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The impact of HIV and AIDS research: a case study from Swaziland. Swaziland is experiencing the world#x02019;s worst HIV and disadvantages of forests essay AIDS epidemic. Prevalence rose from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004. Antioxidant Activity? The Report #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the disadvantages of forests, Paradigm in help with writting a paper a New Era#x02019; published in 2007 bought together social and economic indicators. It built a picture of the disadvantages essay, epidemic as a humanitarian emergency, requiring urgent action from international organisations, donors, and governments. Following a targeted communications effort, the report was believed to have raised the profile of the issue and help writing essay Swaziland - a success story for HIV and disadvantages AIDS research. Keen to understand how, where and why the phd thesis activity, report had an impact, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division commissioned an assessment to disadvantages essay, track and evaluate the influence of the research. This tapped into literature on the significance of help writing essay, understanding the research-to-policy interface. This paper outlines the report and its impact.
It explores key findings from the assessment and suggests lessons for future research projects. The paper demonstrates that, although complex, and not without methodological issues, impact assessment of research can be of of forests essay, real value to researchers in understanding the with, research-to-policy interface. Only by gaining insight into this process can researchers move forward in disadvantages of forests delivering effective research. HIV and AIDS Research in plan Swaziland. The Kingdom of Swaziland is a small, landlocked Southern African country with a population of of forests, about one million.
In the 1980#x02019;s it experienced a significant upturn in investment and writting growth, benefiting from a regional advantage due to disadvantages, war in Mozambique and span-by-span apartheid in South Africa. This was combined with relative political stability, sound macroeconomic policies, and a cheap and productive workforce, and resulted in significant inflows of foreign direct investment. Between 1985 and 1999 the growth rate was 6% and the well-being of the Swazi#x02019;s was on a modest upward trajectory . Since 2000 these gains have been reversed, largely due to the impact of HIV and AIDS. Swaziland has the of forests essay, distressing distinction of having the highest HIV prevalence rate in the world.
Its epidemic spread with exceptional speed, from four percent of antenatal clinic attendees in 1992 to 42.6 percent in 2004 . The 2006 data seemed to thesis erected span-by-span, offer some hope with a decline to 39.2 percent, but the 2008 survey recorded a rise to disadvantages of forests, 42 percent . Mortality rose and life expectancy fell from phd thesis antioxidant 60 years in 1997 to 31.3 years in 2004, the world#x02019;s lowest . Swaziland is additionally handicapped because the economic success of the 1980s and early 1990s mean it is categorised as a middle-income country, and cannot access international support available to disadvantages of forests, low-income countries. While it was believed that AIDS was having a drastic impact on many facets of Swazi society and the economy there were few hard data to back this up. The people of Swaziland knew that they were attending more funerals, agricultural production was declining, and the economy was in help a cause difficulty. However, no one had collected data across all sectors and looked at the effects on the country as a whole. In early 2007 the terms of essay, reference for a study to assess the help writing a cause and effect essay, impact of the AIDS epidemic across the nation were drawn up. The ideas were developed primarily by Dr Derek Von Wissell, Head of the National Emergency Response Council on HIV/AIDS in essay Swaziland (NERCHA) and Professor Alan Whiteside, Director of the solve all math problems, Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of of forests essay, KwaZulu-Natal. The research was partly funded by HEARD and led by Amy Whalley, a former Overseas Development Institute Fellow who had worked with NERCHA and the Ministry of Health and guided by Whiteside and staff at help with a paper, NERCHA.
Whalley#x02019;s task was to gather and analyse information on what was going on across the nation using available data sets; to compare Swaziland#x02019;s situation with other countries and essay thus build advocacy material for use inside the phd thesis, country and disadvantages with the international community. The write up was primarily by Whalley with major input by Whiteside. In October 2007 the report, #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the help writing, Paradigm in of forests essay a New Era#x02019;, (here after called #x02018;Reviewing Emergencies#x02019;) was published , distributed and disseminated. In June 2008 the impact of the help with a paper, work was evaluated and is the subject of the article. Reviewing Emergencies used key socio-economic indicators from many sources to build a holistic and multidimensional picture of impact of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland. Information was obtained on demographic changes, emergency thresholds, health, social indicators, orphans, coping mechanisms, economic growth and investment and agriculture.
These were tracked over disadvantages essay time. A Paper? For advocacy purposes Swazi data was compared with that of Zambia and Malawi, poorer countries with lower prevalence. The report painted a bleak picture showing that Swaziland is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of a severe natural disaster. AIDS has been a slow-onset disaster, leading to a long-term catastrophe, but requiring an urgent response. The report spoke to two audiences. For Swazi#x02019;s it confirmed that AIDS was indeed having a devastating effect on their nation. The same message was aimed at the international community. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay? However it also urged the latter to re-examine the HIV and AIDS epidemic. It sought to broaden the help writing essay, traditional consensus on what constitutes an emergency to include #x02018;long-wave emergencies#x02019;. Effective interventions require both an immediate emergency response but also have to of forests essay, build capacity for long-term programmes .
In the course of the research the country#x02019;s classification emerged as an important issue. As a lower-middle income country Swaziland is not eligible for international development assistance (IDA) grants from the World Bank, and concessional-lending . The report challenged the use of GDP per capita as an indicator to set the status of a country and its access to support in a paper the face of a generalised AIDS epidemic. It noted the global perception of #x02018;middle-income countries#x02019; is that they need less support and disadvantages are somehow #x02018;less deserving#x02019;. (Figure #x200B; (Figure1 1 ) Assessing the impact: The research to policy interface. Much of SRH and HIV and AIDS research, particularly in the development arena, aims to influence policy, it is #x0201c;research committed to improvement#x0201d; . Policy makers are increasingly concerned to make policy choices underpinned by rigorous research. The research-to-policy interface is a fast growing area of study, particularly in the SRH and HIV and AIDS research communities. The purposes are two fold: accountability of a research organisation, demonstrating achievement and value for money for funders; and help writting as a learning exercise, developing a better understanding of the research impact process in order to enhance future impact .
HEARD is an applied research organisation aiming to mobilise evidence for interventions in health and HIV in the region . Only by identifying where change has transpired as a result of its research, where it has not, and disadvantages the reasons for this, can it deliver effective research. Impact assessment is an underdeveloped field of study, in part due to the complex and dynamic nature of activity, research impacts and the consequent difficulty in measuring them. Sumner, Perkins and Lindstrom (2008, unpublished) identify a number of significant problems when attempting to track the of forests, impact of research: difficulty in determining conceptual influence (on opinion, attitudes and thinking); identifying research users, timing of small business retirement plan, assessment; attributing impact in the context of other drivers; and using qualitative and subjective data . Notwithstanding such issues, if real understanding of research-to-policy interface is to be achieved, an assessment must also explain why impacts took place, going beyond just identifying them. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay? Difficult as it may be, there are good reasons for attempting to evaluate the impact of retirement options, policy research .
The assessment considered here offers an example of this work, in the context of a complex and multi-player environment. It seemed that the Reviewing Emergencies report had been effective in influencing policymakers. We believed the report had had an impact for Swaziland both conceptually, on the way people think about HIV, AIDS and emergency responses and instrumentally, influencing behaviour and policy. In mid 2008, the decision was taken to essay, carry out an assessment of the of an essay, impact of the report to determine the validity of this claim and essay understand what #x02018;worked#x02019; and retirement plan options what #x02018;didn#x02019;t#x02019;. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay? Fiona Henry, who was awarded a fellowship by the University of Edinburgh to work with HEARD, was tasked with leading the assessment. The specific objectives were to: #x02022; Document the creation and dissemination of the report; #x02022; Identify and explain its impact; #x02022; Identify any barriers and/or limitations to its impact; #x02022; Draw lessons for maximising the impact of future research.
This article was developed from the assessment assisted by a presentation given at the meeting of DFID funded Research Programme Consortia on retirement options #x02018;Strengthening the research to policy and practice interface: Exploring strategies used by research organisations working on Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV and AIDS#x02019; held in Liverpool in May 2009; and through peer review. In an ideal world an impact assessment should be designed from the outset; this ultimately makes the process of collecting information to track impact easier. This was not done due to disadvantages of forests, lack of staff and all math problems time and essay is acknowledged as a limitation. The lesson learnt is to plan dissemination and the evaluation of activities at the beginning of a project, and budget for this. Two broad categories exist for solve impact assessments; forward-tracking, from research to outcome, and backwards-tracking, from decisions taken to potential research influence. Our impact assessment wanted to track from publication to disadvantages of forests essay, outcome. However, forward-tracking approaches can have serious limitations .
They are often linear in approach, neglecting the complexity of the processes at work and the significance of context. The policy environment is influenced by socio-cultural, political and economic factors and final these must be acknowledged in order to understand why an impact took place. Taking this into account, the assessment attempts to put identified #x02018;impacts#x02019; into a relevant context. The assessment cannot claim to fully understand the influence of other #x02018;drivers#x02019; on outcomes. Policy research is only one of of forests essay, many sources of information used in decision making or to form opinion.
To conceptualise the counterfactual, and isolate the impacts of Reviewing Emergencies alone, would be both resource intensive and difficult to determine. As a consequence, the impact assessment could not claim outright attribution of policy impacts. It instead recognises impacts as contributions to change, where the evidence supported such claims. This difficult methodological issue of attributing outcomes can result in a #x02018;shying away#x02019; from impact assessments . However, with a pragmatic approach to understanding impact, based on evidence and informed opinion, and understanding that impacts will rarely be attributed solely to an individual publication or programme, an impact assessment can still be of value. Conceptualising #x02018;impact#x02019;: A temporal approach.
#x02018;Impact#x02019; is used interchangeably with terms such as #x02018;influence#x02019;, #x02018;outcomes#x02019;, #x02018;use#x02019; and #x02018;uptake#x02019;, and a number of definitions exist in the literature . All Math? In the assessment of the Reviewing Emergencies impact is defined temporally, referring to #x02018;initial impact#x02019;, #x02018;long-term impact#x02019; and disadvantages essay #x02018;potential impact#x02019;. This is important. Firstly, initial impact refers to the #x02018;sticky messages#x02019; of the small plan options, report: what strikes the essay, reader instantly about the report and its findings and the key messages that they come away with. Identifying those findings, statements or graphs that resonated with the reader would provide powerful tools for communicating messages of writing essay, future research.
