and play as well as you can. EL: Yea, so was there ever times that you didn't want to do it, but you did it because you thought 'my mum wants me to'? P8: Yea, sometimes at club hockey aswell because i'd paid the membership they were like well if i've paid the membership then you have obviously got to play, and go training and things.
Regardless of the pressure that was experienced; findings recognized parents as valuable agents who will nurture their child's aspirations through the safeguarding and support of their choices. All participant's agreed that their sports choices were supported by their parents, some even viewed the encouragement into sport by thesis examiners comments their parents as a reason for their continuation in thesis sport. This confirms the role that parents play in introducing their child into sport; indicating that parents serve as an important motivational tool in their child's sport involvement, by initially encouraging them to attend a club and to maintain their training once they have established an interest in a specific sport. Therefore, considering the participants' intrinsic interest in sport, it is not known how parents would have reacted to a drop out or withdrawal in sports participation, as all of the participants are still currently involved in honours thesis sport. It is reasonable to assume that parents would not support their child's decision to utm fka thesis, drop out of sport due to their athletic ability and lifestyle they have developed.
It is also possible that parents would object to perfect paper, a drop out from sport as they would feel that their efforts and thesis sacrifices in order to support their child (e.g. financial sacrifices and camp essay summary giving up their time in order to transport their child) have been wasted. A longitudinal analysis of parental support and its impact. In addition to utm fka, the current findings, an examination into the degree of parental support on a child's sport involvement over their life-course was conducted. The questions were specifically designed in order to obtain information from developing three key age ranges: Primary Childhood Perceptions (earliest age of utm fka thesis recall age 11) Adolescent Perceptions (age 11 18) Present Perceptions (where you are now) The results obtained from Primary Childhood Perceptions indicate that parents play an important role in preparing their child for grant, competition; by helping them to organise their equipment and provisions that they will need in order to compete. The majority of utm fka participants recognised that this role of support (in the form of preparing packed lunches and developing an essay clean clothes for their child), was primarily adopted by their mother. A reason for this could be that; women have historically taken on the domestic role within the utm fka thesis, household, caring for their families needs on an everyday basis.
Although nowadays, the domestic role appears to be shared more equally between mothers and fathers, therefore suggesting that either parent could be the provider of this type of support; many of women's occupations still see them demonstrating extensions of their early domestic roles, with traditional women's jobs originating from the tertiary sector and often involving nurturing, service and support roles: for schreyer thesis, example teachers of small children and nurses (Eckert and McConnell-Ginet, 2003). In contrast, results reveal that during the adolescent stage of a child's development; participants commented that they were still provided for by their parents, however the task of preparing their equipment so that they were ready to compete, was now almost entirely the responsibility of the utm fka, child. This is supported by essay summary the transition into secondary school that children experience during the adolescent stage of their development; as this too will increase a child's independance, for instance, increased management over their school and homework tasks (Brannen, Heptinstall and Bhopal, 2000). This is reflected in utm fka practice, whereby coaches can give older children the responsibility over certain tasks during the training session; for example to grant, organise a game or skill practice. Utm Fka! Responsibilities can also be shared with regards to a person's role within the team, for thesis examiners comments, example team captain.
With reference to competition attendance, participants noted that at least one of their parents would always be present. It was not found that one parent would be present more than the other; although it was noted that fathers tend to take on more of a coaching role, whereas, mothers (although still there to support), would socialise with other parents. QUOTES AS EXAMPLES. The results also disclose that parents are not as vocal during the thesis, primary stage of their childhood competitions, compared to those events during the thesis, adolescent stage. Results established that during the utm fka thesis, primary age of childhood, parents would focus primarily upon the fun and enjoyment obtained from partaking in physical activity; whereas as their child got older, they would become more outcome focused.
Nevertheless, participants still perceived their parents to adopt an enjoyment focused attitude, but their focus on competition research paper, winning was now much greater than the younger years. SAY SOMETHING HERE ABOUT PARENTS KNOWING THAT THEIR CHILD ALREADY ENJOYS THE ACTIVITY BECAUSE OF THE CONTINUED INVOLVEMENT FROM WHEN THEY WERE YOUNG. Parents are particularly influential in encouraging children to participate in sport and. Although this study reproduces certain findings from previous investigations, it also adds further understanding to the impact of parent-child socialisation upon an adult-child's sport involvement. Utm Fka! The study differentiates itself from much of the previous studies by examining how early childhood socialisation experiences shape an adult's choices and behaviours towards sport. Findings clearly indicate that parental influence through socialization is critical; as parents can communicate their beliefs about what is valued as important, and; as children are positively influenced by what their parents value, they are more likely to take steps in order to carry out such activities. This also confirms that socialisation is an essay a two-way process between provider and recipient (Greendorfer Bruce, 1991; Nixon, 1990). Welk et al., (2003) observed constant trends in their data; suggesting that active parents are more likely to be supportive and involved in thesis their child's efforts at being physically active, compared to inactive parents. Thesis Comments! However, it is important to recognise that the individuals who took part in the current study were all sports students who naturally had an intrinsic interest in sport and an understanding and appreciation for the importance of regular physical activity.
Thus, even though parental encouragement and support during their lifetime sport involvement has been proved to be indispensible, it was also recognised that for some, the interest may have already been there due to the natural sporting tendencies that the participants' possessed.
Buy Essay Online -
Thesis fka utm College paper Writing Service - lululoves me
65 Successful Harvard Business School Application Essays 2nd Edition 1. With Analysis by the Staff of The Harbus, the utm fka thesis Harvard Business School Newspaper. Chris Withers Eugenia Gibbons John Richard Craig Ellis Irfhan Rawji Thomson Nguy Anonymous Jordan Burton 150 152 154 157 159 161 163 165. Anonymous PaulYeh Rye Barcott Anonymous Adam Heltzer Anonymous Anonymous 171 174 177 180 183 186 189. Perfect Paper! Nathan Dutzmann Anonymous David Zhang John Schmit 197 200 203 206. Essay on Samsung Electronics - Harvard Business School. Utm Fka Thesis! framework to analyze the level of competition within DRAM memory business, the threat of new entrant is high compared to the threat of an essay, substitutes and utm fka established rivals in horizontal competition. If we look at rivalry within the DRAM industry between established players, Samsung has a clear advantage over writing, its competitors. Samsung is the market leader in DRAM memory business.
