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Fashion/ The History Of The Barbie Doll term paper 9411. In Honor! The History of Barbie Doll. The idea of Barbie all started in admission, 1959 when Ruth Handler, Barbie s creator, noticed her daughter Barbara playing with paper dolls and essays in honor imagining them in anu physics honours, grown up roles such as college students, cheerleaders, and essays adults with careers. Ruth realized that dolls on the market at that time were all baby dolls, and that there was a need for a doll that would inspire little girls to think about on american revolution causes, what they wanted to be when they grew up. Thus the idea for the Barbie doll, the teenage fashion model, was born.
Ruth named the doll Barbie, after her daughter and in honor of walter now, 40 years later, this 1.9 billion-dollar-a-year industry is byron wien stronger then ever. The Barbie doll started being released in of walter friedlaender, early 1960. It first appeared in the now-famous black and white striped swimsuit and anu physics signature ponytail. After producing this doll and one other know as Roman Holiday, she began to be made with lighter blue eyes and a new type of vinyl that retains its flesh-tone color rather than whitening with age. One year after her introduction, number five was released. Essays Of Walter! She was made with different hair colors, one of essays comparing, which was a shade of red known as titian, and with a new Bubble Cut hairstyle popularized by essays in honor, Jacqueline Kennedy. Enchanted Evening, a lovely pink stain gown, also debuted this year.
This fashion was a collector s favorite and was reproduced in 1996. Byron Wien Essay! Ken, Barbie s boyfriend was introduced this year with short blonde or brown hair, blue eyes, and moveable head, arms, and legs. He was also a + inch taller then Barbie. Ken was named after Ruth s son, Kenny. Barbie doll was now the hottest selling fashion doll on the market at this time. In 1962, Barbie doll was still being made with a ponytail, but the Bubble Cut was much more popular and in honor friedlaender was produced in much greater numbers. Red was her color this year and Red Flare, a bright red coat, hat, and crna school admission essay handbag ensemble made a bold fashion statement. Garden Party and Tennis Anyone were two of Barbie doll s other fashions that year. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender! Also that year, the fuzzy-haired Ken doll was retired in favor of a new doll with the two cities painted brown or blonde hair.
In the next two years of Barbie s life a lot happened. In 1963, she came out of walter friedlaender as Fashion Queen Barbie, with 3 interchangeable wigs: platinum Bubble Cut, a brunette Pageboy, and a titian side-swept ponytail called a Swirl. This was also the year that Barbie got her first and best friend, Midge. This freckled doll was a favorite for essays comparing, many collectors. In 1964, Barbie doll appeared in a pink swimsuit with eyes that open and close. In Honor Friedlaender! This was the only Barbie doll to have eyes that shut. Barbie doll's family also began to essays two cities grow that year with the introduction of Skipper, Barbie doll's little sister. Essays In Honor! By the end of the decade Barbie had changed even more.
Her and personal statement her friends were given more bendable legs. Her new hairstyle was known as American Girl . 1967 gave her a more youthful face and long straight hair to keep up with the essays in honor of walter friedlaender changing times. Crna Admission! A talking Barbie was finally introduced in 1968. This was a long time dream of Ruth s husband, Elliot. By the beginning of 1970 Barbie s fashion trends were up-to-the-minute. She had designs reflecting the prairie look, the granny dress, the California girl suntan craze, and glittery disco styles. Essays Of Walter Friedlaender! Barbie turned sweet 16 in essay on american causes, 1974 and a portion of Times Square was renamed Barbie Boulevard for a week in her honor. In 1976, Barbie doll s face was again reshaped into a wider smile and sun-streaked hair reflecting the latest beauty looks. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender! Also in 1976 Barbie dolls were placed in time capsules and anu physics thesis sealed during the Bicentennial celebrations to be opened in 2076 as the favorite doll of this century. Barbie was featured in Life Magazine in 1979 as reflecting twenty years of essays in honor of walter, American fashion.
During the 70s, Barbie doll had a constantly changing wardrobe that swung from the mod look of Live Action Barbie, a wild multi-colored pants outfit, to the high fashion of City Sophisticate. Her wardrobe also reflected an international flavor in Picture Pretty Barbie from Canada and honours thesis Party Time Barbie from Germany. In the 1980 s fans held the first annual Barbie doll. convention. The first black and Hispanic Barbie dolls were then introduced as Teresa and Christie. Barbie doll s wardrobe began to grow larger with both glamorous and in honor of walter casual looks such as the Dolls of the school admission essay World Collection. In 1986 the first porcelain Barbie was introduced. Two years later, in 1988 the first Holiday Barbie debuted and Barbie s best friend Midge returned. Mattel then celebrated Barbie s thirtieth anniversary in 1989 with Pink Jubilee Barbie. Staring in 1990, Barbie doll stepped into the future allowing girls to in honor of walter use their computer to, among other things, design and print their own fashions with CD-ROM products.
One of the first Barbie software products, Barbie Fashion Designer , was the best selling software title of 1996, followed by Barbie Magic Hairstyler , the top new children s title in 1997. She entered the crna admission essay digital world in 1998 with the Barbie Photo Designer Digital Camera and essays in honor of walter friedlaender CD-ROM. Most recently, the Barbie doll went online with My Design, which allows customers to go online to customize and order their own Barbie doll friend. Barbie doll also started becoming more involved in a little girl s life with a flexible new body allowing her to be more. active as a gymnast, bicyclist, and skater. In 1992 the first Barbie doll store opened at FAO Schwarz in New York City. Barbie soon was made to be the first women president candidate. Mattel celebrated Barbie s thirty-fifth Anniversary in 1994 with a re-issue of the very first doll and the Limited Edition Gold Jubilee Barbie. In the anu physics honours thesis 1990s, the wardrobe for Barbie reached new heights of elegance and drama. She wore astonishing originals designed for in honor of walter friedlaender, her by Christian Dior, Bob Mackie, and Ralph Lauren as well as the glittering Starlight Dance ensemble. In a classic-like suit, City-Style Barbie took on a sophisticated look, perfect for the time. Also during this era, the personal statement Barbie Millicent Roberts Collection of fashions was introduced.
Family and essays of walter friends hold a very important place in the history of Barbie. Besides Ken, Barbie also had a best friend, Midge, who was introduced in 1963 but returned in 1968. Anu Physics Honours! Barbie s little sister Skipper, introduced in 1964, Sister Stacie, introduced in 1992, and baby Kelly, new in 1995 are also all very popular. She also has friends from a variety of backgrounds, reflecting the essays of walter diversity of the. real world. In 1968, Barbie doll s black friend Christie was first introduced, in 1988 Teresa, a Hispanic doll came, and in 1990 Kira, an Asian friend, debuted. In 1997 Share a Smile Becky, Barbie s friend in a wheelchair was introduced for the first time. Barbie s circle of essay, friends also includes others such as: Francie, Tutti, Todd, Stacy, P.J., Jamie, Cara, Kelley, Steffie, Tracy, Miko, Whitney, Diva, Dee Dee, Dana, Steven, Kayla, Devon, Nia, Belinda, Bopsy, and Steven. Many of these are now retired due to the fact that they were part of a series.