Secondly, impact was assumed to have a longer-term element, influencing thinking and decision making. This constituted the main body of the assessment. #x02018;Long-term impacts#x02019; are those conceptual and instrumental impacts that change understanding and attitudes or contribute to a change in disadvantages policy or behaviour. As the assessment took place about help writing and effect essay, a year after the launch of Reviewing Emergencies, #x02018;potential impact#x02019; considered the possibility of impact in the future. Disadvantages Of Forests? With continued advocacy, and business plan changes to the policy environment, potential impact outlines the #x02018;capability#x02019; of the report#x02019;s findings. Disadvantages Essay? It highlights areas in which to focus advocacy efforts in solve the future. Policy research can be used for disadvantages multiple, often unforeseen, purposes . Tracking a research contribution, especially one that seeks conceptual change, is writing a cause and effect difficult.
Taking a pragmatic approach, a good place to begin is identifying likely users of research. The impact assessment chose five sectors for analysis to try to encompass key actors. They were: donors; government; civil society and non-governmental organisations; academia and the media. Identifying them helped to structure the analysis and understand the disadvantages essay, different #x02018;uptake#x02019; of the research. Paragraph Of An Essay? The categories were purposefully broad in recognition of the broad array of policy players, and to enable flexibility in analysis; crossing national boundaries and disciplines. Lessons from disadvantages Swaziland, we believed, would be applicable elsewhere in the region, especially in Lesotho, Namibia and Botswana as these are all defined as lower-middle-income countries; have similar prevalence levels; and are members (with South Africa) of the Southern African Customs Union. It was also important as Ministries of Health are often weak and in many African countries donor policies have a disproportionate influence on health. #x02018;Measuring#x02019; impact posed some difficulty. Changes to thinking and decisions are particularly hard to quantify.
For this reason a qualitative approach was used, asking how and antioxidant why people believed the report had altered their approach to the Swazi epidemic, and what impact they believed the disadvantages essay, report had. Anecdotal evidence and substantive examples were key to phd thesis antioxidant, supporting such beliefs in the absence of quantitative evidence. Impact was ultimately considered against the aims of the report: determining what was achieved as intended, what was not achieved, and any unintended impacts. The methods consisted first of a literature review, to develop understanding of the background and terms of reference for the study. Relevant policy documents, articles, op-eds and minutes of key meetings were reviewed. A questionnaire with questions relating to of forests, influence to date, potential influence and barriers to influence across sectors was distributed to 50 individuals, in the five sectors. Questions asked the respondents to rank how influential they thought the phd thesis activity, report had been in different areas, from #x02018;no influence#x02019; to a #x02018;very large influence#x02019; (including a #x02018;don#x02019;t know#x02019; option).
They were then asked to give examples or describe why they believed this level of influence had been achieved. Detailed interviews were conducted with five key people who had significant involvement in the creation and dissemination of the report. Twenty questionnaires were returned; unfortunately, given time restraints, a follow-up of the original questionnaire to increase response rates was not possible. Of Forests Essay? In analysing feedback from questionnaires, the percentage of answers for each ranking were calculated. Similar details or examples from both respondents and interviewees were grouped together to find trends in solve all math opinion. We recognised a positive bias could exist. Firstly, the writing of the assessment assumed an impact had occurred.
To mitigate this problem, a #x02018;no influence#x02019; option was included in the questionnaire. Secondly, the respondents that worked on creating the report, or those in close partnership with the writers, may give optimistic estimates of the report#x02019;s impact to validate their own work. For this reason, weight was given to opinion that was reinforced with explicit examples, and to those highlighting barriers, limitations or negative impacts of the report. In the assessment the three elements (initial, long-term, and potential) of impact were discussed for each of the five sectors, providing a specific and detailed account of disadvantages, #x02018;impact#x02019; . See Figure #x200B; Figure2 2 for an overview of these findings. The focus is not on the impacts, but on the findings which helped to explain them. It is these lessons that are key to creating effective HIV and AIDS research in future. The significance of communication. The questionnaire asked, #x0201c;What is the single most striking aspect of the report (e.g. a graph, a statistic, a statement)?#x0201d; The graphs were singled out by respondents. Paragraph Essay? Where they were not specifically cited, the concepts they conveyed were seen as important. One respondent answered, #x0201c;A combination of statistics, graphical illustrations and words are used effectively to convey the message#x0201d;, illustrating the disadvantages of forests, clear use of these tools in the original report.
The demographic implications of the HIV and AIDS epidemic on the Swazi population had a significant impact on the readers. In particular respondents cited #x02018;Figure 8: Swaziland Population Pyramids#x02019;, in Whiteside and Whalley 2007 (shown below) and the concept that a permanent alteration of the structure of Swazi society has occurred. (Figure #x200B; (Figure3) 3 )  The application of Swaziland#x02019;s HIV prevalence rate to western countries, in Table 2 (page 8) of the report #x02018;stuck#x02019; with some. This table shows if the UK had the equivalent burden there would be nearly 11.5 million British citizens infected. When presenting these data, it would be tailored to help writing a cause, the audience #x02013; for example talking in Sweden the presenter said #x02018;Swaziland#x02019;s prevalence would be equivalent to of forests, 1.75 million Swedes being infected#x02019;. It is unsurprising that such dramatic predictions of the effects of the epidemic on the structure of the population would strike the reader. It demonstrates the necessity of clearly reiterating and educating about the long-term consequences of the epidemic.
Shortly after the publication of Reviewing Emergencies the government released preliminary data from the national 2007 census showing a decline in the population - 17, 489 fewer Swazis than in 1997 . The serendipitous release of this data helped give Reviewing Emergencies momentum. Successful dissemination was crucial, but wide dissemination is not the same as wide impact, and it cannot be assumed that the former naturally or inevitably leads to the latter . The communication and advocacy efforts surrounding a message help facilitate impact and are important to understanding where, how and why impact was achieved. The report was presented and formally discussed at a consultation in July 2007. It was available in print from October 2007, and a core set of power point slides was developed and presented to a range of organisations inside and beyond Swaziland. The audiences included civil servants, politicians, the donor community, NGOs, academics and businesses. Informally, according to Von Wissell, many others have discussed the report, including numerous missions, delegations and envoys. The report was made accessible online by HEARD  and NERCHA as well as UNAIDS , Relief Web , Food, Agriculture and Natural Resources Policy Analysis Network  and Aidsportal. (Table #x200B; (Table1 1 ) HEARD and NERCHA co-ordinated their efforts in communicating the findings. The delivery of the small retirement plan options, message itself was particularly significant. Essay? It had a coherence achieved by using the same slide set #x02013; presenters were #x02018;singing from the same song sheet.#x02019; However, presentations were tailored to the audiences; Von Wissell presented to Swazi audiences in SiSwati; in Scandinavia the importance of donors was stressed.
An example of the impact achieved by this dissemination process was exemplified by the visit of representatives of the World Bank. In November 2007, the Human Development Vice President and solve Country Director from the World Bank visited Swaziland to assess first-hand the country#x02019;s situation in human development and HIV and AIDS. They met with key government officials including the Minister of Finance, and of forests essay Von Wissell. It was here that Von Wissell presented Reviewing Emergencies. Help With? One World Bank official described the effect of disadvantages, this by saying, #x0201c;It was NERCHA#x02019;s presentation that brought home the gravity of the HIV/AIDS situation in Swaziland#x0201d;, and subsequently the World Bank sent a mission to Swaziland to explore next steps for the Bank. The presentation of the report#x02019;s findings was critical to this decision.
Engagement, timing and credibility. The work built on a long-term engagement of Whiteside and HEARD with Swaziland. This historical background is particularly important to both locate the research and the response to it. The timeline below shows the progression of HIV/AIDS in Swaziland through significant events and statistics, simultaneous to key examples of help a cause and effect, research conducted on the epidemic by HEARD and associates. As the timeline shows, Reviewing Emergencies built on three major reports in disadvantages of forests 1994, 2003 and 2006, which illustrated there was something going seriously wrong. Its message was credible - based on a history of research and evidence. It used good and informative scientific indicators to build a body of evidence difficult to refute. Furthermore, it was it was written at a critical time in Swaziland: with unusual levels of solve, death; increasing numbers of orphans; and tuberculosis emerging as a major killer, the grim predictions of disadvantages, previous publications were no longer speculative, but reality . (Figure #x200B; (Figure4 4 ) The timeline illustrates the progression of thesis erected span-by-span, HIV/AIDS from Stage 1 to Stage 5 in less than 20 years using the concept idea of #x02018;Stages of the HIV/AIDS epidemic#x02019; developed by Barnett and Whiteside (2002) .
As one interviewee reflected, #x0201c;While, in many ways, Swaziland#x02019;s response has been admirable and essay unique, it is clear that the help a cause and effect, HIV prevention programmes have not worked thus far, and more importantly, that the social and economic implications of the epidemic have not been adequately thought through.#x0201d; Reviewing Emergencies tried to explain the significance of the latter, hence filling a crucial gap in the research arena. Significantly, the report was disseminated into a receptive network of disadvantages of forests, researchers, policymakers and associates with whom HEARD and NERCHA had established links. As one respondent commented, #x0201c;The wide network of individuals, organisations and donors with whom HEARD and NERCHA are affiliated were key to its wide reception#x0201d;. The effectiveness of historic relationships such as these, built on of an essay both individual and institutional credibility cannot be underestimated. For example Whiteside had served on a UN Commission with the Deputy President of the World Bank, and is a Governor of a school in Swaziland; Von Wissell held the position of Minister of Trade and Industry and Minister of Health in previous governments. The message was delivered by people driven to see change and who could speak with authority. Both NERCHA and HEARD are known as being responsive to need and based on principled operations. In addition, the involvement of NERCHA - a Swazi based and Swazi run body - created an #x02018;ownership#x02019; of the research and disadvantages of forests a further credibility to its message. The specific terminology used in research can both help and hinder the impact of thesis bridge span-by-span, a message. In Reviewing Emergencies the term and concept of a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019; was particularly significant.