It has a wide range of products and its products has a higher brand value Application Case 2-1 (Gen Y Rocks the Business World) Essay. they can deliver the best to the organization. In addition, the management should regularly communicate with these people, asking for their opinions and respond to the recommendations or their dissatisfaction. By this, Generation Y individuals Page | 1 will felt that the thesis company is concerned about their welfare and in thesis, return they will serve better for utm fka, the company. Thesis Examiners Comments! In line of understanding their behavior, the organization will need to utm fka learn how to blend the workplace and the life-place to stay connected in Finance, I was fascinated. Anu Physics! I was drawn by the magic that intangible things can create so much value and affect the economy so much.
In combination with other business classes I took, I had a chance to utm fka know the wide range of the research business world. It was clear to me that no other academic or career choice was possible for utm fka, me. In High School I developed an interest in computer programming and won second prize in a competition in this subject in an essay, my home town. I also won a second prize in thesis, the China Mathematics Supervision of Successful Schools Essays. Examiners! student centered and most of the failure of the school is placed on the student. Rules and routines are strictly enforced in this type of school environment and thesis not much teamwork is encouraged.
A second category of novel writing, most school in America is congenial which is very similar to conventional with the exception that stakeholders in a congenial school actually communicate with each other. The teachers enjoy working with each other and thesis like conventional schools not much emphasis is schreyer thesis, placed on the students Essay about utm fka Features a of Successful School. open-ended questioning to challenge students more (p. 249). These types of challenging assignments help prepare students to writing become critical thinkers, and get them ready for college. Successful schools also ensure that teachers are giving performance-based assessments, Darling-Hammond (2010) states: All of the schools engage students in completing complex projects and investigations of various kinds, and most of them require the completion of portfolios for graduation, which include high-quality work Airborne Express Harvard Business case Essay.
Airborne take is significant affecting the development of the company, while facing this big change in industry. Section 2: The problem/Opportunity: Airborne Express has long differentiated itself in the market by structuring itself as a big business only carrier. They have specialized in large unit deliveries through metropolitan areas. Everything they do is aimed to optimize the delivery process and slash cost where ever possible. However, Airborne is now faced with a huge decision. They must Growing Your Successful Business Essay. blogs and all my main sites.
As the most popular and best-supported blogging software system, WordPress keeps getting better. Printing Printing business cards and marketing pieces has become very inexpensive. These companies can quickly print great four-color (standard color printing) cards for very little. I’ve used Henley Printing for business cards; they did a good job and I like their paper quality. Thesis! However, they are a little more expensive than these printers: Print for Less – they get good Assignment 1-Case Study Application Fiscal Essay.
Another example is that our school recently received a grant from the State of Ohio Department of Education to roll an Adult 22+ program out. The school understands the value of the students and the quality of schreyer thesis, education they have obtained, so they worked hard to get this program within our school. Now, those above 22, who have previously aged out, are able to utm fka enroll in writing, our 22+ program and still gain their diploma. This is giving those individuals who have finally realized the importance, the chance Essay on Test Bank For Business In Action 7th Edition Bovee Thill. free-market systems. Diff: 2 AACSB: Application of knowledge Chapter LO: 2 Course LO: Explain the benefits and challenges of engaging in utm fka, international business Classification: Application 11) Demand refers to the quantities of a good or service that producers will provide on a particular date at various prices. Answer: FALSE Explanation: Demand refers to developing an essay buyers' willingness and ability to purchase products at various price points. Diff: 1 AACSB: Application of knowledge Chapter LO: 3 Course the system needed 24 hour support. The operations team was required to work in shifts to accomplish this task.
The shifts occurred in 12 hour time frames but usually lasted up to 16 hours. Utm Fka! The start times of the shifts would change due to changing business needs, and research every week
Order Essay from Experienced Writers with Ease -
Digital Theses - UTM Library
experiment paper Making and Recycling Paper at Home. G. Carboni, January 2005. Translated by Jennifer Spears. Paper is utm fka thesis, a fantastic material suitable for numerous uses, including manufacturing notebooks, books, calendars, and magazines, wrapping gifts, and wrapping items in stores. Paper is widely used in offices for writing, printing documents, and photocopying. At home, paper is used to thesis comments clean, to dry things, and for many other purposes. In short, paper is thesis, one of the most versatile and common products of modern societies. In this article, I will describe how to make samples of paper and I will outline the theme of recycling raw materials. Paper is so essential to writing that we couldn't do without it, and yet it was not invented until several millennia after the invention of writing. So, what did people write on before the invention of paper?
Some dozens of thousands of years ago, primitive humans started to anu physics honours thesis draw graffiti and paint hunting scenes on rocks and cave walls. They also carved notches on sticks, shells, bones, and thesis, stones. It seems they used these signs to anu physics count things like days, lunar months, and the animals they bred. From these first paintings and carvings begins the path that will lead to writing, but also the history of the materials used for utm fka writing begins here. It is examiners comments, of these items that I will speak in this section. Writing was invented about 5500 years ago by Sumerians, a people devoted to utm fka thesis agriculture who lived in ancient Mesopotamia. As a medium for novel writing helper their texts, Sumerians used clay tablets. Clay is basically mud and in their alluvial plains they had plenty of it. Utm Fka! With clay, they prepared tablets in which they etched pictures or symbols as long as the tablets were still damp and soft enough. These tablets were then left to anu physics honours thesis dry so that the signs engraved could be kept for a long time. First Sumerians, then Babylonians and Assyrians used these tablets primarily for administrative purposes and notating agricultural products delivered to warehouses near temples.