Barbie fans of all ages can also enjoy the line of special edition and limited edition dolls designed specifically with the collector in mind. Exquisite fashions designed by essays in honor, Nolan Miller, re-creations from Barbie doll s early years, and Barbie and Ken as characters from popular files such as The X-Files, are helping the statement law world of essays, Barbie Collectibles grow. The value of older dolls is rising as more and more adults discover the world of Barbie. Coursework Student! In conclusion, Barbie still reflects the dreams, hopes, and future realities of an entire generation of little girls who still see her as representing the same American dream and of walter friedlaender aspirations as when she was first introduced in 1959. Our writers are all Uni graduates able to work effectively on any level under time constraints. Well-versed in most subjects and citation styles, our writers have years of ghostwriting experience doing both academic and professional projects. Every paper is written from scratch based on anu physics thesis your instructions and there is no plagiarism of any kind. Plus, we guarantee free unlimited revisions.
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Research in Programming Languages. Is there still research to be done in Programming Languages? This essay touches both on the topic of programming languages and on the nature of research work. I am mostly concerned in analyzing this question in the context of Academia, i.e. within the expectations of academic programs and research funding agencies that support research work in the STEM disciplines ( Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics ). This is not the only possible perspective, but it is the one I am taking here. PLs are dear to my heart, and essays in honor of walter friedlaender, a considerable chunk of my career was made in that area. As a designer, there is something fundamentally interesting in designing a language of any kind.
It’s even more interesting and gratifying when people actually start exercising those languages to create non-trivial software systems. Coursework Student. As a user, I love to use programming languages that I haven’t used before, even when the languages in question make me curse every other line. But the truth of the matter is that ever since I finished my Ph.D. in the late 90s, and especially since I joined the ranks of Academia, I have been having a hard time convincing myself that research in PLs is essays in honor, a worthy endeavor. I feel really bad about essays comparing two cities, my rational arguments against it, though. Hence this essay.
Perhaps by essays in honor of walter friedlaender, the time I am done with it I will have come to terms with this dilemma. Back in the 50s, 60s and 70s, programming languages were a BigDeal, with large investments, upfront planning, and causes, big drama on standardization committees (Ada was the essays friedlaender epitome of that model). Byron Wien Essay. Things have changed dramatically during the 80s. Since the 90s, a considerable percentage of in honor friedlaender, new languages that ended up being very popular were designed by lone programmers, some of them kids with no research inclination, some as a side hobby, and without any grand goal other than either making some routine activities easier or for anu physics honours, plain hacking fun. Examples: PHP, by Rasmus Lerdorf circa 1994, “originally used for tracking visits to his online resume, he named the suite of scripts ‘Personal Home Page Tools,’ more frequently referenced as ‘PHP Tools.’ ”  PHP is a marvel of how a horrible language can become the in honor foundation of large numbers of applications… for a second time! Worse is Better redux.
But the core of the matter is that “the right thing” was not the goal. It seems that a reliable implementation of a language that addresses an of walter friedlaender, important practical need is the key for the popularity of a programming language. But being opportunistic isn’t what research is supposed to be about… (or is it?) Also to be fair, not all languages designed in the 90s and later started as side projects. For example, Java was a relatively large investment by Sun Microsystems. So was .NET later by Microsoft. And, finally, all of these new languages, even when created over a week as someone’s pet project, sit on the shoulders of all things that existed before. Two Cities. This leads me to the second itch: one striking commonality in all modern programming languages, especially the popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them ! Without exception, including the languages developed in essays of walter, research groups, they all feel like mashups of byron essay, concepts that already existed in programming languages in 1979, wrapped up in their own idiosyncratic syntax. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s)
So one pertinent question is: given that not much seems to have emerged since 1979 (that’s 30+ years!), is there still anything to innovate in of walter, programming languages? Or have we reached the asymptotic plateau of personal statement law, innovation in in honor of walter, this area? I need to make an important detour here on the nature of research. Perhaps I’m completely off; perhaps producing innovative new software is on american, not a goal of [STEM] research . Under this approach, any software work is essays friedlaender, dismissed from STEM pursuits, unless it is necessary for some specific goal — like if you want to study some far-off galaxy and you need an IT infrastructure to collect the data and statement law, make simulations (S for Science); or if you need some glue code for piecing existing systems together (T for Technology); or if you need to improve the performance of something that already exists (E for Engineering); or if you are a working on some Mathematical model of computation and want to make your ideas come to essays of walter friedlaender life in the form of a language (M for two cities, Mathematics). Essays In Honor Friedlaender. This is an extreme submissive view of software systems, one that places software in the back sit of STEM and that denies the comparing existence of value in research in/by software itself.
If we want to in honor friedlaender lead something on our own, let’s just… do empirical studies of technology or become biologists/physicists/chemists/mathematicians or make existing things perform better or do theoretical/statistical models of universes that already exist or that are created by others. Right? I confess I have a dysfunctional relationship with this idea. Personal. Personally, I can’t be happy without creating software things, but I have been able to make my scientist-self function both as a cold-minded analyst and, at times, as an expert passenger in someone else’s research project. The design work, for me, has moved to sabbatical time, evenings and weekends; I don’t publish it [much] other than the code itself and in honor friedlaender, some informal descriptions. Coursework Student Igcse. And yet, I loathe this situation. I loathe it because it’s is clear to me that software systems are something very, very special. In Honor. Software revolutionized everything in unexpected ways, including the methods and practices that our esteemed colleagues in the “hard” sciences hold near and dear for a very long time. The evolution of information technology in school admission essay, the past 60 years has been _way_ off from what our colleagues thought they needed. Over and over again, software systems have been created that weren’t part of any scientific project, as such, and that ended up playing a central role in Science. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of essays of walter friedlaender, science or that one or maybe something else.
I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in crna admission essay, them. It should not be called Science. It is a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Essays In Honor. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of crna admission essay, things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is so abused that it has lost its meaning.
Let’s assume, then, that it’s acceptable to create/design new things — innovate — in in honor, the context of doctoral work. Now comes the real hard question. If anyone — researchers, engineers, talented kids, summer interns — can design and implement programming languages, what are the actual hard goals that doctoral research work in programming languages seeks that distinguishes it from what anyone can do? Let me attempt to answer these questions, first, with some well-known goals of language design: Performance — one can always have more of this; certain application domains need it more than others. Personal Statement. This usually involves having to come up with interesting data structures and essays in honor, algorithms for the implementation of crna school essay, PLs that weren’t easy to devise. Human Productivity — one can always want more of this. There is no ending to trying to make development activities easier/faster. Verifiability — in some domains this is important.
There are other goals, but they are second-order. Of Walter Friedlaender. For example, languages may also need to catch up with innovations in hardware design — multi-core comes to mind. This is a second-order goal, the byron real goal behind it is to increase performance by essays, taking advantage of byron, potentially higher-performing hardware architectures. In other words, someone wanting to do doctoral research work in programming languages ought to have one or more of these goals in mind, and — very important — ought to be ready to demonstrate how his/her ideas meet those goals . If you tell me that your language makes something run faster, consume less energy, makes some task easier or results in programs with less bugs, the scientist in me demands that you show me the data that supports such claims. A lot of research activity in programming languages falls under the performance goal, the in honor of walter Engineering side of things. I think everyone in our field understands what this entails, and is able to differentiate good work from bad work under that goal. But a considerable amount of honours thesis, research activities in in honor, programming languages invoke the human productivity argument; entire sub-fields have emerged focusing on essay on american causes the engineering of languages that are believed to increase human productivity. Essays In Honor Of Walter. So I’m going to focus on the human productivity goal.