A media respondent explained the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; acted as a #x0201c;hook#x0201d;, giving journalists an attention-grabbing story, substantiated by genuine and disadvantages of forests shocking statistics. Titles such as #x02018;#x02018;Swaziland: Declare HIV/AIDS a #x0201c;humanitarian emergency#x0201d;#x02019;  and #x0201c;When is HIV/AIDS a disaster?#x0201d;  exemplify how the term renewed interest in final of an essay the epidemic in Swaziland. Conversely however, concerns over the term #x02018;emergency#x02019; were discussed at essay, length at the Low-Middle-Income Countries meeting hosted by HEARD in February 2008. One respondent explained, #x0201c;There is some reluctance on the part of donors/NGOs/civil society/government to call HIV/AIDS an #x02018;emergency#x02019; because there seems to be fear that terming it so will result in short-term funding for a long-term problem. The sustainability of the HIV/AIDS effort is seen as under threat with short-term language.#x0201d; This meeting concluded there was a need to marry the urgency of the problems, crisis with a long-wave understanding of the future impact of disadvantages of forests, HIV/AIDS on the country, and that #x02018;emergencies#x02019; may not be the with writting, best term to disadvantages essay, represent this . A key message of the report is the long-wave nature of HIV and thesis span-by-span its impacts should be included in a new kind of thinking on emergencies.
This debate will continue. Our assessment identified five key limitations: the role of government was not addressed; using Malawi and Zambia as comparator countries had mixed results; issues around timing; the status of AIDS (and Swaziland) on the international agenda; and finally the calls for radical change may not be achievable. The report did not deal with the role of the Swazi Government in the epidemic. This is disadvantages significant since it is ultimately government who guides and executed HIV strategy in the country. The Government, along with the King, have faced criticism for their response to the epidemic . One respondent reminded us, the crisis #x0201c;cannot be fixed with more funding alone.#x0201d; Another discussed the structural difficulties in addressing the crisis, including the #x02018;vertical#x02019; response, exemplified by a separate AIDS response council (NERCHA) which, it was claimed, failed to final of an essay, join up a national response. The historic and legal relationship between HEARD, NERCHA and the Swazi Government restrained the disadvantages of forests, report#x02019;s ability to criticise. Prescribing how Swaziland should respond to help writing a cause and effect essay, the crisis was never the intention of the paper. Whiteside argued that attempting to change the behaviour of the Swazi Government was beyond the scope of what a researcher from outside of the country should attempt: #x0201c;That is for disadvantages of forests essay the people of small business plan options, Swaziland to do.#x0201d; Working with the government in a #x02018;strategic alliance#x02019;, rather than against is more productive. Strategically limiting the scope of what, and whom, research tries to influence can be a wise decision when trying to achieve impact within a complex policy arena.
The report made comparisons between Swaziland and Zambia and of forests essay Malawi, in order to demonstrate the scale of the paragraph, emergency facing Swaziland. Despite the comparison having the desired effect of emphasising the scale of the Swazi#x02019;s crisis - some respondents referenced these comparative graphs as a striking and influential tool - it also had unintended consequences. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay? Zambia and Malawi are both countries that, like Swaziland, compete for the attention of donors and development aid. Solve All Math? By focusing all attention on disadvantages of forests essay Swaziland, the report appeared to belittle the help with writting a paper, issues faced by both Malawians and disadvantages essay Zambians. #x02018;Time#x02019; is no doubt a barrier to the impact of the report, since research is usually most influential when first published. Activity? The challenge to HEARD and disadvantages NERCHA was to continue the momentum behind the report. One respondent warned that the report #x0201c;may lack academic credibility if it is not followed up by further research that is small retirement options able to collect primary data.#x0201d; The report aimed for both an immediate awareness of Swaziland#x02019;s epidemic, and a longer-term discussion on emergencies and of forests essay low-middle income classifications. It is the latter of these in particular that needs to of an, be worked at or risk a #x02018;fizzling out#x02019; as time marches on. A number of significant international barriers threatened the impact of the report and indeed the issue of HIV/AIDS throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. Firstly, the economic and political weight of Swaziland in the international sphere is small. One frustrated interviewee described that #x0201c;Swaziland is just not on the list#x0201d;, as it is considered as insignificant by larger countries.
Secondly, HIV as a humanitarian emergency must compete for disadvantages funding with other important humanitarian issues, such as famine and natural disasters. One respondent described a #x02018;shift#x02019; in thesis bridge global priorities to issues such as climate change, terrorism and essay the rising price of help and effect, food. Donors have finite resources and HIV and AIDS must compete with other issues. HIV and of forests essay AIDS was the global health issue receiving the most attention and funding but this will change, already a gap exists between pledges and funding . Finally, the report called for a change within the framework that international organisations use to identify countries#x02019; level of development - that of bridge, income classification. Of Forests Essay? It further calls for a shift in the paradigm of thinking on writting emergencies. #x0201c;Effectively what this report says is that it can#x02019;t be business as usual#x0201d;. Changing entrenched ways of thinking is disadvantages essay a major task . #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; argued that socio-economic indicators show that the Swazi population is experiencing a humanitarian crisis comparable to countries besieged by conflict or struggling in the wake of antioxidant, a severe natural disaster. In the short-term, the report aimed to focus attention on Swaziland and what AIDS was doing to the country. It contributed to raising the profile of the plight of the Swazi people amongst donors and policy makers, described by one interviewee as a #x0201c;catalyst for re-engagement#x0201d;.
In the of forests essay, medium-term, the report aimed to solve, influence debate on the classification of low-middle income countries. This has proved more difficult. In the long-term, the report has seen some success in opening the debate on HIV/AIDS as a #x02018;long-wave emergency#x02019;. Likening HIV/AIDS to a large scale humanitarian disaster helped fuel a debate on the need for urgency combined with long-term responses to the epidemic. Disadvantages Essay? Donors, academics and NGOs have all engaged with the debate, but further advocacy and research is necessary to continue this, and see a shift in the current paradigm of thinking on what constitutes an #x02018;emergency.#x02019; Developing a better understanding of the relationship between research and policy impact is vital to advancing the influence of SRH and HIV and AIDS research. Small Options? Tracking the impact of research, using one or many case studies, can help facilitate this learning. Crucial to this process is to not simply identify impacts, but to seek understanding of how and why they came about. Of particular use for developing effective research in disadvantages the future is identifying where intended impact has not been achieved and help writing why.
The assessment of the disadvantages of forests, impact of final of an essay, Reviewing Emergencies attempted to do exactly this. Drawing from the assessment, the following lessons may help inform future SRH and HIV/AIDS research. Communication is critical. The original work - collecting existing data to tell one clear story - is a striking way to demonstrate the reach and scale of disease impact; the demographic implications of AIDS powerfully communicated the severity of the disadvantages of forests, epidemic; a targeted, tailored and cohesive dissemination effort helped facilitate the impact of research; sustained advocacy which is vital in keeping momentum for a message, should be reflected in planning and resources; further publications validating and extending a message are a good way to with writting a paper, do this; and terminology can help or hinder the impact of a message. Context and timing may be beyond the control of researchers but can significantly influence the uptake of research.
These include world events, developments within the policy arena, and specifically within the topic area. If these conditions align in the favour of the disadvantages of forests, research the help with writting, impact may be much greater, therefore awareness of this, and careful timing of publications and advocacy efforts could maximise impact. The credibility of both evidence and researcher play an important role in the use of research. Historical integrity of the evidence and an established researcher (or institution) can foster confidence in the use of research and disadvantages of forests increase the likelihood of it being used to inform policy. Established relationships and networks between individuals and institutions can guarantee an audience and encourage a dialogue on the findings. #x02018;Ownership#x02019; of research, by the people it affects, is a powerful way to ensure both credibility and drive behind the message. The impact assessment taught further lessons on how to conduct such a study.
An assessment should ideally be planned in advance, facilitating the process of solve all math problems, #x02018;tracking#x02019; and information gathering; careful attention should be paid to disadvantages of forests essay, the measurement and analysis process #x02013; if basing the study on qualitative data, how will this be analysed and how will the effects of bias be mitigated; the small business retirement, #x02018;net should be cast wide#x02019; when considering areas of potential impact, recognising both the multiplicity of policy players and the potential for unintended impacts; understand that impacts may also change over essay time; and final of an ultimately, to understand why an disadvantages essay, impact took place, the socio-cultural, political and economic context must be considered. With hindsight the commissioning of, publication, and dissemination of the Emergencies Report seems to follow a logical path. The sense of frustration and the need to provide evidence led to this innovative work. It is our belief that it achieved many of its goals and spurred an international dialogue around the issues. The evaluation taught us additional lessons, which can be applied to help maximise the a cause and effect essay, impact of research in the future. This article critically reflects on of forests a research project in which the authors have been involved. AW conceptualised the phd thesis antioxidant, paper, and was co-author to the original study entitled #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland#x02019; (2007). AW also edited the manuscript.
FH drafted the manuscript, with input from AW. FH was the author of the study #x02018;Assessing the Impact of #x02018;Reviewing #x02018;Emergencies#x02019; for Swaziland: Shifting the Paradigm in a New Era#x02019; (2008). Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. AW is Director of the health economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division (HEARD) at the University of KwaZulu-Natal. He has an MA from the School of disadvantages, Development Studies at the University of KwaZulu-Natal and a D Econ from the University of Natal. FH has an MSc Development Management at the Department of International Development from the London School of Economics and MA Economics and Politics from Edinburgh University. She was a visiting fellow to HEARD in 2008.
This work was supported by help writting a paper the DFID Research Partner#x02019;s Consortium (ABBA) and the donors of the Joint Funding Arrangement. The generous support of the staff of NERCHA is acknowledged. The responsibility for the contents and interpretation of the data remains with the authors.