Tablets were often stored on utm fka thesis, wooden shelves. The only honours, possible danger would have been water which could ruin the tablets. Conversely, if a fire were to break out, the clay tablets would undergo a cooking that would transform them into terracotta, a material impervious to water and able to last thousands of years. Fires which because of accidents or war sometimes struck the utm fka thesis archives of schreyer thesis these ancient people allowed thousands of cuneiform tablets to be preserved till modern times. Their deciphering by archaeologists is giving us important information on the ancient civilizations which produced them. Shortly after the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians developed their own writing. They took some of their symbols from the Sumerians, but also invented many other symbols, comprising an utm fka thesis, original script of their own. Egyptian writing was prevalently used for sacred and celebratory purposes; for comments this it came to utm fka be called hieroglyphic (‘sacred writing’).
Egyptians sculpted or painted their writings on stony temple walls and schreyer thesis grant, wooden sarcophagi. One of the most important inventions of the Egyptians was the papyrus, a medium which begins to have some likeness to paper. Utm Fka! Papyrus takes its name from the plant from which it was obtained. This plant has its roots in water and develops a long cylindrical stem which ends with a tuft of anu physics narrow and long leaves. From the spongy stem of this plant, Egyptians extracted thin strips that they placed side by side, partly overlapping them.
Subsequently, over the first layer of strips, they superimposed a second layer, placing the thesis strips transverse to those below. The natural glues present in this plant’s tissue insured the adhesion of the strips. Research Paper! Other sheets were often adjoined to the first sheet, rendering strips that could even be several meters long and that came to be rolled up in volumes . To improve the possibility of using this surface for writing, Egyptians beat, scraped, and smoothed papyri during their production. Egyptian scribes wrote on papyrus using brushes and utm fka thesis, ink. Ancient Egyptians produced a lot of papyrus, part of which was retained for their own use and the rest to be sold in all of the Mediterranean.
Among their best customers were the ancient Greeks and Romans. Unfortunately, because of political and economic crises which struck Egyptian society in the last centuries before Christ, the schreyer thesis production of papyrus diminished. The price of the product increased and it became necessary to find a substitute. In the city of Pergamus, people started using sheepskin as a medium for writing. From just one skin, one could get several sheets as it was possible to utm fka thesis separate more layers from the skin.
To make them suitable for writing, the skin had to be adequately prepared. Towards that goal, sheets were scraped to remove fat and flesh, then put out to dry on frames which kept them tight. Developing An Essay! The final product was parchment, a material highly suitable for writing which came to thesis be used in Europe throughout the anu physics honours Middle Ages, up until the introduction of paper. An old parchment could be scraped of the previous writing and could therefore be reused. In this manner, however, many works by Greek and Roman authors have been lost. According to the Chinese, paper was invented in 105 A.D. by an official of the Emperor, but recent archaeological findings have shown that paper was already being used in China at least 200 years before this. The Chinese used large quantities of thesis paper made from rags and vegetable fibers extracted from hemp, bamboo, mulberry, willow, etc.
They also used paper to make fans, hats, clothes, and other everyday objects. Paper was brought and spread to many Eastern countries by examiners comments, Buddhist monks. In 751 A.D., after a thirty-one-year war, Arabs defeated the Chinese in battle. Among the prisoners taken were paper factory workers who taught the technique of utm fka thesis papermaking to the Arabs. Soon thereafter, Samarkand became an important center of paper production. As raw materials, the Arabs used linen and hemp rags. A few centuries later, the art of papermaking came to schreyer thesis Egypt, then Morocco, and from there Spain. The first Spanish paper factory was opened in 1009.
In 1250, Italy became the biggest producer of thesis paper, which came to be exported to many European countries. To make paper less absorbent, Arabs used glues derived from vegetables, but this type of thesis comments paper was susceptible to mold and quickly deteriorated. By using glues derived from animals, Italians greatly improved the quality of paper and its duration could reach many centuries. In fact, today we know of paper documents which are still in very good condition after more than 700 years from their production. An important Italian papermaking center was Fabriano, where the watermark was invented. Within about three centuries, the utm fka thesis technique of papermaking spread from Italy to all of Europe and writing helper, then to thesis the Americas. In the beginning, Arabs and camp, Europeans made paper out of rags.
As time passed, the demand for paper quickly increased, so much so that after a while, rags were no longer sufficient. In search of a substitute to rags, in 1719 a Frenchman, who had observed wasps while building their nests, suggested. trying wood to make paper. The trials that were carried out were a success and since then wood has become the main raw material for producing paper. To separate individual fibers of cellulose from utm fka thesis, each other, rags and wood were placed in mortars and beaten by heavy pestles operated by hydraulic wheels. When the perfect competition research paper mixture of fibers was ready, workers poured it into vats full of water. They then immersed special sieves into the vats and extracted them collecting a part of the suspension of fibers. During the extraction, workers moved the sieve in order to utm fka make the layer of fibers uniform. Then they let the water drain out, and they placed the layer of fibers on a piece of felt which was placed on a pile of other sheets and bits of felt. This pile was pressed to squeeze away the water.
Finally, the sheet of paper was hung to dry. In the beginning of 1800, the French and the English began to build machines for the perpetual production of paper. Paper machines were equipped with a long sieve in an essay, the form of utm fka thesis a moving belt which collected a continuous layer of fibers from the writing helper suspension. During its run, the ribbon of paper under formation has glue, mineral additives, and other substances added to it; then it is thesis, squeezed of excess water, dried, and rolled. Finally, it is gathered in perfect competition research, large rolls and sent to factories which turn it into utm fka, newspapers, notebooks, and many other products. The fabrication of paper by hand is still practiced to produce precious sheets or for artistic purposes, but this represents a very small quantity of the paper produced in the world. Modern paper is anu physics honours thesis, therefore produced primarily from wood and it is made up of numerous cellulose fibers that are held together by glue. Paper can undergo special treatment in thesis, order to make it suitable for whatever intended use. Take for example the paper used for camp essay drawing and watercolors, which must have a specific thickness, a certain roughness and a certain absorbency, etc. It is also possible to utm fka thesis make paper without adding glue, but the result is a very absorbent paper. To render it suitable for writing or printing, it is necessary to anu physics lower the absorption of ink which otherwise would spread.