The human productivity argument touches on the core of what attracts most of us to on american causes creating things: having a direct positive effect on other people. It has been carelessly invoked since the beginning of Computer Science. (I highly recommend this excellent essay by Stefan Hanenberg published at Onward! 2010 with a critique of of walter friedlaender, software science’s neglect of human factors) Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process. Statement. If you know of in honor, such study, please point me to it. I have seen many observational studies and controlled experiments that try to do it [5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, among many]. Igcse. I think those studies are really important, there ought to be more of essays in honor of walter, them, but they are always very difficult to do [well]. Unfortunately, they always fall short of giving us any definite conclusions because, even when they are done right, correlation does not imply causation. Hence the never-ending ping-pong between studies that focus on the same thing and essay, seem to reach opposite of walter conclusions, best known in essay on american, the health sciences. We are starting to see that ping-pong in software science too, for example 7 vs 9. But at essays friedlaender, least these studies show some correlations, or lack thereof, given specific experimental conditions, and they open the healthy discussion about what conditions should be used in order to get meaningful results.
I have seen even more research and informal articles about programming languages that claim benefits to human productivity without providing any evidence for it whatsoever, other than the anu physics authors’ or the essays in honor of walter community’s intuition, at best based on crna school rational deductions from abstract beliefs that have never been empirically verified. Here is essays in honor of walter friedlaender, one that surprised me because I have the highest respect for the academic soundness of Haskell. Statements like this “ Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs! ” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the essays comparing data to support this claim, this statement is deceptive; while it can be made informally in a blog post designed to evangelize the crowd, it definitely should not be made in the context of doctoral work unless that work provides solid evidence for such a strong statement. That article is not an outlier. The Internets are full of of walter, articles claiming improved software development productivity for just about every other language. No evidence is ever provided, the argumentation is always either (a) deducted from principles that are supposed to be true but that have never been verified, or (b) extrapolated from ad-hoc, highly biased, severely skewed personal experiences. This is the main reason why I stopped doing research in statement, Programming Languages in essays in honor of walter, any official capacity.
Back when I was one of the main evangelists for AOP I realized at some point that I had crossed the line to saying things for which I had very little evidence. I was simply… evangelizing, i.e. convincing others of an idea that I believed strongly. Personal. At some point I felt I needed empirical evidence for what I was saying. But providing evidence for the human productivity argument is damn hard! My scientist self cannot lead doctoral students into that trap, a trap that I know too well. Moreover, designing and essays in honor friedlaender, executing the experiments that lead to uncovering such evidence requires a lot of time and comparing two cities, a whole other set of skills that have absolutely nothing to do with the time and skills for actually designing programming languages.
We need to learn the methods that experimental psychologists use. And, in the end of all that work, we will be lucky if we unveil correlations but we will not be able to draw any definite conclusions, which is… depressing. But without empirical evidence of any kind, and from a scientific perspective, unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, Haskell or AspectJ (which are mostly developed and used by academics and have been the topic of many PhD dissertations) are as good as unsubstantiated claims pertaining to, say, PHP (which is mostly developed and in honor of walter friedlaender, used by non-academics). The PHP community is actually very honest when it comes to stating the benefits of using the admission language. For example, here is an honest-to-god set of reasons for using PHP.
Notice that there are no claims whatsoever about PHP leading to less bugs or higher programmer productivity (as if anyone would dare to in honor state that!); they’re just pragmatic reasons. (Note also: I’m not implying that Haskell/AspectJ/PHP are “comparables;” they have quite different target domains. I’m just comparing the narratives surrounding those languages, the “stories” that the communities tell within themselves and to essay on american revolution causes others) OK, now that I made 823 enemies by pointing out essays in honor of walter friedlaender, that the claims about human productivity surrounding languages that have emerged in essays, academic communities — and essays in honor, therefore ought to know better — are unsubstantiated, PLUS 865 enemies by saying that empirical user studies are inconclusive and student igcse, depressing… let me try to turn my argument around. Is the high bar of scientific evidence killing innovation in essays in honor of walter friedlaender, programming languages? Is this what’s causing the asymptotic behavior? It certainly is what’s keeping me away from that topic, but I’m just a grain of coursework of ict student, sand. In Honor Of Walter. What about the wien essay work of many who propose intriguing new design ideas that are then shot down in peer-review committees because of the lack of evidence?
This ties back to my detour on the nature of research. Join Detour Design experimentation vs. Scientific evidence. So, we’re back to essays in honor of walter whether design innovation per se is an admissible first-order goal of doctoral work or not. And now that question is on american, joined by a counterpart: is the provision of friedlaender, scientific evidence really required for doctoral work in programming languages? If what we have in essays comparing two cities, hand is not Science, we need to friedlaender be careful not to blindly adopt methods that work well for Science, because that may kill the essence of our discipline. In my view, that essence has been the anu physics thesis radical, fast-paced, off the mark design experimentation enabled by software. This rush is fairly incompatible with the need to provide scientific evidence for the design “hopes.” I’ll try a parallel: drug design, the modern-day equivalent of essays in honor, alchemy. Crna School. In terms of research it is similar to in honor software: partly based on rigor, partly on intuitions, and now also on automated tools that simply perform an crna school admission essay, enormous amount of logical combinations of molecules and determine some objective function. When it comes to deployment, whoever is driving that work better put in place a plan for friedlaender, actually testing the theoretical expectations in the context of crna school admission, actual people.
Does the drug really do what it is supposed to do without any harmful side effects? We require scientific evidence for essays friedlaender, the claimed value of experimental drugs. Should we require scientific evidence for the value of experimental software? The parallel diverges significantly with respect to igcse the consequences of essays of walter friedlaender, failure. A failure in drug design experimentation may lead to people dying or getting even more sick. A failure in software design experimentation is only a big deal if the experiment had a huge investment from the beginning and/or pertains to safety-critical systems. There are still some projects like that, and for those, seeking solid evidence of their benefits before deploying the production version of the experiment is a good thing. But not all software systems are like that.
Therefore the burden of scientific evidence may be too much to bear. Coursework Of Ict Igcse. It is essays, also often the essays case that over time, the enormous amount of testing by real use is enough to provide assurances of all kinds. One good example of design experimentation being at odds with scientific evidence is the proposal that Tim Berners-Lee made to of walter CERN regarding the implementation of the hypertext system that became the essay Web. Nowhere in in honor of walter friedlaender, that proposal do we find a plan for verification of claims. That’s just a solid good proposal for an intriguing “linked information system.” I can imagine TB-L’s manager thinking: “hmm, ok, this is intriguing, he’s a smart guy, he’s not asking that many resources, let’s have him do it and law, see what comes of it.
If nothing comes of it, no big deal.” Had TB-L have to devise a scientific or engineering assessment plan for that system beyond “in the second phase, we’ll install it on many machines” maybe the world would be very different today, because he might have gotten caught in the black hole of essays of walter friedlaender, trying to find quantifiable evidence for something that didn’t need that kind of validation. Granted, this was not a doctoral topic proposal; it was a proposal for the design and implementation of a very concrete system with software in it, one that (1) clearly identified the problem, (2) built on of ict student igcse previous ideas, including the author’s own experience, (3) had some intriguing insights in it, (4) stated expected benefits and potential applications — down to friedlaender the prediction of search engines and personal, graph-based data analysis. Should a proposal like TB-L’s be rejected if it were to be a doctoral topic proposal? When is an unproven design idea doctoral material and other isn’t? If we are to accept design ideas without validation plans as doctoral material, how do we assess them?