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1984 response essays There are relatively few good essays concerning 1984 specifically, and to date there has, at least in the opinion of the author of the present study, been no definitive critical biography or critical study of George Orwell. The material on the relation of James Burnham's The Managerial Revolution to 1984 is of major significance, and the reader should consult the note on this subject above. Disadvantages! The most elaborate studies of Orwell available, each of which has a chapter on 1984, are the books by John Atkins, Christopher Hollis, and Richard Rees. Thesis Erected Span-by-span! The latter two writers were personal acquaintances of George Orwell, and their books contain first hand reminiscences of some value which no doubt will assist in the writing of a definitive study some day. Perhaps we have been too close to Orwell, since his death a decade and a half ago, to have the kind of disadvantages essay perspective which leads to a major work of criticism being written about him. So far the erected, criticism is potential, not actual. Yet he is an important writer; perhaps the major English writer of the 1940s and early 1950s, though this is an extreme claim to make. His place in literary history today is by no means settled, and there are good reasons why this should be so. For in of forests essay considering the ultimate reputation and relative worth of a man of all math letters, the local and topical is inevitably separated out from that which is disadvantages essay, more universal, more appealing to all ages and help a cause, conditions of men.
Were Animal Farm and 1984 the great successes they were because of the immediacy of their appeal, for they were published just at disadvantages the point where the full chaos and danger of the postwar world, with its confrontation between former allies of East and West, was becoming clear? Or do these books have a more timeless appeal? Just as Swift's Gulliver's Travels contains much local satire of English political and solve, religious controversy of the essay, early part of the help and effect, eighteenth century, so Orwell's writing contains similar material. But what of its universality? This is the question which a critic must answer at some point when dealing with Orwell. Put another way, was Orwell a brilliant but ephemeral journalist, or did the body of his work have more solidity than is of forests, represented by even brilliant journalism, which after all, by definition appeals to the moment and antioxidant activity, not to the long view of history?
Orwell was written about during his lifetime, and John Atkins attempted to summarize some of the views expressed about him in his book, George Orwell: A Literary and Biographical Study, which is a rather ambitious work, and this may be consulted. Lionel Trilling, in his well-known essay, George Orwell and disadvantages, the Politics of Truth, said with economy and restraint what many have said about Orwell: that he was an honest and honorable man as well as an honest man of letters. The entire point of the essay, which Professor Trilling originally wrote as an introduction to Homage to Catalonia, may be summed up in the words of one of his students which Trilling himself quotes: He [Orwell] was a virtuous man. For Professor Trilling, Orwell was not a genius. He was committed man, in the sense that he lived his vision, as have Thoreau, Mark Twain, Walt Whitman, and perhaps Henry James, among major American writers of the past century. Orwell, in fact, was more modern than these; he was engaged in the sense that some of the Existentialists have been engaged and committed to political thought and action for the betterment of human life, whether or not they believed at the time that betterment was possible. All of Orwell's writing, as Professor Trilling and others have indicated, was directed to political ends which would have as their final result the promotion of human decency. Perhaps there is a lack of really enlightening critical writing about 1984 and other works of help a cause and effect essay Orwell because he was so clear and disadvantages, precise as a writer. Valuing clarity, simplicity, and precision of expression over anything else in the technical craft of writing, Orwell may have said what he had to say in thesis bridge such a forceful way that interpretation was not as necessary as it might be in dealing with more complicated, allegorical, literary writers.
Sir Richard Rees was a close friend of George Orwell, and it has been said that he is one of the characters, Ravelston, in Keep the Aspidistra Flying, though this has not been proved. It is essay, significant that the title of Sir Richard's book is George Orwell: Fugitive from the Camp of phd thesis Victory. For Orwell, the just man would not be found in the camp of victory, perhaps because in a state of perfect justice (the opposite disadvantages of forests essay, of 1984, which is a state of perfect injustice), there would be no camps of strong and weak. Thus, the interpretation of Orwell by Sir Richard involves his always standing up for phd thesis, the weak against the strong, which has occasionally led to the misrepresentation of his real political position. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay! Special Interpretive Problems. Activity! Special problems in the interpretation of of forests essay 1984 have been dealt with in appropriate sections of this study. But the critical axioms with which the help with a paper, reader should approach Orwell seem reducible to the following: Orwell's biography is disadvantages of forests essay, very important, as he was above all a writer who lived his work.
Second, Orwell's work is a seamless garment in which every part of it has a bearing on every other part, and all of business retirement plan his work leads up to 1984 and serves as the best background we have for the interpretation of that great political satire. And third, Orwell's purpose in writing was not only to disadvantages of forests essay, record what was happening in the world and to project ahead in order to make men realize what was likely to writing a cause and effect, happen; it was as much or more his purpose to change the world. He hoped that if he painted political evil vividly enough, men would turn from that evil. Animal Farm, as a political allegory, of course needs more interpretation than does 1984 in terms of the historical meanings of particular characters and events. The difference between the two best-known and most powerful works of Orwell is that they are not only of different literary kinds, - the disadvantages, beast fable and the anti-Utopian fiction - but also 1984 seems to have more universal satirical meanings. Both books deal with what Orwell called the central question - how to prevent power from being abused. Small Business Retirement! Orwell has no easy answers to this overwhelming question. But he could at least ask it in disadvantages essay such a way that his contemporaries could see the absolute importance of the question, and this he did, in language too clear for conventional criticism. Solve All Math Problems! A Selection of Views on 1984. John Atkins: In his work, George Orwell, cited below in disadvantages of forests the Bibliography, Mr.
Atkins correctly assesses all of Orwell's previous work as preparation for help a cause essay, 1984, which book is considered to be Orwell's masterpiece. Mr. Atkins, like Sir Richard Rees and others, attributes the gloom of the ending of 1984 less to ideology than to the fact that Orwell's health had markedly deteriorated as he was writing 1984. The point which Atkins makes is that the best analysis of the basis of society in Oceania and indeed the best critique of 1984 may be found in the work itself, in disadvantages essay Goldstein's book The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. Atkins accepts the thesis of Goldstein's book as one held by small retirement options Orwell himself: that the end of power is power, that revolutions corrupt those who lead them, that the essay, perpetual state of war which is maintained by the Party is really Peace, as it leads to a sort of bizarre social stability. Writing And Effect! While much of what Atkins says about 1984 is disadvantages of forests essay, really summary of the small plan, work's contents, the point that Orwell himself believed what he embodied in Goldstein's book as far as politics were concerned is of forests essay, a well-taken one, probably correct. Atkins sees the Party's great secret as its discovery that the sense of reality of thesis bridge span-by-span most human beings could be dislocated by skillful propaganda, by the process which Orwell called Doublethink. Atkins also gives examples both from Orwell's previous writing and from contemporary political and social history about the of forests, dislocation of all math reality and the deliberate falsification of the past. Atkins pays especial attention to the Party's debasing of human sexuality in 1984. Finally Atkins makes what seems to disadvantages of forests essay, the author of the present study the business retirement options, perfectly valid point that Orwell wrote 1984 not as a prediction of things to come so much as a warning to his contemporaries and disadvantages, immediate successors in Western society that these things - the horrors he described in 1984 - were probabilities if men did not become aware and seek to reverse the trend toward totalitarianism. Christopher Hollis, in A Study of George Orwell, includes a chapter on 1984 which, while it makes essentially the help writing a cause, same point as does Atkins about the importance of Goldstein's Book in the understanding of the structure of the work, has a slightly different emphasis than does Atkins.
He seems correct in his analysis of Julia's character: she has no metaphysical notion of freedom, and no center to her life other than the physical revolt which she engages in with Winston and others-so nothing else can be expected, given her character, than the quick betrayal of Winston which she does under torture. Mr. Hollis also observes that 1984 is of forests essay, not meant as a definite prophecy; Orwell expected and hoped that the span-by-span, book would be a warning so that the society ruled by Big Brother could not come about. Hollis sees that the disadvantages essay, Party has destroyed virtue and a sense of honor in the men of the writing and effect, society of Oceania, and done its work so well that even if the Party collapsed the essay, system would continue. If the materialism of the Party is true - and Hollis in antioxidant activity his interpretation denies that it can be true, on theological and philosophical grounds - then O'Brien is right and Winston Smith is mad: a flaw in the pattern. O'Brien's premises are thoroughly materialistic. Materialism is a philosophy with a history at least extending back to the pre-Christian, pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, Democritus; thus it is nothing new, and it should be obvious that it can only be opposed on of forests essay, philosophical and religious grounds.
This Orwell did, indirectly, in the view of Mr. Hollis; satire, of course, is help, indirect but nevertheless can be effective, as 1984 was enormously effective and influential, at least in alerting people to certain political dangers. Hollis makes another important point; that 1984 has as one of disadvantages essay its chief literary ancestors an anti-Utopia written by a Russian writer, Eugene Zamyatin. The name of Zamyatin's book is We, and it was published just after the Second World War. Thesis! Zamyatin wrote his book in Paris after the Russian Revolution, being disgusted with what he saw as the excesses of the extremists among the disadvantages essay, Russian revolutionaries, the antioxidant activity, Bolshevists.
We purports to be a picture of essay society as it exists in 2600 A.D. Not only are there parallels between We and 1984, but, as Mr. Hollis points out, Orwell wrote an essay in January, 1946 [See Tribune, January 4, 1946] in which Orwell praised Zamyatin and demonstrated his familiarity with We. This was relatively close to the time when he began to compose 1984. Hollis observes that Orwell was indeed familiar with Zamyatin, but that he adapted the solve, philosophy and world-picture of We to the depiction of English society. Hollis ends with a point consistent with the outlook of his book; he, like Orwell, perceives the decay of religious belief and disadvantages essay, religious values in twentieth-century Western society, but he makes it clear that he does not accept the final paragraph of an, unreligious or anti-religious attitudes which Orwell in his view seems to disadvantages essay, have embraced. Sir Richard Rees sees Animal Farm as more obviously a masterpiece than was 1984.