For this purpose, paper is glued, that is, animal or synthetic glues are added to it. To make paper less porous, more compact and even brighter, it is coated . Utm Fka Thesis! Coating consists of adding very fine mineral powders such as kaolin, calcium carbonate, talc, fossil flour, and an appropriate adhesive such as casein or other types of glue. The sheet passes through rollers which press it with force (calandering) and comes out bright. Often people use tissues or paper napkins to developing an essay clean the lenses of thesis glasses or cameras, but the presence of mineral powders make ordinary paper products unfit for this purpose. In fact, when rubbing on delicate optical surfaces, these mineral particles cause microscopic streaks which ruin the quality of the lens. To clean lenses, you can use special paper products specifically produced for that function, composed solely of pure cellulose. Unfortunately, certain modern papermaking processes greatly reduce the life of paper, which within a few years tends to yellow and weaken. Processes exist which instead produce paper capable of lasting centuries, keeping itself in very good condition.
The importance of the grant invention of thesis paper can be better understood if people think that before its arrival, to make a book in parchment, dozens or hundreds of skins were needed. Because of its uniformity in thesis, thickness, paper made possible the invention of the printing press. Before the invention of the printing press, books had to be written by hand. Together, these two innovations greatly lowered the cost of books and largely contributed to the spread of culture throughout the world. Let’s pass to the experiment part of this article. By now, you understand that to utm fka thesis make a sheet of paper, you must first get a suspension of camp essay cellulose fibers in thesis, water. Getting these fibers from a trunk is possible, but it would take too much time and effort. Therefore, we will use newspapers, from which it is easier to extract fibers. In this manner, we will also experiment with the possibility of recycling paper. MATERIALS (figure 2): - sieve with holes of thesis about 1 mm (available in a hardware store) - rectangular bowl/container large enough to fit the frame. - mortar with pestle.
- green and dried grass (optional) Figure 2 - Tools to make paper at home. With wooden boards, make a frame like that of figure 3. Mount the sieve underneath, with strips of wood and nails enclosing it (figure 4). Figure 3 - Frame seen from above. Figure 4 - Frame seen from below. - squeeze out the excess water; - with the mortar and pestle, crush a little bit of paper at a time until you get a homogeneous paste, consisting of fibers isolated from each other (figure 5); - repeat this until you have enough paste; - fill the bowl halfway with water; - put the paper paste in the bowl and stir it to separate the fibers; - remove any resulting clumps (a dense suspension of fibers must remain in the water); - immerse the thesis frame in the watery suspension in the bowl (the sieve should be facing the novel bottom of the bowl); - slowly remove the frame from the suspension keeping it steadily horizontal; eventually move the frame to even out the layer of fibers (figure 6); - wait for the water to drain; Figure 5 - With mortar and pestle, crush some of the newspaper. until you get a homogeneous paste in thesis, which the fibers are isolated. from each other. Put this paste in a water-filled bowl and stir by. hand to help the fibers separate from schreyer grant, one another.
Figure 6 - Immerse the frame in the bowl, collect part. of the fiber suspension, and slowly remove the utm fka thesis frame. - place the smooth side of a sheet of Formica on top of the sheet of paper still soaked with water; - press on the Formica a little to drain the water, taking care not to deform the sieve (figure 7); - with a sponge, collect water from underneath and squeeze it away every so often; - carefully remove the sheet of Formica so that the sheet of paper remains attached to research it (figure 8); - let the sheet of paper dry. To do this more quickly, you can dry it with a hairdryer (figure 9). Figure 7 – Place a sheet of Formica on utm fka, top of the layer. of fiber extracted and squeeze out the excess water, without putting too much force on the sieve. Figure 8 - Gently, remove the research sheet of Formica and with it.
the sheet of paper, which will again be soaked with water. - make other sheets of paper, introducing to utm fka thesis the suspension some grass crushed in the mortar; - (optionally) later introduce some flower petals (without crushing them). Figure 9 - Drying of the honours sheet with a hairdryer. Figure 10 - The sheet of paper produced. The presence of green and brown vegetable fibers from the utm fka grass will give your sheets a special charm. Also, the addition of petals will contribute to make the sheets more beautiful. Comments! You can even use the utm fka thesis paper you will have made to write a letter. The paper you make using this procedure (figure 10) will be bright on one side and developing, opaque on the other. The bright side is more suitable for writing. Utm Fka Thesis! This paper is highly permeable by novel, ink, but it is utm fka thesis, possible to write on it using a ballpoint pen. If you want to reduce the absorbency of the perfect research paper paper you’ve made, soak it in a solution of water and gelatin and then let it dry again.
As you have seen, paper is made up of cellulose fibers held together by glue. By hand or even by means of utm fka special machines, it is possible to separate the fibers of paper from each other and reuse them to anu physics honours thesis make new paper. Utm Fka! In the industrial processes of recycling printed paper, a deinking treatment is often performed in order to brighten it. What does recycling paper mean? As you know, to produce paper it is necessary to cut down trees. Considering the large quantity of paper used in the world (about 300 million tons), every year entire forests are cut down. This constitutes disruption to nature.
Moreover, when paper is no longer needed, it is often dumped in landfills, but part of it also ends up in the environment, contributing to pollution. Recycling paper means reducing both the number of trees cut down and thesis examiners, pollution to the environment (figure 11). Why do we use the term recycling? Usually, to make paper we cut down trees and after having used it, we throw it away. As figure 11 shows, this corresponds to a linear movement from thesis, forest to landfill. Schreyer! If instead we also use already used paper to make new paper, rather than going to landfills, paper returns to the market. Again with reference to figure 11, this corresponds to a circular movement, in which part of the used paper returns to paper factories and again to the market. This circular movement can be repeated several times and can be applied to other materials, garnering the important advantage of notably reducing the damage to nature caused by our activities. Other than paper, is it possible to recycle other materials? Absolutely! You can recycle glass, metal, plastic, fabric, clothing, packing material, car batteries, motor oil, tires, organic waste, water, and other materials.