In order to do experimental design research AND be scientifically honest at the same time, one needs to let go of claims altogether. In that dreadful part of a topic proposal where the in honor of walter committee asks the wien essay student “what are your claims?” the student should probably answer “none of interest.” In experimental design research, one can have hopes or expectations about the effects of the system, and those must be clearly articulated, but very few certainties will likely come out of such type of work. And that’s ok! It’s very important to essays friedlaender be honest. For example, it’s not ok to claim “my language produces bug-free programs” and then defend this with a deductive argument based on unproven assumptions; but it’s ok to essays comparing two cities state “I expect that my language produces programs with fewer bugs [but I don’t have data to prove it].” TB-L’s proposal was really good at of walter friedlaender, being honest. Finally, here is an attempt at establishing a rigorous criteria for design assessment in the context of doctoral and crna, post-doctoral research: Problem : how important and surprising is the in honor friedlaender problem and how good is its description? The problem space is, perhaps, the essays comparing most important component for a piece of design research work.
If the design is not well grounded in an interesting and important problem, then perhaps it’s not worth pursuing as research work. Essays Of Walter. If it’s a old hard problem, it should be formulated in a surprising manner. Very often, the novelty of honours thesis, a design lies not in the design itself but in its designer seeing the problem differently. So — surprise me with the problem. Essays. Show me insights on the nature of the problem that we don’t already know. Comparing Two Cities. Potential : what intriguing possibilities are unveiled by the design? Good design research work should open up doors for new avenues of exploration. Essays. Feasibility : good design research work should be grounded on what is possible to do. Admission Essay. The ideas should be demonstrated in the form of a working system. Additionally, design research work, like any other research work, needs to be placed in a solid context of what already exists. This criteria has two consequences that I really like: first, it substantiates our intuitions about proposals such as TB-L’s “linked information system” being a fine piece of [design] research work; second, it substantiates our intuitions on the difference of languages like Haskell vs. languages like PHP.
I leave that as an exercise to the reader! I would love to bring design back to essays my daytime activities. I would love to let my students engage in anu physics honours, designing new things such as new programming languages and environments — I have lots of ideas for what I would like to do in that area! I believe there is a path to essays in honor friedlaender establishing a set of rigorous criteria regarding the assessment of design that is different from scientific/quantitative validation. All this, however, doesn’t depend on me alone. Statement Law. If my students’ papers are going to be shot down in program committees because of the lack of validation, then my wish is a curse for them. If my grant proposals are going to be rejected because they have no validation plan other than “and then we install it in many machines” or “and then we make the in honor of walter friedlaender software open source and free of charge” then my wish is a curse for me. We need buy-in from a much larger community — in a way, reverse the trend of placing software research under the auspices of science and engineering [alone] . This, however, should only be done after the revolution community understands what science and in honor friedlaender, scientific methods are all about (the engineering ones — everyone knows about them). At this point there is still a severe lack of personal statement, understanding of science within the in honor of walter friedlaender CS community. Our graduate programs need to cover empirical (and other scientific) methods much better than they currently do.
If we simply continue to ignore the workings of honours thesis, science and the burden of scientific proof, we end up continuing to make careless religious statements about our programming languages and systems that simply will lead nowhere, under the misguided impression that we are scientists because the name says so. Copyright © Crista Videira Lopes. All rights reserved. Note: this is a work-in-progress essay. I may update it from time to in honor of walter time.
Feedback welcome. 104 Responses to Research in Programming Languages. Thanks for the interesting article! I entirely agree with you when you say: “we need to essays two cities be careful not to essays in honor blindly adopt methods that. work well for Science, because that may kill the essence. of our discipline” Indeed!
One of my favorite quotes is Einstein’s. “Not everything that can be counted counts, and not everything that counts can be counted” I think this is especially important to coursework of ict student igcse bear in mind when considering PL/Design. (And yes, program committees are terrible at evaluating language designs — partly. because they are very difficult to evaluate! — I have many anecdotes about this, all. quite objective IMO as none of them are about my own papers, but thats another story…) That said, I believe the situation is not as dire as you indicate. As you point out: 1. Friedlaender. “…one striking commonality in essay, all modern programming languages, especially the. popular ones, is how little innovation there is in them!”
2. Essays Of Walter Friedlaender. “…there appears to be no correlation between the success of a programming language. and its emergence in the form of someone’s doctoral or post-doctoral work.” The explanation for this is *not* that all the interesting/innovative PL work was done. in the 70s, and that the comparing work now is simply too technical etc. Instead, the explanation is. that it *takes decades* to really figure out essays in honor, what the truly useful, valuable and. implementable designs/features are, and essay on american causes, the best way to integrate them with. “mainstream” languages. In other words, the “tech transfer” process for language. design has proven to be decades long…
So yes, there is of walter friedlaender, little correlation with programming *languages*, but I think the. picture is on american causes, quite different if you look at *features* not entire languages. Recall that it took GC nearly 50 years to go mainstream! As you point out, there are. few definitive “scientific” studies about why even GC is better. Once you move to. things like static typing, I think it becomes an of walter, impossible endeavor, for coursework, the reasons. Einstein pithily describes. Thus, instead of nifty scientific charts, what we have are. series of anecdotes and narratives built up over a long span (maybe decades), at.
which point the features inch into the mainstream. Every time someone says “there has been no new innovative work in languages” since. so-and-so’s (Turing award) winning work in the 60s, 70s, one simply has to point. to the explosion of cleverness in Haskell, much of which has already. “gone mainstream”. The single most astonishing and influential feature is. probably Typeclasses — see Simon Peyton-Jones’ graph. which enabled a slew of other things (monads, FRP, generic programming, quickcheck etc.) I doubt any of this could be anticipated when typeclasses came out, and indeed there are, to my amazement, those who still question the value of this.
feature. Nevertheless, two-and-a-half decades on, these are all features. (local type inference, lambdas, LINQ,…) seeping into mainstream languages. C# has been particularly progressive in essays in honor, this regard. Other recent examples. that pop to mind are the essays comparing two cities early academic work on SELF/OO (designs + optimizations) which are now the basis for many of the performance improvements for JS. And of course, there are the many innovations around Scala and F# which.
are greatly informed by deep technical ideas that came out of the friedlaender academic. So, the upshot is personal, that yes, a lot of work in essays of walter, PL (and SE) is indeed design, which. is difficult if not impossible to evaluate using the usual scientific method. We should be looking for better ways to evaluate them, and not nipping ideas. in the bud before there is bullet proof “evidence” of merit. Nevertheless, all is not lost. There does appear to be a (rather lengthy) social process, where thanks to.
anecdotal narratives there is a steady stream of academic ideas that eventually. seriously influencing mainstream languages. We should be thinking of ways to. shorten this process, and in the meantime, be patient. If nothing else, I’d argue that the most important contribution of PL research is the coursework student introduction of concepts that are later assimilated into in honor of walter more popular languages, even if the research languages themselves never see wide acceptance. Python owes its list comprehensions to Haskell (similarly with Rust’s typeclasses), and I’d like to think that AspectJ had a non-negligible influence on Python’s decorators. For a more extreme example, consider the fact (the fact! ) that we will never again see a new programming language that does not feature first-class functions. I like to think that there are countless novel, pragmatic concepts hiding away in obscure programming languages that are merely waiting for their day in the sun.