His interpretation of 1984 does not differ in too many particulars from those of Atkins and help writting a paper, Hollis, because, as previously observed, the disadvantages essay, book is so lucid in its satire that wide divergence in interpretation is difficult if not impossible. However, Sir Richard has a slightly different view of Julia's character; he does not see it as totally shallow, and he is probably correct in small business plan describing her as intelligent but not intellectual. Disadvantages Essay! But Julia does not seem a particularly sympathetic character as Orwell drew her; it would be more correct to say that Julia represents life lived only for itself on a physical level which, lacking a philosophy, must fall prey to erected span-by-span, those who at least hold to some consistent set of of forests beliefs, good or bad. Sir Richard stresses in his interpretation the ways in which the Party hierarchy is phd thesis activity, made adoptive and non-hereditary; he also indicates that it was difficult for Orwell to draw characters from the disadvantages of forests, lower classes, in view of his own training and background so that the message of Goldstein's Book, and of Orwell himself: If there is hope, it lies in writing a cause essay the Proles, is not entirely convincing in terms of 1984. Implied in the interpretation of Rees is the thought that Winston Smith is George Orwell-also a fugitive, ridden by guilt. And this is a valid point.
As pointed out in the present study, Winston's dreams are heavily tinged by feelings of guilt, and it may be that the psychological roots of his revolt involve his wishing to be caught, so that his feelings of essay guilt especially toward his mother may receive their proper punishment. The idea of Orwell as a fugitive from the camp of victory - e.g. from the privileged classes in England, which is advanced by Sir Richard Rees, should be treated with caution; it is by no means the whole explanation of 1984, and ought not to be taken as such, though it does explain something about the source of many of Orwell's ideas and interests. Lionel Trilling's well-known essay, George Orwell and the Politics of Truth, is really part of an introduction to Homage to Catalonia, and thus deals with 1984 only indirectly. Final Of An! The suggestion of Professor Trilling is really that Orwell was a very unusual man in essay his political outlook and in all math his essential decency-in fact, that he was a sort of of forests modern-day saint, who not only wrote of his vision, but lived it, like Mark Twain, Thoreau, Whitman, Henry Adams, and phd thesis activity, Henry James. Orwell was not a genius, said Trilling, but what genius is - the sense in which he used the term, he does not say. Of Forests! He does credit Orwell not only activity, with great imagination and of forests, decency, but with a sense of actual participation in the world of affairs so that, unlike many liberal intellectuals in Trilling's view, Orwell knew what he was doing when he wrote of government and administration, of Communism, Nazism, and bridge erected span-by-span, other political forms. Trilling establishes Orwell's relation to Communism and his disillusion with it - this is also important as one considers what precisely Orwell was satirizing in 1984. In his final estimation of Orwell as a decent man, and an honest one, Trilling echoes the view held by most who have written about Orwell or known him-indeed, his essay helped to formulate this view. The Relation Of Other Works Of Orwell To 1984. As has been pointed out by at of forests least one critic, everything which Orwell ever wrote was preparation for 1984. However, in addition to certain essays which have been mentioned in the biographical or the critical commentary sections of this study, two of Orwell's books stand out as worthy of consideration in this context: Down and Out in Paris and thesis bridge erected span-by-span, London (1933), and Coming up for of forests, Air (1939).
These books are rather different in purpose and in kind, the first being a somewhat fictionalized autobiography, and the second a novel. But we will discuss each in thesis bridge erected span-by-span turn. Disadvantages! Down and Out in Paris and London was written out of span-by-span impressions Orwell gained during the period from disadvantages essay, 1927, when he resigned from the Indian Imperial Police while on leave in England, and 1933, when he re-emerged from the state of deprivation that he had evidently volunteered for. It would take as much closer study of this period of Orwell's life than has previously been done to final paragraph of an, account for it fully. The most convincing explanation seems to be that Orwell wished at least temporarily to sink to essay, the level of the poor and find out what they were really like and what the quality of phd thesis antioxidant their daily life might be. His theory was that very little is known about lower-class life; as he says of the Proles in 1984, nobody knew much about the way they lived. Orwell seems to have undergone feelings of essay guilt at his privileged position as a white sahib in help a cause and effect essay the British Government Service in Burma, and of forests, the guilt feelings may have given rise to a desire to be punished by suffering what the lower classes suffer. But all this is speculation. Orwell said that everything in this remarkable book actually happened to him, beginning in Paris when he ran out of money, but that he took certain liberties with the order of the events. In the book he describes his work as a Paris plongeur or dish washer, working at least six twelve-hour working days a week (and sometimes seven) in small retirement plan options the kitchen of a fasionable Paris hotel, at wages of five hundred francs a month, a mere pittance. The unsatisfying, and indeed stupefying quality of this life, and essay, the reasons why men do such work, undergo close analysis by Orwell.
It is a description of the sordid. Still, he has not touched bottom, for all math problems, he is at least employed and as the hotel provides food and drink free, he is able to live, though he has no time to read, to travel, or to do anything except eat, sleep, drink, and work - the drink being a fortification against the dulling fatigue of such work. A plongeur is one of the disadvantages of forests, slaves of the modern world, he wrote, and one is thesis bridge erected span-by-span, utterly convinced of the truth of this statement by the time that the section of the book comes to an end. Subsequently Orwell does touch bottom, as he quits his job as a dishwasher to work in a highly questionable Paris bistro where the proprietor is always on the edge of bankruptcy. Leaving this for his return to England, he runs completely out of funds; the job he had signed up for, as he says, to take care of an disadvantages of forests, idiot, had been postponed, and he has nothing to paragraph of an, live on. Orwell therefore becomes a tramp, and essay, walks across England from one spike to another (spike being a slang term for poorhouse, where men who were not residents of the parish in writing a cause essay which the poorhouses were located could spend only one might in each and then had to move on). He also spent time on the Embankment in London, where men and women who were literally homeless would spend the night attempting to sleep out of doors, as the Embankment-dwellers did not have the price of a bed. Finally, Orwell is rescued from this situation by a friend, and sets out to write about disadvantages of forests it. This book contains some of the most graphic descriptions of poverty written in the twentieth century.
One assumes that Orwell could have contacted school friends and acquaintances to obtain employment, even during a Depression. But he did not; he was, while suffering dire poverty, soaking up impressions of lower-class life. All Math Problems! The result of this study was not only Down and Out In Paris and London, but also parts of 1984. The account of the lives of the Proles, the essay, description of the smelly close quarters in which most people are forced to live by the Party's deliberate edict - these were dividends from his years among the poor, and 1984 may profitably be read with this book as background. Orwell attempted to describe the paragraph, life of the poor honestly, and because he went to such great lengths to study his subject, he succeeded to an unsual extent. The sympathies of most educated people, Orwell said, are not with the poor; they do not understand them.
He at least attempted to understand, though he was not and never became a member of the submerged classes in terms of his outlook; his education and essay, family background made this impossible. Coming Up for business plan, Air (1939) is that novel of disadvantages of forests essay Orwell which most resembles 1984. Its central character, George Bowling, is, when we meet him, forty-five years of age, a commercial traveler (salesman-actually sales supervisor) for an insurance company. He is intended by Orwell to and effect, be the epitome of the English lower middle class. But George Bowling is, in a way, Winston Smith, in that he is the man who is just a little bit more perceptive and intelligent than is called for by his environment. George Bowling is a shopkeeper's son who is drafted into the British Army at the start of the First World War, and who becomes an disadvantages of forests, officer and finds his life spared through several rather absurd coincidences. He has an phd thesis activity, opportunity to read, and he is naturally quick with his wits, so that he has in a sense moved somewhat apart from his class and environment and can therefore see these more clearly while remaining a part of them. The book is set in disadvantages 1939, and Mr.
Bowling is aware of the phd thesis antioxidant activity, kind of world that is coming: Fear! We swim in of forests essay it. It's our element. This is a prediction of thesis things to come; there is the sub-world of disadvantages essay hatred and fear to which Bowling and all of his contemporaries are heading. This novel, like 1984, was more a warning than a prediction. This is the chronicle of the slightly ordinary extraordinary man in a society which is changing, probably for the worse, who is self-aware and who knows that things will never be the final essay, same. George Bowling is a fat man, in contrast to Winston Smith, who seems almost emaciated. But the two are one in their outlook on many things, especially in their pursuit of the Golden Country. Both George and Winston (note the heroic first names and disadvantages essay, the ordinary last names) are constantly seeking what they call the Golden Country.
This appears to phd thesis antioxidant, be a state before the Fall; a state of innocence into which they can retreat but which is an illusion. For Winston the Golden Country is the rural scene, akin to the Garden of of forests essay Eden, in which he meets Julia. For George Bowling, when he returns to Lower Binfield, his home town, is also seeking this state of innocence. Thus, Coming Up for Air is also valuable background for a further understanding of 1984 in general and of Winston Smith in particular.
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Essay On Indian Cricket Team Essays and Research Papers. Mr. Consistent-Rahul Dravid, the man at the helm of Indian cricket is the cynosure of all eyes with the Indian . cricket team eyeing the disadvantages 2007 World Cup title this March in the West Indies. Born on final paragraph of an 11 January 1973 in Indore, Madhya Pradesh, he grew up in Bangalore and essay hit the headlines when he scored a century on debut for his school team and a double century for the Karnataka under-15 cricket team against the Kerala under-15 cricket team . He made his Ranji debut in 1991 against Maharashtra. Chemistry , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1390 Words | 6 Pages. relationship between cricket and politics is clearly portrayed in South Asia from 1880 to 2005 through the easing of the bridge span-by-span tension between . Disadvantages Of Forests. different caste members, although the help writing and effect tension eased was not always from a religious aspect between the Pakistanis, Indians , and the British. Essay. The different problems that arose in South Asia was mostly class or caste systems (Docs 2, 3, 4), rivalry (Docs 1, 6, 10), and religious tensions (Docs 5, 7, 8, 9) against the different countries and cricket teams . Cricket in many ways. Caste , Cricket , Hinduism 1303 Words | 4 Pages.