Though not intended for recycling but for utm fka controlled disposal, pharmaceuticals, batteries, paint, plaster and other waste which, if left in the environment, would cause pollution are also collected. Glass is produced by melting sand at high temperatures. An Essay! In turn, glass items can be melted again and transformed into new products. Bottles and jars brought to temperatures between 800 and 1500°C soften and then melt. At this point, the material is homogenized by stirring, is refined, and is often bleached. It can then be used to utm fka make new glass items.
The recycling of glass is very beneficial in terms of energy conservation. In addition to recycling, we also need to consider reusing products. Some types of bottles and other glass containers can be washed and reused dozens of times. The system of depositing bottles is highly respectful to examiners comments the environment. In fact, reusing items is more efficient energy-wise than recycling them. Knowing how to use products without ruining them means prolonging their life and reducing the thesis need to buy new ones. Metal is produced by bringing certain minerals to high temperatures and adding melting materials, deoxidizing materials, etc.
To be recycled, metal must be collected and separated by thesis examiners, type: steel, cast iron, copper alloys, aluminum alloys. Aluminum alloys melt around 550-650°C according to the alloy. Since the utm fka thesis normal production of thesis examiners aluminum from bauxite requires large quantities of electrical energy, the recovery of this metal is particularly important. Copper is widely used in utm fka thesis, making electrical wires. Copper alloys are widely used in factories. The main copper alloys are bronze (copper + tin) and thesis examiners, brass (copper + zinc). Copper melts at 1083°C, bronze between 900 e 1000 °C, and brass at about 900°C. The world reserves of copper are becoming exhausted, making the recycling of this material important. In metallurgy, one distinguishes iron (chemical element) from utm fka thesis, steel, which is an alloy derived from iron and other elements. Cast iron has a higher carbon content than steel.
When burnt in thesis, furnaces for the production of thesis steel, carbon frees large quantities of carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and pollutes the atmosphere. Steel melts at about 1500°C, is inexpensive, and is not particularly rare, but the collection and reuse of paper scrap iron is nonetheless useful because it reduces the need for extracting iron ore and utm fka thesis, the amount of carbon necessary to produce new steel. Because of the presence of anu physics nickel in their alloy, austenitic stainless steel is expensive and thesis, recycling it is important. Plastic is an essay, derived from oil and is rather costly as well as its producing processes often being polluting. Many plastics break down very slowly and when they end up in the environment, they pollute it for thesis a long time. Many dolphins and whales die because of honours plastic bags carried to sea by the wind that they end up swallowing. Recycling plastic is therefore important for economical reasons, energy conservation, and for thesis reducing pollution to the environment.
On the market, there are many different kinds of plastic such as polyethylene, PVC, polystyrene, polypropylene, etc. In order to recycle them efficiently, they could be separated by polymer type. Unfortunately, this is comments, difficult to do, and for the time being we are limited to a unsorted collection of only a few types of plastic. All plastics can be recycled by the process of pyrolysis. Utm Fka! Pyrolysis consists of bringing plastic to a temperature of writing helper 500°C in the absence of oxygen. At this temperature, plastic decomposes producing gases which can be used to make new plastic or can be burned for the purpose of creating electrical energy. RECYCLING ORGANIC MATERIAL.
Food scraps, cut grass, small pruned branches, fallen leaves, etc. are easily decomposed by bacteria, earthworms, and other little organisms. Utm Fka! At the end of this process, we are left with a very fertile soil, called compost , for use in agriculture. To facilitate their transformation into compost, organic waste is gathered in the appropriate containers (composters) where they undergo the biological transformation described above. The recovery of developing organic waste is important because it is rather voluminous and becomes rather costly for normal disposal. Moreover, if thrown into dumpsters, the food scraps would dirty any other recyclable items in the garbage making those items less easily separable and collectible. Returning organic substances to farmlands or even your own backyard through composting renders the soil more fertile and reduces the need for chemical fertilizers.
Water from the thesis sewage system and thesis examiners comments, from agricultural drains can be purified and reused. One of the processes of purification consists of making water flow into lakes or special purifying plants, where the organic substances present in it are used as food by bacteria and other microorganisms. At the end of the process, these substances are transformed into mud which sediments at the bottom. Passes across sand and other procedures complete the purification of utm fka thesis water, which can again be made drinkable. Often, the resulting mud can be used in farming as fertilizer. Also most of the runoff water from industrial processes can be purified. Recycling raw materials is important for reducing the damaging alterations to the environment produced by human activities. By recycling raw materials, we collect a smaller amount of raw material from nature and also reduce the amount of waste. Important steps in recycling raw materials include sorting them at home and in developing, the office and a sorted garbage collection. Through sorted garbage collection, those materials which before were just throwaways that went towards polluting the environment have become more and more of an utm fka, economic resource.
Nowadays, an paper, industry for the recycling of raw materials is on the rise. Companies which specialize in the online advertisement and sale of industrial waste which can be useful to other companies have also been born. The analysis of the life cycle of products, or Life Cycle Assessment or Life Cycle Analysis (LCA), is an evaluation of the influence of products on the environment (environmental impact), calculated from their creation to their disposal. Studying the life cycle of a product means analyzing the utm fka thesis materials used to produce it, the an essay method of extracting the raw materials, the production process employed, how it is marketed, how and for how long it is used, and how it is disposed of. Life cycle analysis is calculated with reference to the environment, considering how the environment is altered at each stage of the product’s life. From this analysis, we can arrive at valuable directions on reducing the utm fka collection of raw materials from the environment and subsequently better recycling them. This analysis can also suggest which materials to use and anu physics honours, which processes of utm fka extraction, manufacture, use, and disposal are most sustainable with respect to the environment (eco design). The object of perfect competition research paper LCA can also be activities and services, for example sanitation services, postal services, and obviously many other activities which do not yield tangible products but offer equally important social benefits. In the course of this article, you have seen how paper is made and utm fka thesis, how it is possible to produce beautiful sheets of paper at home with little expense and limited equipment.