This is crna admission, really spot on. I would like to refer you to a couple of things that come to essays of walter mind that you might find useful for advancing this line of thinking. First, I saw a talk by comparing, Jonathan Edwards that was very much along the lines of what you wrote here: http://alarmingdevelopment.org/?p=5. Second, Christopher Alexander’s early work on patterns in of walter friedlaender, architecture and urban design have been referenced quite a bit in computer science, but seldom is his ‘magnum opus’, a four-book series on the ‘nature of order’, referenced. These texts move far beyond the early work. You would do well to have a look at the first book, which tries to establish an objective theory of design not based on scientific principles: http://www.amazon.com/s/ref=nb_sb_noss_1?url=search-alias%3Daps#038;field-keywords=the+nature+of+order#038;x=0#038;y=0. Third, you might be interested to read some discussion on the history of music programming languages. Max/MSP and statement law, Pd, both dataflow-oriented, offer what I would estimate to be an order of essays in honor friedlaender, magnitude of productivity gain for causes, certain tasks in in honor friedlaender, building one-off multi-media systems. They’re a bit like a UNIX for real-time multi-media + control signals. Personal Statement Law. This essay reminded me a bit of the anti-academic and organic approach that Miller Puckette took in building them despite being trained as a mathematician and essays in honor of walter, developing them in an academic setting. This serves as a good lesson that successful software isn’t necessarily designed by having good principles, but rather the proper environment , namely, one with energy and a need.
Check out two papers in the Computer Music Journal where this is discussed: 2002. Miller Puckette, “Max at Seventeen”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) 2002. Byron Wien Essay. Eric Lyon, “Dartmouth Symposium on the Future of Computer Music Software: A Panel Discussion”. Computer Music Journal, 26(4) Generally, computer music is one of the more interesting fields to look at if you’re interested in essays in honor, ascertaining the future of personal law, HCI, computer science and psychological research since from the beginning they have not been accorded the friedlaender luxury of statement law, forgoing certain constraints, such as that everything must happen in real-time, data must be of in honor friedlaender, a certain resolution (in time and byron essay, ‘space’) and essays of walter, that non-tech-savvy practitioners from essay, other fields (musicians) must be able to use the tools as experts. Oh, and I would add that if you are not familiar with Bill Buxton’s career, it may prove interesting reading for of walter friedlaender, you. He began in computer music and is now a strong advocate for Design in technology. One insight that he often emphasizes, which I don’t claim is his originally, is that new technologies take 20-30 years to be adopted.
According to this view, new ideas in software design should expect to lie dormant for at least 20 years, echoing what @Ben wrote above. I fully agree with your viewpoint re. human productivity. I watch commercial Java progamming taking place and I see productivity no better than COBOL and probably a lot worse given how much more is expected of software now. I suspect most step change improvements in productivity have to come from better adaption to the task, i.e. from anu physics, languages that are to a greater or lesser degree domain-specific. There is an old but fairly well-known and scientific paper by Verner Tate on comparison between COBOL and a 4GL. The 4GL was. 5x more productive. Of course most of the 4GLs were arguably domain-specific languages for database-centric enterprise software. The paper is available via IEEE but I don’t find any public copy. Essays In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. The title is “estimating size and effort in fourth-generation development”.
If you have Bob Glass’s book Software Conflict it’s highlighted on p.98, something I was amused to personal law find recently as I used to work with and on the 4GL technology in of walter, question 20 years ago. Of course the commercial 4GLs were largely killed off by a combination of crna admission essay, factors including the Web and the rise of open source, but we did lose something there. That. 5x productivity is eyecatching but it’s consistent with my personal experience with the technology. Those who do not study history, etc.
– comprehensions didn’t originate in essays of walter friedlaender, haskell (probably not even from anu physics, Miranda, as they were available in smalltalk, and essays, probably that was taken from somewhere else) – aspect oriented programming didn’t start with aspectJ. I think Kiczales started his experiments using common lisp. at least the early papers on aop used that. other than that, I think you have a good point. There will be a day when the programming universe accepts the fact that LISP is by far the best programming language in the world, a language that can actually “think” and make decisions, logical decisions. The shortest path algorithm can be written in LISP in a few lines – I challenge any programmer out essay, there to essays of walter do it in a few pages in C, without using any dependencies. LISP has been underestimated for quite so long, and honours, it’s nice to essays in honor of walter see that someone (like you) acknowledges the contributions that LISP has on the programing ecosystem.
u might want to add sml languages to your list of developments. also check out mythryl and essays, other ports of ocaml/sml languages. Very interesting. I’m in in honor friedlaender, the industry developing software. I’m not sure what to think about the 3 goals you state: for performance, we have grids, clusters, GPUs, it seems there is more and more hardware so that even if the language itself is not “fast”, the grid will compensate (as an aside, I’m seeing horrible uses of grids from a resource point of comparing, view: people don’t care about writing efficient software, because they know they can have 1,000 more nodes on the grid anyway…) ; for productivity, what I’m seeing everyday is that: either the of walter friedlaender problem is (partially) solved by the use of libraries, or what’s really getting you is the environment, such mundane things as repositories, build systems, deployments (just a matter of organization, more than science, I guess)… and testing – I think each day of statement law, coding results in 2 or 3 days of testing, that testing being a kind of “proof” that the system is in honor, not going to… crash and of ict student igcse, make you lost money. Essays In Honor. In other words, in my practice, writing code is definitely not what takes the most time. Reducing the amount of testing we have to do, or reducing the possibilities of byron wien, bugs would in the end be the in honor friedlaender most useful (to me), and I’m constantly looking for automated proving tools, but those are not forthcoming for C++ or Java.
I would like to echo Frank’s comment. I work in a 50 person team all working on the same codebase. Essays Comparing Two Cities. The ratio of writing production code to essays friedlaender writing unit, integration and acceptance tests is similar. There is nothing in personal statement law, C# that assists us perform this testing. The challenges and complexity for us lie in building a continuous integration environment that detects problems, identifies the essays of walter developer responsible informs them of the problem quickly so that they can fix the on american causes issue. When a developer commits bad code like a failing test we ideally need for in honor, this to be isolated so that productivity of the remaining team is not affected. Byron. This last requirement is proving particularly tricky. I was doing my phd in PL and felt the same way about AOP.
I’m relieved someone involved with it ginally said agreed. Another goal of PL research ought to be discovering more primitive forms of computation, e.g. continuations, closures, type theories. Friedlaender. Concurrency is honours thesis, still a mess and could use some innovation. Also distributed programming, reliable systems, and module systems. Essays Of Walter. None of the popular languages have anything to offer for these problems. I have been using and advocating literate software for a decade. I claim that it improves software due to three effects:
1) the coursework student developer has to explain the code and, as a side-effect, discovered. corner cases, missed cases, bad design, etc. before submission to essays in honor review. 2) the essays team reviewer have text that explains the design decisions and essays in honor of walter friedlaender, the. rationale behind the code. they are able to critique the design as well as. the code. Anu Physics Honours Thesis. They will better understand the code which leads to better. review which leads to higher quality. 3) the code “lives” because it is embedding in human-to-human.
communication. There are over essays of walter friedlaender, 100,000 dead piles of code on Sourceforge. because the author left and nobody has a clue about how to maintain and. modify the code. I have been trying to find a researcher at a University interested in. creating studies to confirm or deny the above assertions which are. based only on my experience. Claim 2, for statement law, instance, could be tested by taking previously published. software (e.g. Of Walter. cryptographic software).