Cricket and the Indian Woman Women’s interest in cricket is a sudden development, propelled mostly by the . Help Writting A Paper. advertisements projecting cricketers as demigods. In the year 2003, model and actress Mandira Bedi became popular for hosting a cricket -discussion program during the World Cup cricket matches. Her immense popularity had little to disadvantages of forests essay, do with her knowledge about cricket and more with the help writing a cause essay plunging neckline of her saris and disadvantages essay the unavoidable amount of cleavage on exhibit. Today, women are seen cheering. Bowling , Cricket , Cricket ball 1275 Words | 4 Pages. ? CRICKET - A RELIGION IN INDIA Cricket : It is the word that gives my whole body an adrenaline rush. It is not just a game. It’s . a religion. There’s only one religion that I follow, and that’s Cricket . I believe in only one god, that’s Sachin Tendulkar.
This Indian is the best and most popular cricketer in the world. He’s my idol and it is phd thesis antioxidant, fair to disadvantages of forests essay, say that my ideals are shared by my countrymen. The country comes to a stop when a cricket match is being played. The roads are deserted, parties and. Board of Control for all math, Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1797 Words | 5 Pages.
Overview Twenty20 cricket , often referred to as the “short game” involves each team only playing a single innings, batting each . for essay, a maximum of 20 overs. The timespan of a typical Twenty20 game is just under 3 hours, each innings therefore lasting 75 mins, and this brings the game more in line with other popular sports such as football or rugby. The game was conceived by the England and Wales Cricket Board (ECB) with the aim of creating a faster and more exciting version of cricket . The board stressed. 2007 ICC World Twenty20 , Cricket , ICC World Twenty20 1273 Words | 4 Pages. article on Cricket Vs Other Games in India ” will boost your confidence to final paragraph essay, be successful in Essay Writting Test: It’s bitter . but very true that one single game blotting many others games in India. Cricket fever overshadowed our national sport Hockey. There is no question of disadvantages of forests any debate that cricket is killing other sports in our country. Indians eat, live, sleep, talk and walk cricket . Business Retirement Plan. Theoretically we all know that hockey is our national game but in practical vision its cricket maniac all over.
Arjuna Award , Bronze medal , Gold medal 770 Words | 3 Pages. IPL Super Patch For Cricket 07. Before Continuing, Please Make Sure You Have Gaurav's Asian Windies Face Pack Installed. When You Install . It, only install the of forests faces, and not the roster from the pack. With. You May Continue If You Have The Face Pack Installed. YOU NEED TO READ THIS READ ME AFTER INSTALLING, TO FIND OUT HOW THE TOURNAMENTS WORK, YOU HAVE TO LOAD TOURNAMENTS INSTEAD OF CREATE THEM. THERE ARE SPECIAL PROGRAMS THAT COME WITH THIS PATCH, YOU NEED TO READ TO KNOW HOW TO WORK THEM . Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 646 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on the Craze of Cricket in of forests India by Subha Sarkar Craze, courage, fear, fantasy, win… and the list goes on and on, of . words that have found entry in the cricket lexicon. Bridge Erected Span-by-span. What do these words signify in their association with the world of cricket ? Craze to grab the accessories of the favorite cricketers, courage to postpone the important activities when one knows the load of work pending can prove fatal if not done in time, fear of losing the match when six runs are required on the last ball.
Cricket , Cricket World Cup , Dismissal 1901 Words | 5 Pages. between cricket and West Indian Social and Political life” Cricket has been intertwined in the life of West . Indians since it arrived in the islands. It has been a representation of injustice and prejudice as well as a conduit for social and political triumph in disadvantages the West Indies. Problems. The development of cricket , as not just another game, mirrors the of forests question for decolonization from small retirement plan, Britain and of forests also the struggles of small retirement nationalist and essay independence endeavors. Throughout its lifespan, the West Indies cricket team. British West Indies , Caribbean , Cricket 983 Words | 3 Pages.
Cricket (game), a high-scoring outdoor bat-and-ball game played between teams of 11 players that originated in England over 500 . years ago. A team sport exceeded in popularity worldwide only by soccer and basketball, cricket can be found in over 120 countries. The game has been played in small plan the United States since the early 18th century. II. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay. EQUIPMENT AND PLAYING AREA Cricket Basics Cricket Bowler Bob Willis Cricket Pitch Cricket Bowler Bob Willis.
Cricket , Cricket pitch , Cricket World Cup 1205 Words | 4 Pages. Hockey the writing and effect National Sport of India not Cricket Well, if asked some Indians about what they thought was the of forests essay National Sport . of India his answer would most probably be Cricket . Even though most people will agree but, the truth is the National Sport of India actually is Field Hockey. The thing is actually the hockey team deserves little better treatment and higher praise than cricket . But, do we treat both games equally in thesis bridge India and disadvantages essay do we have any special attachment for our national game. Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1358 Words | 4 Pages. Cricket DBQ In South Asia during 1880-2005 politics gained an unusual bedfellow. Cricket was introduced to India by Great . Britain for small business retirement plan, a purpose that was widely discussed. Some believed cricket brought their people together and of forests unified different castes and cultures within India and Britain, some believed the sport was just another way for the British to rule over India and appear superior, and others criticized the religious nature present in many of the tournaments.
This issue could be better. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , England cricket team 1296 Words | 4 Pages. Cricket , also called the Gentleman's game, is a bat-and-ball team sport that is first documented as being played in southern . All Math Problems. England in the 16th century. The sport's earliest definite mention was in a 1598 court case which referred to a sport called cricket being played by boys at of forests the Royal Grammar School, Guildford around 1550. Business Retirement. It is disadvantages of forests essay, believed that it was originally a children's game but references around 1610, indicate that adults had started playing it and final paragraph essay the earliest reference to inter-parish. Batting , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1372 Words | 4 Pages. of this version of cricket shows, in the country which is disadvantages of forests, now called to be the Mecca of cricket , IPL with its star lit, glamour . rapped extravaganza is likely to help writing and effect, become the talk of the time. This year after the disadvantages heavy crash of Indian squad's fighter jet in Australia, there had been a sudden drop of public interest in cricket but once the a paper news of the auction of the players reached the media, the cricket fever started to spread.
This mega tournament made the T20 version of disadvantages cricket hugely popular across. Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 882 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket : Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed . into the national sport of England. The expansion of the British Empire led to all math problems, cricket being played overseas and by disadvantages of forests, the mid-19th century the first international matches were being held. The ICC, the game's governing body, has 10 full members. The game is most popular in Australasia, England, the Indian subcontinent, the small West Indies and Southern Africa. Yes, cricket is the. Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1414 Words | 4 Pages. “The Cricket Match” Samuel Selvon’s short story, “The Cricket Match” explores the subtle racial tensions amongst West . Indian immigrants living in England whilst working with English counterparts. Selvon sets his narrative in a tyre factory in Chiswick, England.
Most likely, the timeline in which this story occurs is somewhere in the mid 1950’s when England were still colonists of most of the English speaking Caribbean islands. The main idea behind Selvon’s tale lies with Algernon the disadvantages of forests protagonist. Caribbean , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1043 Words | 3 Pages. Crickets by thesis erected, Robert Olen Butler – an essay Coming to of forests, America can be difficult in itself. Adjusting to the cultural and social . part of with writting a paper a new country is a big task when you’re a Vietnamese soldier who doesn’t speak a word of English. But when your only of forests, child is with a paper, letting go of the central values that are a big part of your own world – you can’t stop to essay, wonder what you can do to change this situation. This is the condition that Thieu, the main character of business options “ Crickets ”, finds himself in. Essay. “ Crickets ”. American English , English language , English-language films 997 Words | 3 Pages. in Sri Lanka, they may meet each other's gaze, and know they are a lot alike.
The last time the small two met in Tests, they could not have had more disparate . days. Defending a 1-0 series lead, Mathews embraced an of forests essay, extreme form of conservatism and his team drowned in it on the final day in Sharjah. With no choice but to launch an unrelenting attack, Misbah kept his side in the match long enough, until after a whirl of bludgeoned drives and reverse-sweeps from way outside leg stump, he hit the winning. Batting , Batting average , Crease 845 Words | 3 Pages. Although cricket is not the official national sport in writting India, it begets much more excitement and a greater fan following than the official . national sport Hockey. Why only hockey?
In fact no other sport in India can claim the position of cricket in disadvantages essay respect to its popularity and revenue generation. The cricket mania in India would leave an onlooker amazed and wonderstruck. Go to any part in Indian from Jammu and Kashmirin the antioxidant activity north to disadvantages of forests essay, Kerala and Tamilnadu in the south or fromMaharashtra in the. 1996 Cricket World Cup , 2011 Cricket World Cup , Board of Control for Cricket in India 715 Words | 3 Pages. other sports? ‘ Cricket is a religion in India’- a powerful statement that would bring a smile on all cricket lovers in India. . Paragraph Essay. However, rarely expressed is the other side of the coin – an issue of one man’s extreme popularity killing the very identity and existence of all other players in of forests essay the mix.
No Doubt that the game’s popularity has brought glory to help essay, millions of disadvantages essay fans residing in India and all math problems worldwide, has instilled a sense of pride even in disadvantages of forests non- cricket -following Indian audiences…whenever. Cricket World Cup , Game , Games 927 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of 11 players on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard . long pitch. Each team takes it in turn to bat, attempting to score runs, while the other team fields. Each turn is known as an innings.The bowler delivers the final ball to the batsman who attempts to disadvantages of forests, hit the ball with his bat far enough for him to run to the other end of the pitch and score a run. Each batsman continues batting until he is out. The batting team continues batting. 2nd millennium , Batting , Cricket 1437 Words | 4 Pages. Pocahontas Essay Throughout American culture, racism and stereotypes have been prevalent, yet the Disney movie Pocahontas is an help writing a cause and effect essay, attempt to . better understand racial intolerance towards Native Americans. Though the movie is not completely historically accurate, the context of disadvantages of forests it portrays a more truthful story of the first European and Native American encounters which were mostly hostile ones, contrary to the modern American belief of “Thanksgiving” like events. However, there were attempts of a cause and effect understanding.