Making paper with your own hands is without a doubt an interesting activity. It is also fascinating to know that the examiners comments paper we use so nonchalantly is the utm fka fruit of a long journey, begun thousands of developing years ago when our ancestors took to drawing graffiti and thesis, paintings on rocks. From rocks, we passed to clay tablets, then papyrus, parchment, and anu physics honours thesis, only at the end, to paper. As has been said, paper is utm fka, a fantastic material, very useful and present everywhere in developing an essay, our societies. The recent arrival of computers seems to put into question the existence of utm fka paper, which, according to some, is destined to disappear. By now, several years have passed since we entered the computer age. More and more we read documents on monitors rather than paper. We record documents on media such as disks, but the competition research use of paper has not abandoned and perhaps it hasn’t even diminished. Paper continues to be a part of our lives and many of us still prefer to read books on paper instead of on a screen. We can turn the pages of a book with a simple gesture; we can carry a book with us.
Reading a book on a monitor is not as comfortable and our eyes tire quickly. Moreover, reading a book on a screen forces our bodies into an unnatural stationary position which after a while tires us. Electronic devices dedicated to the reading of books, newspapers, and other documents on thesis, a flat screen are appearing. These devices allow you to read a page at grant the time and to move to the next page by pressing a key. These electronic books aim to imitate regular books, but it is not yet known if they will enjoy the same success. Utm Fka! On the horizon, we foresee books, magazines, and newspapers made of electroluminescent plastic sheets which will receive the news from the an essay Internet. The computer medium on utm fka thesis, which people write or draw is intangible, or rather, it is made up of different kinds of disks; but on these disks we cannot see anything, and to developing an essay read them, it is necessary to insert them into a suitable reader. The material on which are documents are saved is perishable. According to experts, within a few dozen years our magnetic or optical media will be unreadable. It’s a real shame for a technology as complex as ours to not even withstand comparison in terms of durability to cuneiform tablets which have retained their information for over 5000 years!
In this article, you have seen how recycling paper is possible and useful, and from there we moved on to discussing the utm fka thesis recycling of thesis examiners other materials. You may have also realized how useful and important recycling is in reducing the collection of raw materials from utm fka, nature and in minimizing environmental pollution. While scientists study new methods of recycling and many companies analyze the life of products in order to reduce their environmental impact, companies which turn waste into resource are booming. The world is constantly changing and perfect research, I am convinced that paper will survive the computer era wonderfully, and utm fka, most likely, paper will stay with us for a long time to come. http://artgraph.clisson.free.fr/html/papier.htm La Fabrication du Papier (d'aprs les illustrations de l'Encyclopdie de Diderot et D'Alembert) http://www.museolibroantico.com/museo.html Museo didattico del libro antico, tecniche di arte libraria antica.
papermaking, history paper, recycling paper, stock exchange waste recovery.
Expert Essay Writers -
Online Thesis - FKA | eThesis of Faculty of Civil Engineering (New)
Clinical trials for medicines: apply for authorisation in the UK. How to apply for a clinical trial including eligibility, phases, model IMPDs, costs and how to make changes to your application. To apply, you must be the sponsor of the trial, or someone authorised by them. If you are not established in the European Community then your legal representative must make the application. When a clinical trial authorisation (CTA ) is needed. Use MHRA’s online algorithm Is it a clinical trial of a medicinal product? ( PDF , 25.2KB , 2 pages ) to find out if your study needs MHRA authorisation. The algorithm is a set of thesis questions that determine: whether the substance you’re testing counts as a medicinal product whether your trial counts as a clinical trial within the scope of the relevant EU directive. You can also read the clinical trial mock examples ( PDF , 25.9KB , 6 pages ) to help you decide if your study needs a CTA . If you are still unsure, email a copy of the protocol (the document describing the anu physics honours thesis, objectives, design and methodology) to email@example.com, with ‘Scope - protocol review’ followed by the study title (shortened)’ as the subject line. You will also need a positive opinion from an ethics committee before you start your trial. You can get this before, at the same time or after you have made your submission to MHRA.
You must create XML and PDF versions, save and sign them electronically, and submit them with the rest of the required documents. Find guidance on how to complete this submission on the European Commission website. Submissions through the Common European Submission Portal (CESP) Clinical trial submissions can be made through CESP. This system is available from the Heads of Medicines Agencies (HMA) and provides a simple and utm fka thesis, secure mechanism for thesis, exchange of information between applicants and regulatory agencies. The purpose of the system is to: provide a secure method of utm fka communicating with regulatory agencies via one platform allow submission of an application once to reach all required agencies reduce the anu physics thesis, burden for both industry and thesis, regulators of submitting/handling applications on CD-ROM and thesis, DVD. If you are a first time CESP user and wish to utm fka thesis, setup up an organisation/university or trust to manage multiple users on the system, register with CESP here.
If you are a standalone user and wish to upload for Non Commercial Use on your own behalf, register with CESP here. Once registered you will receive credentials to anu physics, access the portal to your registered email address. General CESP training is available to all registered users via CESP’s training menu once logged into the system. Training on demand videos are available and you can also sign up to our free online weekly live demonstrations. CESP encourage all users to thesis, attend training before using the system. View FAQs here. There are 4 phases of a clinical trial and a product can only go to the next phase if it has passed the safety and effectiveness tests of the developing an essay, previous one.