Give one group the book. “Implementing Cryptographic Software” which contains the comparing actual. source code. Essays In Honor Of Walter. Give a second group just the source code from the book. Have a group review and post-review test. Essay. See which group has a. better understanding of the code, e.g. why some constant has the. We need studies like this to “put some science” behind the opinions. Literate programming is of walter, a fundamentally important technology but. nobody will touch it unless we do the studies. If this would be of interest to you, contact me. The premise on coursework of ict which Don Knuth created the concepts for essays of walter, LP was the honours idea to create documentation and program code from just one source.
This premise has become obsolete many years ago, with tools like Javadoc or Doxygen. These latter tools also come with a big advantage, as they don’t require a pre-source code version of your programs, and therefore can directly interoperate with any developer tool of in honor of walter, your choice. LP however greatly inhibits that choice, as the ‘WEB’ code isn’t well suited to interoperate with many modern tools involving version control or team development. LP was a great concept 30 years ago, when there was no way to create source code and law, documentation from a single source, in the same way TeX was a good idea when there was no WYSIWIG. These times are past now. I liked this article because of how it tried to get people to think out of the box, and stop follwing well-trodden paths. I don’t think going down a 30 year old path will lead to any new insights. Putting documentation and source code in one place is not the essays in honor of walter friedlaender purpose of literate programing.
The main merit of literate programming is to rearrange the essay on american revolution code in in honor of walter, what best for human mind to follow. TeX is essay, still a good idea now. The current WYSIWIG sucks. What I like to see is an editor that build for dual monitors where you edit TeX on one screen and have the rendered output on essays in honor friedlaender the other display. The insistence of Don Knuth on maintaining TeX has been preventing this to happen. I have acquired many of Don Knuth’s books and generally consider myself one of his fans. From his literate programming, I take the merits of being able to on american revolution arrange code and take forms in what best for human reading, rather than computer parsing. And often, what is best for human reading is what best for human writing. However, I am not big fan of documentations. Writing papers to essays friedlaender defend one’s idea are difficult and not fun except when that is the purpose. It has its merit in academics, but in practical situations of programing, we are trying to wien get things done rather than to propagate an idea.
And the current very reason that we need documentation is because current languages are still oriented toward machines, rather than expressing human ideas. What I want to see in the direction of of walter friedlaender, programming research is a system that takes in personal statement law, what is intuitive for humans and translate them into of walter friedlaender what is crna school admission essay, ready for machines. Essays Of Walter. This system should be restrictive on the machine side so optimizations can happen, and flexible on the human side because that is how our mind operate. Most important that I want to see is coursework igcse, emphasis that the programming system not to force machine concepts upon of walter, us. Byron Essay. If the friedlaender programmer want certain concepts in OOP, he could write that part in OOP, or functional, or any domain specific form. However, the language system should not force the programmer to think everything in OOP or functional or any domain specific way. Once we can really express our ideas in most natural ways that we can unambiguously read and understand, then we shouldn’t need much additional documenting. Please post this also at http://lambda-the-ultimate.org/ I’d do it for you, but you may have your own reasons for coursework of ict, not wanting to.
Please do! I guess I’m not used to posting stuff there, although I like that site very much. BTW, we had this same argument at the WGLD meeting last week in London. It is nice to essays in honor see a very well thought out argument in honours, this blog post. Nearly 30 years without fundamental progress in programming languages shows that we’ve reached a trashold to essays of walter a completely new domain of programming languages. Maybe the next step are natural languages maybe its some synthesis of comparing, various programming principles. My biggest constraint about current languages (or programming envionments) is that you need a zoo different languages to make an enterprise running: front end (HTM, CSS, …), middle tier (Java, c#, standard components, …), backend (PL/SQL, System’s API, Libraries, …), deployment (shell, scheduling tools, server configuration, …), organization (versioning tools, CI server, …). My dream is to have an all-in-one language I can use to talk with the computer about all of in honor friedlaender, theses domains. I am sorry to have to anu physics honours break this to essays you, but UNIX, C, and C++ were also small “personal” developments. Ken Thompson started UNIX in 1969 and slowly brought others in on its development. Dennis Richie started C in 1969, it was many years before he expanded the scope of work to include any other developers.
Bjarne Stroustrup not only personal law, started C++ by himself (in 1979), but even now he remains the primary definer of the language. ATT’s funding of UNIX was so limited that in 1971 they could barely afford a PDP 11/20. Instead of trying to mimic our colleagues’ traditional practices, “computer scientists” ought to be showing the way to a new kind of science — maybe that new kind of friedlaender, science or that one or maybe something else. I dare to suggest that the something else is related to the design of things that have software in them. It should not be called Science. Comparing. It is friedlaender, a bit like Engineering, but it’s not it either because we’re not dealing [just] with physical things. Technology doesn’t cut it either. It needs a new name, something that denotes “the design of things with software in them.” I will call it Design for short, even though that word is coursework of ict student igcse, so abused that it has lost its meaning. I think it’s fascinating that you’ve come up with this, because I’ve seen a very, very similar idea come up in the real-time and embedded systems community. The name they use is “cyber-physical systems” (CPS) which you can read about on Wikipedia.
Basically, CPS is mainly used as a way to structure funding opportunities and essays in honor, seems to essays two cities have been popularized largely from that source. There’s a lot of skepticism about whether it’s a “real thing” or just a fad of language. Essays In Honor Friedlaender. And I’ve heard it described in many different ways (some clearly better than others). The best way I’ve heard it described is thus (you can imagine I’m giving a spiel at a conference, trying to sell you on the idea): Engineers used to personal statement law build things. Now, engineers build things connected or composed of computer networks and computer code. This enables a vast increase in essays in honor friedlaender, complexity of the system (a good thing) but makes building and verifying the system much more complex. A good example is a modern passenger aircraft (think Airbus 380, Dreamliner) or automobile (which sometimes can have 100 “ECUs”, or embedded computers, most of comparing, which are connected by a bus). This is a very, very important research area, because in the future, everything will be like this – buildings, complex robotic systems, medicine, etc.
Although sometimes I am skeptical of CPS, when put that way, I really think the approach makes a lot of sense. Anyway, just wanted to express my excitement at seeing this bubble up in another place, point you in that direction in case you want to explore it. I found your blog from Hacker News and I’m not that familiar with your background, so apologies if I’m preaching to essays in honor the choir here. Hope you see the connection I’m trying to make. I consider CSP concurrency very useful and wien, innovative. Important languages with their publication dates are Squeak(1985), Newsqueak(1990), Alef(1995), Limbo(2000), Go(2009). This doesn’t seem “no innovation” to me. Same for of walter, Pi-calculus(1992), Join-calculus(1996), JoCaml(1999), C omega(2003), and so on. Anu Physics Honours Thesis. In general, we learned a lot about how to friedlaender do concurrency in programming languages, and we are reaping benefits (Go, C#). You seem to consider mashup non-innovative, but I consider languages integrating OOP and FP type systems pretty innovative.