Americas , European colonization of the Americas , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 854 Words | 3 Pages. Present Situation of Bangladesh in Cricket. supposed that cricket will be only game for of forests essay, rich, sluggish and lazy people. Writing A Cause And Effect Essay. But now-a-days it becomes very popular and interesting game for disadvantages essay, us. Solve. . Of Forests. Over 120 countries playing cricket and many people want to be cricket player. In this day and final age women are also playing cricket with similar to men. There are many tournaments organize for women.
In my term paper I will mention about the starting time of cricket , how it gotten popularity in Bangladesh and present situation of disadvantages essay Bangladesh in cricket . Help With. Establishing. Bangladesh national cricket team , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1775 Words | 7 Pages. Cricket , not snake charmers and elephants, is the most common sight in disadvantages of forests essay India. Go where you will or want, there will always be a narrow street . nearby, chock full of a group of enthusiastic boys, of all ages and descriptions, playing cricket with remarkable energy and small business plan passion. Little boys who are only just bigger than the bats they bravely hold, teenagers attempting to play in the manner of the national cricketers they watch and disadvantages of forests admire, grown men whose love for the game has never waned ? such are. Batting , Cricket , Cricket ball 1139 Words | 3 Pages. Early cricket Origin No one knows when or where cricket began but there is a body of evidence, much of it circumstantial, . that strongly suggests the game was devised during Saxon or Norman times by children living in the Weald. It is generally believed that cricket survived as a children's game. Adult participation is unknown before the early 17th century. Possibly cricket was derived from bowls Derivation of the name of cricket A number of words are thought to be possible sources for. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Cricket World Cup 2467 Words | 7 Pages.
Technology in Cricket Introduction: For a game as steeped in thesis bridge tradition as cricket is, the question of disadvantages how much to rely on . Writing A Cause And Effect. technology is a perennial and disadvantages of forests essay is now becoming increasingly complex. Antioxidant. The Decision Review System has been controversial since it was first put in place. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay. If anyone needed proof that cricket's new video-replay scheme, the thesis bridge span-by-span Umpire Decision Review System (DRS), has completely changed the disadvantages sport, the Test series in which England have just slumped to erected, defeat against of forests Pakistan in. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Dismissal 1275 Words | 4 Pages. chairman of the marketing sub-committee of the BCCI, the Indian Premier League was launched on 14th September 2007 on the lines of final of an essay English . Premier League (Football) and National Basketball Association. Studded with the starry glitz of essay Bollywood and backed by the money-power of a paper Indian business tycoons, the IPL has changed the face of of forests international Cricket in 21st century. Bidding of Team Franchise Redefining the current face of Indian cricket on Wednesday, 20th February 2008, it rained millions of.
Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 1634 Words | 5 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. ?Top of Form Bottom of antioxidant Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My . India My Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is of forests, my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and developed nation in the world in paragraph near future. India will be a golden bird of the coming years. In my dreams more. Vision of My Dream India International. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. India Winning the disadvantages essay 2012 Cricket World Cup. West Indies and unknown in most parts of the world.
But in India, cricket is help, religion. here may be many religions in this secular . country called India, but it is disadvantages, said that cricket unites Indians better than any religion can ever do.it is cricket that enjoys supremacy in writing a cause and effect terms of of forests essay fan following. With millions of ardent followers, cricket is the ‘religion’ of India. ‘Men in Blue’ are absolutely adored by the crazy cricket fans and solve their fame outshines the popularity of any other celebrity. Disadvantages Of Forests. From. 2007 Cricket World Cup , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 1145 Words | 3 Pages. Cricket Between British and Indians. think that a game like cricket would play into the politically life? Well in a paper South Asia it played a major role. Disadvantages Of Forests Essay. Cricket gave the . people a way out to small retirement options, stop thinking of the hard ships but rise up and disadvantages essay play against the upper classes and help writting a paper play them as equals and many cases beat them which bought pride to the people. By them having cricket it was a bit of a stress reliever and a barrier to hold off fighting.
This game gave people something to look up to and be happy about. From cricket players and experts. Cricket , Game , Government 663 Words | 2 Pages. Olympics and world meets. Even the disadvantages essay hockey crown has slipped out of India’s hands in recent years. Plan Options. India cast its spell of hockey supremacy over disadvantages a period . beyond three decades. The sports-minded European and other nations subsequently caught up with the Indian techniques. With partition Pakistan emerged as a formidable rival in help the sub-continent itself. Earlier, between the Amsterdam Olympiad in 1928 and the Rome Games in 1960 India had a monopolistic hold on the World’s hockey crown.
Hockey The name. Caribbean , Cricket , India national cricket team 1365 Words | 5 Pages. Is This Cricket World Cup a Balance of Power?? The game of cricket , played at of forests essay a leisurely pace then at the Test and county level, was on verge of going through a transition with the . Paragraph. introduction of limited-over’s games at disadvantages of forests the county level. Help Writting. Just about then, the disadvantages first ever One-day International was played between England and Australia at the MCG in 1971.
The popularity of this shorter format of cricket was catching at such a brisk pace that the help authorities controlling the game had to bring in of forests essay something different to make the retirement game a lot more entertaining. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , FIFA World Cup 1452 Words | 4 Pages. Bend It Like Beckham Essay KaTsun Tsang Gurinder Chadha has used dialogue to show the disadvantages essay difference posed by phd thesis antioxidant activity, opposing cultures. And most . Disadvantages Essay. particular, Jesminder Bhamra (or ‘Jess’ as she is commonly known), is made to overcome the complications of wanting to both appease her traditional Sikh family, and her constant internal struggle as she tries to achieve her goal of becoming a football player, like her idol David Beckham. Gurinder Chadha’s dialogue is used to plan options, show the resistance Jess has to face. Bend It Like Beckham , Gurinder Chadha 765 Words | 3 Pages. Indies during the first half of the 20th century. Cricket today, as it has been said many times, is not what it used to be. Unfortunately . many young West Indians know very little of what is once was and what it stood for, they take for granted the techniques and its origins.
The level of West Indies cricket has been diluted due to the increase of disadvantages of forests tourism and with writting fast paced games. However there are many West Indians who hold strong to the fact that cricket is part of disadvantages of forests essay our culture and heritage. Bridge Erected. This archipelago. Barbados , British West Indies , Caribbean 2485 Words | 7 Pages. IPL Team Owners, Sponsors and Brand Ambassadors Ads by Google Franchising Opportunity www.TheScholarsHub.com Get Our Tuition Center . Disadvantages Essay. Franchisee. A Cause Essay. An Investment Of Only 5-10 Lakhs! Following are the team owners of of forests essay IPL T20 Cricket Teams . Bangalore Royal Challengers • Owner - Liquor Baron Vijay Mallya (UB Group) • Captain – Kevin Pietersen. • Coach – Ray Jennings (South Africa) • Sponsors – Royal Challenge and other UB brands like McDowells and Bagpiper. • Brand Ambassadors – Katrina Kaif, Deepika. Chennai Super Kings , Deccan Chargers , Delhi Daredevils 686 Words | 3 Pages. ketCricket Top Indian Game The most loved sport in India, needs no introduction. Help A Cause. Every person, despite of his or her age, has an opinion on . this game.
Really, the craze of cricket in India is disadvantages, dramatic. Everytime India plays a match, people in India find some or the other way out of their busy routines to view the live action. In India, cricket is followed much like a religion and the cricketers cannot be rated less than God himself.India-Pakistan cricket matches are played with most aggression by. Board of Control for Cricket in India , Cricket , India 503 Words | 2 Pages. Industry Analysis: The Cricket Market. Puma, and more recently, adidas and Nike, have been moving into the cricket market. Reebok was the official technical sponsor of the essay 2011 ICC . World Cup and adidas clothes the Proteas, English and Australian teams . Nike featured prominently on the sleeves of the Indian team shirts. Some of the of forests top players who had been in action at final paragraph essay the World Cup use bats from brands more associated with athletic tracks or soccer fields than cricket pitches. These include the likes of Sachin Tendulkar using an of forests essay, adidas. 2003 Cricket World Cup , Batting , Cricket 1930 Words | 6 Pages. English Essay – Indian Camp The transition from help and effect essay, child to adult can be a rough process.
At times a radical experience has to . occur for the change to happen. Of Forests. A meeting with the basic conditions of life, and with that the problems circle of life, can in of forests many cases be a trigger for the transition from boy to paragraph of an, man. In this short story the transition is linked to disadvantages, the dichotomy between civilisation and erected span-by-span nature, civilisation dominating nature. In the short story “ Indian Camp” by Ernest Hemingway, there is a case. Biodiversity , Civilization , Environment 958 Words | 3 Pages. Association 5. Disadvantages Essay. Name the IPL Team which Defeated Chennai Super Kings in Final to Lift its First IPL Trophy by winning the IPL Season 6 A: . Solve. Mumbai Indians 6. Muhammad Ali retired from boxing in 1981, what was his career record? A: 55 WINS,5 DEFEATS 7. Disadvantages. The Olympic Games were not held during which three years, for what reason?
A: 1916,1940,14944 … world war I and II 8. What three nations were the original members of the Imperial Cricket Council, now known as the International Cricket Council? A: England. 2008 Summer Olympics , Cricket , Cricket World Cup 770 Words | 3 Pages. 2011 cricket cup. The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup was the help with tenth Cricket World Cup. It was played in India, Sri . Lanka, and (for the first time) Bangladesh. Pakistan was also scheduled to of forests essay, be a co-host, but after the 2009 attack on the Sri Lanka national cricket team in Lahore, the International Cricket Council (ICC) cancelled that, and the headquarters of the small business options organising committee, originally in Lahore, was transferred to Mumbai. Pakistan was to have held 14 matches, including one semi-final.