Your application must specify the phase. Phase I trials, sometimes called first-in-human trials, test a small number of subjects to find out how the treatment works in the body. This type of trial aims to find the lowest dose at utm fka thesis which the treatment is effective (the minimum therapeutic dose) and schreyer, the highest dose at utm fka thesis which it can be taken without causing harm. Phase II trials test the treatment in several hundred people with a given disease or condition. They aim to find out how well the novel writing helper, treatment works in thesis larger numbers, identify common side effects, and refine the dose and length of treatment. Phase III trials typically compare the treatment across several thousand patients to gather more detailed information on how well it works in groups of patients and its safety. The results influence the prescribing and patient information of a medicine once it is marketed. Trials are carried out after a medicine has been licensed and put on the market.
These trials are designed to find out more about the long term harms and benefits of honours a medicine and to utm fka thesis, discover new uses for it. Applications that need expert advice. For certain trials, we will seek advice from the Clinical Trials, Biologicals and Vaccines Expert Advisory Group (CTBVEAG ) of the novel, Commission on Human Medicines (CHM ). Thesis? The CHM will then discuss the trial at anu physics thesis their meeting, which will take place later in the same week as the CTBVEAG meeting. We will make the decision to refer applications for expert advice based on an assessment of the thesis, risks and anu physics thesis, how the utm fka thesis, sponsor plans to mitigate them. Areas we look at when considering risk factors include: mode of action nature of the target relevance of animal species and examiners comments, models. We may refer other applications for expert advice if we identify issues during the utm fka, assessment process. Currently, all initial applications for trials involving CAR-T cell medical products are being referred to CTBVEAG for schreyer grant, advice. Examples of trials where expert advice may be needed include first-in-human (FIH ) trials with novel compounds where the: mode of action involves a target that is connected to multiple signalling pathways (target with pleiotropic effects), eg leading to various physiological effects or targets that are ubiquitously expressed compound acts (directly or indirectly) via a cascade system where there may be an amplification effect which might not be sufficiently controlled by a physiological feedback mechanism compound acts (directly or indirectly) via the immune system with a target or mechanism of action which is novel or currently not well characterised is novelty in the structure of the active substance eg a new type of engineered structural format such as those with enhanced receptor interaction as compared with the parent compound level of expression and biological function of the utm fka thesis, target receptor may differ between healthy individuals and patients with the relevant disease is novel helper insufficient available knowledge of the utm fka thesis, structure, tissue distribution, cell specificity, disease specificity, regulation, level of paper expression and biological function of the human target, including down-stream effects compound acts via a possible or likely species specific mechanism or where animal data are unlikely to be predictive of activity in humans. Sponsors should contact us before applying for a CTA for these trials and supply us with a data package, which will allow us to utm fka, get appropriate expert advice.
The normal timescale for approving a CTA will begin when you actually submit your application. Sponsors should use the criteria above to decide if their trial needs expert advice. You can get pre-submission advice from us if you are unsure if your compound falls into the ‘higher-risk’ category. a summary of the summary, nature of the compound its target/mechanism of utm fka thesis action the relevance of the animal model(s) We will send a response to this email within 14 days. If we confirm that the application comes within the camp essay, category of ‘higher risk’, you should select the thesis, date of the CTBVEAG /CHM meeting you want your trial discussed at.
You should then prepare a data package containing: the IMP dossier the investigator’s brochure the protocol responses to required CHM areas for discussion (see below) labelling manufacturer authorisation(s) a qualified person (QP) declaration on good manufacturing practice (GMP) (if necessary) a summary of scientific advice from thesis comments any member state or the thesis, European Medicines Agency (EMA ), if available *a covering letter. You should submit the data package to schreyer, us by utm fka thesis sending an email titled ‘URGENT – FIH SUBMISSION’ to firstname.lastname@example.org or using Eudralink. Summary? Fill out the Eudralink account request form to get an account. You should submit it no later than 21 days before the date of the thesis, CTBVEAG /CHM meeting it will be discussed at. The application form/xml file should be sent by email during the week of the CTBVEAG /CHM meetings. We will assess the information provided and may provide feedback on camp the content and completeness of the data package.
A formal letter with questions to the sponsor will be sent as soon as possible (but no later than 14 days) after the CTBVEAG meeting. At the utm fka thesis, CHM meeting the experts will discuss your application, including the responses you provide to thesis, the CHM areas for discussion. These are: the function of the target in man the ability of the subject to maintain a normal physiological response to challenge in utm fka the presence of the investigational product the transition from preclinical to perfect competition paper, human testing, particularly with regard to highly species-specific molecules the potential for on-target and thesis, off-target effects and perfect, how this will be handled in the clinic the doses used in thesis the relevant animal species (particularly with regard to the use in the animal model of the starting dose to be administered to man) a rationale for the starting dose in man (including, for example receptor occupancy) a rationale for the study population (particularly for the use of healthy volunteers) a rationale for competition, the administration schedule for the initial and subsequent cohorts - this should include the time interval between doses administered to utm fka, individual subjects a rationale for novel helper, the dose escalation particularly with regard to potential adverse effect a rationale for the proposed trial site, including the facilities available. Documents to send with your application. Your submission package must include:
a covering letter (when applicable, the subject line should state that the utm fka, submission is for a Phase I trial and is eligible for a shortened assessment time, or if it is submitted as part of the notification scheme) a clinical trial application form in comments PDF and XML versions a protocol document an investigator’s brochure (IB ) or document replacing the utm fka, IB an perfect competition investigational medical product dossier (IMPD ) or a simplified IMPD a non-investigational medicinal product dossier (if required) a summary of utm fka scientific advice from novel writing any Member State or the utm fka thesis, European Medicines Agency (EMA ), if available manufacturer’s authorisation, including the importer’s authorisation and anu physics honours thesis, Qualified Person declaration on good manufacturing practice for each manufacturing site if the product is utm fka manufactured outside the EU a copy of the EMA ’s decision on camp summary the paediatric investigation plan and the opinion of the paediatric committee, if applicable the content of the labelling of the thesis, investigational medicinal product (IMP ) (or justification for its absence) All documents must have copy and paste functionality. We do not currently password-protected documents. Honours Thesis? You must provide a file for each section of the submission, even if you don’t have to provide the documents as part of your application. Thesis? If you do not need to include documents in a section, you must insert a document which gives an explanation for why the schreyer thesis grant, document has not been supplied. If you are using an in vitro diagnostic device in your trial, the covering letter and/or protocol should confirm that any applicable CE marking requirements have been complied with (or will be complied with prior to the study start). The information you provide in the submission package will be used to thesis, validate your application. Incomplete applications will be rejected.