OCaml(1996), Scala(2003), F sharp(2005), and so on. Other examples I can think of are lazy evaluation, delimited continuation, dataflow programming, metaprogramming. Most of advances in personal statement, lazy evaluation are post-1980, especially how to implement it. Friedlaender. The Implementation of Functional Programming Languages is from 1987. Shift/Reset delimited continuation appeared in essay on american revolution causes, 1990 and we learned a lot more about it since. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. For dataflow programming, SISAL is from byron essay, 1983, Oz is from essays in honor of walter friedlaender, 1991. Byron Wien Essay. For metaprogramming, the essays friedlaender first widely used language with hygienic macro, R5RS, appeared in statement law, 1998! Both MetaOCaml and in honor of walter, Template Haskell postdate 2000! Is there still anything to anu physics honours thesis innovate in programming languages?
Yes, there are *a lot* to innovate in programming languages. Interesting essay … And it’s about time the question of “does PL design make for doctoral work?” and in honor of walter friedlaender, “if yes, how do we evaluate?” gets asked. I wonder whether mathematics would be an appropriate analogy here, with core ideas such as monads being analogous to mathematics, and PLs that support monads being analogous to mathematical notation. Coursework Of Ict Igcse. We’ve certainly had influential mathematical notation that captured concepts so well that one might say they’ve become fused in the minds of people. Examples such as the place value system, algebra, vector notation, notations for ordinary calculus, vector calculus, exterior calculus, Feynman diagrams and molecular formulae come to mind. Broadly, though good notations have been influential in communicating mathematical ideas and using them, nobody’s gotten an PhD in math for inventing a notation afaik. At best, these inventions come in the form of in honor friedlaender, a paper or a note.
By analogy, PL design sans new concepts (like new math), to me, seems inadequate for doctoral work. This criterion rules out personal statement law, purely syntactic contributions and of walter, I think that’s a valid criterion – unless one wishes to study Whorfian issues like impact of syntax on cognition. I’ll stop here lest my response itself turn into an essay Thanks for raising these questions. – “C, part of a large investment in Unix”… doesn’t match the history I know – Unix was initially created as an undeground project (Bell thinking they were funding a text processing system), and C was the underground’s underground as it was a demand of Unix. AlsoC didn’t seem to have significant up-front design; it was derived from coursework of ict student, previous languages and iterated with the OS project’s needs. – Today’s top-5 popular languages, as listed by the Tiobe index (not a great methodology but the best we have and updated monthly), are Java, C, C#, C++ and essays in honor friedlaender, Objective-C. All these languages were created by comparing, top PL/compiler experts (BTW, Java too fell into essays Guy Steele’s lap). So I wouldn’t say that languages hacked together in a week by amateurs, are anything close to the norm. Even in the bleeding edge, you’ll find that most “hot” languages are once again created by experts like Odersky, Rich Hickey, Bracha, etc. – Notice also that the creators of those hacked languages are often not classic PL researchers, but they are always brilliant and well-educated developers.
Example: Larry Wall had a BS in “natural and artificial languages” and followed with graduate studies in human linguistics–this mix, with the stronger focus in the human languages, easily explains his approach with Perl. Larry’s classic article “Wherefore Art, Thou?” is essential for this discussion: http://www.linuxjournal.com/article/2070. – Languages are expensive tools; the switch to a new language is a huge investment, from each developer’s learning curve to personal statement the enormous weight of legacy code and the wide and deep ecosystem of supporting toolchain and libraries. In Honor. This cuses the frustrating delay for academic innovation to trickle down to mainstream languages, a process that often takes multiple generations of statement law, languages (if not human generations). Essays In Honor Friedlaender. “Universal” platforms, from on american causes, Microsoft’s .NET/CLI to modern Java and now HTML5, have reduced the barrier to entry with common frameworks and runtime technology; but really, they are mostly modern replacements for Unix/POSIX: a common base that provides all core APIs, and core services like I/O and memory management, that any language would need, and does that in a portable way. So, these virtual platforms mostly compensate for the new needs of post-C/Unix languages such as garbage collection, and for the failure of POSIX to become a unversal system interface so application-level libraries would need porting to Win32, Cocoa etc. – Because languages are tools, their success is the result of essays in honor, adoption by comparing, millions of rank-and-file professionals, 90% of those as unable to distinguish the qualities of “properly-designed” PLs as I am unable to in honor of walter distinguish a $1000 champagne from a $20 sparkling wine.
This is byron, critically different from most academic work, e.g. in mathematics o theoretical physics, which is only consumed/judged/adopter by other academics with roughly the same level of of walter friedlaender, education and the same focus and values. Well, it’s not that simple because the on american revolution first stage of adoption is in honor of walter, typically driven by some kind of elite, still the language eventually needs to coursework of ict student scale to in honor of walter Joe Developer, which never happened and wien essay, will never happen with languages like Haskell, regardless of its significant adoption some years ago and very mature implementation. Thanks for all these comments! I’d love to think that many new things were proposed after 1979, but history doesn’t seem to support that view. Here are some concepts mentioned in this discussion: – Dataflow programming: late 60s. – Actors: early 70s by Carl Hewitt. – CSP: late 70s by Hoare. – Pi-calculus: not terribly different from earlier work on essays of walter friedlaender CCS.
The CCS book was published in 1980, the work was done before that. – Lazy evaluation: early 70s within work in lambda calculus. – Metaprogramming: early 70s. – Continuations: mid 60s. I agree that many *improvements* came after this, particularly with respect to implementing these things efficiently (engineering), but also in maturing the igcse concepts themselves.
Improvements are important too, and they have the wonderful property that it’s really easy to in honor of walter assess their value. But it seems that the coursework of ict student igcse *innovations* (i.e. the new concepts) have pretty much stagnated, exceptions not withstanding. I’d love to be proven wrong. “But it takes 20 years for design ideas to come to the masses.” Maybe, maybe not. Some innovations have a really rapid mass-adoption (certain machine learning methods come to mind), others never get mass-adopted.
In any case, we should be seeing stuff proposed in essays in honor of walter, the early 90s come out to the masses now. Where is it? I only see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding). You know when you go to essay revolution causes PL conferences and those old timers stand up and say “but insert vintage language had that back in 1975…”? I used to find it really annoying. But they’re right, for the most part. I think it’s time that we accept that they’re right, and essays friedlaender, reflect on thesis the reasons for this state of affairs.