2007 Cricket World Cup , 2011 Cricket World Cup , Cricket 1181 Words | 5 Pages. French and Indian War Essay The French and Indian War (or the Seven Years War), one of the bloodiest wars in the . Disadvantages Of Forests. 18th century, took place from erected span-by-span, 1756 to 1763. This war was the disadvantages of forests product of an imperial struggle between France and England over colonial land, wealth, and some say to even prove dominance within their rivalry. Writing A Cause Essay. France and England were the disadvantages of forests essay “world leaders” at this time and with the all math problems start of the 13 colonies in North America, they both saw a great opportunity to expand land holdings and to of forests, spread. Canada , Europe , French and Indian War 731 Words | 2 Pages. | |Nationality: | Indian . | |Language Known: |English, Hindi, Gujarati | |Hobbies: |Reading books,playing Cricket ,Photography, Listening Music. | |Strengths: . Microsoft , Microsoft Windows , Operating system 269 Words | 3 Pages. 20-20 Will Eclipse Traditional Cricket.
20 -20 will eclipse traditional cricket With a cocktail of energy, adrenalin and high TRPs, the thesis bridge World Twenty20 is already a success. . Commentators and cricket buffs are labelling it the future. There is essay, a certitude here that was absent, for instance, when predictions for the one-day format were made at the 1975 Prudential Cup. Help Writing Essay. Despite the disadvantages of forests essay success of the World Twenty20, the ICC has insisted that it will not replace the 50-over format and erected that the limit of seven Twenty20 matches per Test-playing. Batting , Cricket , International Cricket Council 1100 Words | 4 Pages. ? 21ST-CENTURY DEVELOPMENTS The advent of Twenty20 cricket (T20) and the wild success of the IPL in the first decade of the 21st century . led to a period of great innovation in the game. The new, truncated form of the game privileged batting, partly by restricting the placement of fielders and shortening the boundaries.
To counter free-scoring batsmen with heavy bats, bowlers began to perfect a great variety of different balls (deliveries). Disguise became an essential part of the bowler’s armoury. Batting , Cricket , Cricket pitch 1292 Words | 4 Pages. Promoting Indian Hockey to Previous Glories. Promoting Indian Hockey to Previous Glories The Golden Old Days: — Between 1924 and 1956 India won six successive Olympic hockey golds. . India has achieved huge successes in hockey during its early years but later on it has only disadvantages, been a continuous downfall. With 8 Gold medals it has been the most successful hockey team in the world. So how come it came to a point that this hockey giant failed to even qualify for help with writting a paper, the 2008 Beijing Olympics? Today, again the Indian hockey team is staring down the.
2008 Summer Olympics , Better , Cricket 1256 Words | 4 Pages. How Race effects participation in cricket. ? Research Project How Race effects participation In Cricket This . Of Forests. project will explore the phd thesis antioxidant impact race has on competitive male club cricket . Disadvantages Essay. Race is help with, defined as: “A concept which signifies and symbolizes social conflicts and disadvantages interests by referring to different types of paragraph of an human bodies”. Racial groups in society are based on certain biological or cultural characteristics, which are labelled as inferior by dominant groups in disadvantages of forests society. Anthropology , Bangladesh national cricket team , Cricket 2315 Words | 9 Pages. BEYOND the BASICS: CRICKET STRATEGIES The Art and Strategy of Batting Just as Pitching controls the game of baseball, BATTING controls . the all math game in cricket . So, you must start with batting to understand cricket strategy. Recall that, in essay cricket , the batter (or BATSMAN) can hit in every direction, all around him. He uses many different kinds of strokes to do this. driving with a full golf-like swing to hit straight ahead or slightly to left or right, pulling or hooking to hit the. Baseball , Baseball positions , Batting 2621 Words | 7 Pages. HST 219 Bend it like Beckham Term Essay HST 219 Bend it like Beckham Essay What a blonde!
Such a paki! What do women . Writting A Paper. know anyway? It’s horrible that even in the twenty first century with human right laws and the idea of disadvantages of forests a ‘free’ country, there are still people saying these comments. All Math Problems. What ever happened to essay, everyone being created equally by God? Although this is a nice dream or thought, in reality this may only be words preached to solve problems, young children. In the disadvantages of forests last few decades the world quickly. American football , Bend It Like Beckham , British Asian 2648 Words | 7 Pages.
Written by: - SHAHZAD IFTIKHAR Contact # 0313-7891989, 0333-5319544 e-mail: email@example.com website: www.onlineislamabad.com ENGLISH FOR CLASS 6TH . TO 8TH CLASS ( ESSAYS ) ============================================================ QUAID-E-AZAM Date of Birth: Quaid-e-Azam was born on 25th December 1876 at Karachi Fathers Name: His father name was Jinnah Poonja. He was a rich merchant of bridge span-by-span Karachi. Early Education: He received his early education from Karachi. He passed his Matriculation. Islam , Karachi , Lahore 1068 Words | 3 Pages. ?PE ASSIGNMENT TOPIC: CRICKET DONE BY: NEETHI T. 9B INTRODUCTION Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two . Of Forests. teams of 11 players each on a field at the centre of which is a rectangular 22-yard long pitch. Each team takes its turn to bat, attempting to score runs, while the other team fields. Each turn is all math problems, known as an innings. Cricket was first played in southern England in the 16th century. By the end of the 18th century, it had developed to be the national sport of disadvantages of forests England. Baseball , Batting , Cricket 2574 Words | 8 Pages.
? Team Work Team work is defined as the process of working collaboratively with a group of people in order to achieve a goal. A . successful team involves individuals who can work well together, trying their best in any circumstance to achieve that one main goal that they have set out to achieve. Teamwork means that people will try to cooperate, using their individual skills and providing constructive feedback, despite any personal conflict between among themselves. In every team , all members should. 1035 Words | 4 Pages. ? Team Building Team building is very important for many reasons and there are certain things that a team must . have to work efficiently. A team is a group of people that have common goals and work together effectively to final of an, achieve them.
There is a difference between a team and of forests essay a group. A group is a number of people or things that are located close together or are considered to thesis, be together, and may also share certain beliefs. Workplaces, schools and hospitals are some of the places where teams are. Leadership , Member of disadvantages essay Parliament 1130 Words | 2 Pages. What happened and why : Seagate is one of the largest digital content storage companies in the world and has business in about 15 countries around the world . in Europe, Asia and the US (©2011 Seagate Technology LLC). To create the ultimate team -building experience, every year Seagate brings 250 high-performing employees to Queenstown, near Lake Wakatipu in New Zealand.
This event tests all their physical and emotional boundaries of endurance (Max, 2006). This is a very popular program among Seagate. Queenstown, New Zealand , Seagate Technology , Team 1449 Words | 4 Pages. East Indian Culture Course Number: 1409 Instructor: Melanie K. Help A Cause And Effect Essay. Hail February 12, 2013 The term culture has many definitions depending . upon the type of culture that you are referring to. In this situation; culture, is defined as the integrated pattern of human knowledge, belief and behavior that depends upon the capacity for learning and transmitting knowledge to future generations. Of Forests. I believe that culture of an ethnic group starts at the beginning of time before people understood that their. Extended family , Family , Health care 861 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of Downfall of and effect Pakistan Cricket- by Adnan Khalid Chemical Engr- Mba( Operations Management), Ibm-Uet, Lahore.
of Pakistan cricket Submitted By ; Chemical Engr Adnan Khalid Submitted to : Prof Suhail Rizvi . Pakistan Cricket Board (PCB) : is the publicaly owned, governing authority for the regulation of disadvantages essay Cricket in pakistan. A Brief History of solve problems Pakistan Cricket and Pakistan. Cricket , Cricket World Cup , ICC World Twenty20 2525 Words | 7 Pages. to work together as a team . This could be an informal event, like a social or a group, or at formal work. The formal work environments often . need to disadvantages, co-operate with each other, linking individuals who have some different techniques or similar skills in order to achieve a common goal. Business Plan Options. In the team , the members need communicate with other team member frequently. Communication is an essential activity that can exchange of thoughts, messages or information through the whole team . Sometimes, if the member. Human resource management , Leadership , Management 1867 Words | 6 Pages. Erik Wilson Indian Culture Paper History Ms. Saliche 2/11/12 The Art of Indian Dance: Bharatanatyam “Dance is . the hidden language of the soul.” Dance is essay, something way more than just fist-pumping at some party. Dance has deep meaning; it is an art form that can range from the phd thesis simplest of disadvantages steps to the most intricate set of moves.
In Indian culture, like in any other culture, dance is a cultural tradition that has been around for centuries. Of An Essay. In this paper, I will discuss the several. Bharatanatyam , Chennai , Dance 797 Words | 3 Pages. My favourite sport:Cricket My favourite sport is Cricket . Cricket is disadvantages essay, a wonderful game between the two teams . Each . Erected Span-by-span. team will have eleven players and two to three substitutes. Disadvantages. Out eleven players five to six players will be bats men, and phd thesis activity the rest will be a bowlers and disadvantages of forests essay fielders and one wicket keeper.
Skipper will be appointed to lead the team . It is a team game. Cricket is an erected span-by-span, one day match and disadvantages of forests now it is played for threes hours too. Cricket field will have pitch with stamps and bales and two ends. Cricket , Cricket terminology , Fielding 741 Words | 2 Pages. The Use of of an American Indians as Mascots (Persuassive Essay) people think that using American Indians as mascots honors the essay Indian people, but the truth is they feel insulted and segregated. . There have been many requests to thesis bridge erected, change this, not only by Indian people but by regular people from other cultures too, and still these sports teams used them as mascots. Disadvantages Of Forests. High schools and colleges shouldn't keep their American Indian name or their symbols. Stereotyping is the main reason why many people don't agree with American Indians being used as mascots.
Racism and. Education , High school , Indigenous peoples of the Americas 998 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Indian constitution:- The Indian Constitution, which stands for national goals like Democracy, Socialism, Secularism and . Business Plan. National Integration, was framed by the representatives of Indian people after a long period of debates and of forests essay discussions. It is the most detailed constitution in span-by-span the world. No other constitution has gone into such minute details as the Indian Constitution. The Constitution of India was framed by a Constituent Assembly which was established in 1946.
Dr. Rajendra Prasad was. Constitution , Constitution of India , Government of India 1152 Words | 4 Pages.