Example investigational medical product dossiers (IMPDs ) If you are carrying out camp essay, a trial using modified established medicines, MHRA has produced some mock examples of completed IMPDs which set out our minimum requirements: The initial assessment will be completed within 30 days of utm fka being submitted. Applications for healthy volunteer trials and sponsor-determined phase I trials in non-oncology patients may qualify for a shortened assessment time (average 14 days). You should state on your covering letter if you think your trial is eligible. Note that trial designs that stretch to investigating the benefit of the perfect competition, treatment to subjects may not be eligible for the expedited assessment timeframe. We will tell you the thesis, outcome of your submission, which could be: acceptance of the request for novel writing helper, a clinical trial authorisation acceptance of the utm fka, request for a clinical trial authorisation subject to conditions grounds for non-acceptance of the request for a clinical trial authorisation. If we do not accept your submission you will be told why and thesis, will usually have to amend your application and thesis, resubmit. Letters informing the applicant of MHRA’s decision relating to an amended request for a general medicinal product (Reg 18) or a product with special characteristics (Reg 20) will be sent by MHRA within 60 days of honours us receiving the original valid application. Notification of MHRA’s decision relating to utm fka, an amended request for a gene therapy, somatic cell therapy (including xenogenic cell therapy) product or products containing genetically modified organisms (Reg 19) will be sent within 90 days of us receiving the writing, original application unless otherwise advised.
Change your application before or during assessment. You can submit further supporting documentation before assessors begin their assessment of the application. Utm Fka? You can’t send additional documents once we have begun assessment. If additional or updated documents are submitted the time limit for assessment restarts. You should submit updated or additional documentation to us by email. The email must be sent by the contact person listed in grant the application form and must be entitled:
‘Changes to submitted documentation/additional documentation to CTA (Number XXXXX/XXXX/XXX-XXXX) - EudraCT Number XXXX-XXXXXX-XX.’ We will inform you by email of either rejection or acceptance of the changes. If the utm fka, request is accepted the date of your email will be reflected on your acknowledgement letter. Withdraw your request before the final decision. You may withdraw your request at any point before a decision on authorisation is reached.
It is not possible to withdraw an application once grounds for thesis, non-acceptance has been issued. To withdraw an application you must send an email entitled ‘Withdrawal of CTA – EudraCT Number XXXX-XXXXXX-XX.’ The email must be sent by the contact person listed in Section C.1 of the application form and include a statement of intention to utm fka thesis, withdraw the application. You must also send a signed, formal letter on novel company-headed paper including: the EudraCT number, CTA number (if available) and protocol number of the application to be withdrawn a brief description of the reasons for withdrawing the application. Once we receive the formal letter, it will be processed within 5 days and an acknowledgement email will be sent to you to confirm that the application has been withdrawn. If you want to resubmit your application after withdrawing it, you must state that it is a re-submission in utm fka thesis the covering letter and on the application form. Common issues identified during clinical trial applications. More than half of all applications clinical trial authorisation (CTA ) applications for investigational medicinal products (IMPs) received by the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) require additional information to be submitted before they are considered approvable. Many of the essay summary, issues identified are common and avoidable if available guidance is followed or if a satisfactory justification for not following the utm fka thesis, applicable guidance is provided in anu physics thesis the application.
This guidance sets out the thesis, most common issues and how to avoid them. We provide a notification scheme for thesis examiners, certain lower-risk trials, defined as ‘Type A’ trials. Thesis? In these cases, the risk to the patient from the IMP is considered to be no greater than that of standard medical care. Trials under the anu physics, notification scheme also have simplified requirements for conducting the trial. Our guidance document Points to consider when preparing the IMP dossier ( PDF , 54.8KB , 3 pages ) gives more information about these requirements.
These are trials involving medicinal products licensed in any EU Member State if: the trial relates to the licensed range of thesis indications, dosage and form of the anu physics, product the trial involves off-label use (such as in paediatrics and oncology) that is utm fka thesis established practice and supported by enough published evidence and/or guidelines. For the purposes of fee determination, an application supported by quality data for blinding purposes (for example placebo comparator or over-encapsulation) remains within the category of applications without an IMPD . Applications under the Notification Scheme do not incur a fee. You can contact MHRA Finance Department on 020 3080 6533 or email email@example.com for more information on how to pay fees. For further information about your submission, including status and tracking enquiries, contact the clinical trials helpline on 020 3080 6456 (Monday to Friday 8:30am to 4.30pm) or email firstname.lastname@example.org See Clinical trials named contact for further information. Published: 18 December 2014. Updated: 4 August 2017. 4 August 2017 Additional information added to developing an essay, the section: Documents to send with your application. 18 May 2017 Updated clinical trial mock examples. 31 March 2017 Information about proof of utm fka thesis payment requirements updated. 27 March 2017 Updated to include a link to guidance on common issues identified during clinical trial applications and camp, how to avoid them.
24 January 2017 Updated contact information for fee section. 12 January 2017 Additional information about applications for trials involving CAR-T cell medical products added to the page. 3 January 2017 Updated contact information. 20 December 2016 Contact information updated. Utm Fka? 28 November 2016 Updated information under 'Assessment of your submission’. 1 February 2016 Physical media submissions (CD/DVD) for medicines licences and essay, clinical trial applications will not be accepted from 1 February 2016. 18 December 2014 First published.
All content is utm fka thesis available under the Open Government Licence v3.0, except where otherwise stated.