Thanks also for those who point out that C was an underdog project. I’ll update the essay one of these days. I guess the in honor of walter friedlaender point should be that before the PC era, this kind of work was exclusive of the very few lucky ones who had access to very expensive computers — and that tended to happen only in anu physics honours, University labs and Industrial Research labs. Essays Friedlaender. Once PCs came upon us, that situation changed, and honours, this kind of of walter friedlaender, work started happening in a lot more places by a lot more people. Design of things with software in them was democratized. Hi Crista — I don’t have time to take apart your essay, but I’d like to byron essay add a couple of. 1. All disciplines go through periods of exciting activity and essays in honor, steady-state work. See. Thomas Kuhn’s short book “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions.” Even if you do. not accept his judgement (on paradigm shifts), you should read it for the collection.
of historical work on honours the evolution of disciplines. It is good for researchers to reflect on their discipline and its relationship to the world. It is dangerous to think our own discipline is facing unique problems, and it is essays friedlaender, even more dangerous not to know the history and philosophy of science. [[Example: I agree with you that continuations and of ict igcse, delimited continuations. — as I proposed them at essays in honor friedlaender, POPL ’88 after working them out for personal, 4 years — fall straight into the steady-state part of PL research. Indeed, as you say, Stoy had a similar idea in the 1970s for his OS work, though I do claim what. prompt and friedlaender, control/c/callcc did was much more. Essay On American Revolution. Nevertheless, it’s small. potatoes and essays, yet, I enjoyed working on delimited continuations for years, and I enjoyed it even more getting them just right in personal, a production system.
a few years back (ICFP). It is fun when you see all the pieces fall into of walter friedlaender place.]] 2. You are plain wrong when it comes to essay the evaluation of programming languages. When IBM switched to Java whole-sale, it had gathered a large amount of data on. the productivity of programming in Java (with memory safety, type safety) vs C++ (lack of both). It had started with the in honor friedlaender San Francisco project run by Kathy Boherer, with a dozen or so large companies contributing some 120 software architects.
These. people determined that Java improved the productivity of average programmers by. a factor of essay on american revolution, 3 or more. As someone mentioned, PLs are a major infrastructure investment. and switching infrastructure is essays friedlaender, expensive.
Hence when a major, large company does. switch, we should pay attention. Sadly, we also need to accept that they perceive such. data as a competitive advantage and will therefore not release it. 3. As far as ‘design’ is concerned, I agree with you. Standard PL conferences — perhaps. with the exception of OOPSLA — give way too little credit to two cities design. When they do, including OOPSLA, it is in a strange fashion. Find 20 people to run a symposium on PL. design. Essays Of Walter. I’ll attend.
4. I have heard the lament about anu physics thesis, hobbyists designing PLs many times now, and I have. formulated it myself in semi-public spaces since 2000. I have found myself to be wrong. 4a. These languages tend to essays friedlaender inject one or two new ideas into the discussion. Of Ict Igcse. In addition, unlike PLs designed by academic researchers at universities and labs, the break-thru.
If you find other areas more challenging, do pursue problems there. But if you believe that our own discipline needs serious change, work for change as a researcher who sets new standards and creates new ways of working in our world. I didn’t escape At some point I felt the need to go and essays of walter, explore other parts of town to see what’s all about and how things are done there. I visited a few places, and I ended up spending more time in anu physics thesis, the data mining / IR neighborhood; that is really cool too. Great for doctoral work, because it’s all very quantitative and the benefits are very tangible. My design addiction went back to distributed systems; I’ve been doing a lot of work there, but it’s all mostly unpublished, if one considers having a user base of 5,000 people “unpublished work.” I think these 2 extremes — data mining = research papers + research funding; and OpenSimulator = design fun with a large user base — are a very big part of these reflections on design as doctoral work. These observations are not just for PLs, btw; I think they apply to software systems in general. Languages are particularly good to friedlaender reflect upon. Hope to honours thesis continue this conversation with you some time!
As for this essay, please do break it apart if you have time. Maybe then it can become a real paper… heheh. This post had been sitting on my blog under password protection for a few months, unfinished, unpolished. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. Some students started asking for it, so I freed it from the password. Re: what Matthias says about “our own discipline … facing unique. problems”. Byron Wien. Indeed, see this (and comments) for related soul searching in of walter, other CS disciplines. On another note, I think there is anu physics honours, rather too much cultural emphasis on. “innovation” in the sense that Crista describes here (“big ideas”). After.
all taken to the extreme, *everything* boils down to the lambda calculus. or state machines, so by essays of walter, this logic, we might as well have called it a day. by the end of the 1930s. One extremely negative consequence (or cousin?) of this emphasis, is the need to find single herculean figures who cause. Sure, that might happen once in two cities, a while, rather more rarely than you think.
In reality progress is in honor, rather more bottom up, in fits and starts with lots. of “little ideas” cancelling or building up on each other, lots of dead. ends (with, sadly, the final “credit” not going to the person who. “discovered” an idea, but with the person after whom the idea “stayed. There needs to be *far* more importance placed on the critical “steady.
state” work that Matthias refers to that is needed to refine/improve/fix. some idea till the point the “pieces to fall into law place”. This might be. especially true in PL because there are so many different moving parts. that need to be reconciled. And so, I have rather less patience for the “old timers”.
(Of course, like all other disciplines, we also have some wheel reinvention, but thats another matter altogether…) ps: as phrased, this question appears impossible to answer: “Where is it? I only essays in honor of walter friedlaender, see stuff that’s been created before 1979 (again, exceptions not withstanding).” I bet you in honours thesis, 10 years, we’ll have turned a full circle, and the above date will be updated. to 1989, and thats how we move forward #128521; I think your conclusion about the quote regarding Haskell is essays friedlaender, incorrect.
Statements like this “Haskell programs have fewer bugs because Haskell is: pure […], strongly typed […], high-level […], memory managed […], modular […] […] There just isn’t any room for bugs!” are nothing but wishful thinking. Without the data to essays comparing two cities support this claim, this statement is deceptive; True, if you read the sentence “There just isn’t any room for bugs!” as globally scoped and interpret it as “You can’t have bugs in Haskell programs.”, this would certainly be a silly claim. And even though I don’t believe that this is the intent of the sentence, I think it would be better to either drop the essays of walter friedlaender sentence altogether or at least qualify it and say that there is no room for certain kinds of errors (such as type errors or memory errors). However, if we focus on the first sentence, then it is not at of ict igcse, all wishful thinking. Essays In Honor Of Walter. More importantly, it doesn’t require any data or experiments to support that observation, because it expresses a logical conclusion. Essay. And therein lies the importance of the claim, namely that a type checker proves the essays of walter absence of a whole class of errors.
So it is a simple fact — an personal law, analytical, non-empirical fact — that, e.g., type-correct programs contain fewer errors than arbitrary programs. Empirical validation is a requirement in Science. Sometimes the claims are hard to prove empirically, so you have to wait many years before empirical validation is possible (e.g. Physics). That doesn’t seem to be the case here; the data for whether Haskell programs have more or less bugs than non-Haskell programs (or whatever claim you want to formulate) is not that hard to get as compared to, say, particle physics experiments where millions of dollars need to be spent in building large infrastructures. Friedlaender. So if whoever made that claim about Haskell wants to call themselves a Scientist, they better be sure that the logic holds in the presence of empirical data. Or change the claim to essay something less ambitious like “type checkers eliminate a whole class of errors; Haskell has a type checker, therefore, a whole class of errors is essays in honor friedlaender, eliminated.” Indeed, that’s what they’re designed to do, so making this be true is as simple as making a correct implementation of said type checker. Haskell programs, however, like all others, are written by people, and people make all sorts of mistakes. So if you want to prove that Haskell programs [written by people] have less bugs than non-Haskell programs [written by people] you need to crna school compare empirically.
You may be unpleasantly surprised with the essays of walter results; or you may come out a winner, in on american revolution, which case the whole world will be convinced that type checkers are an absolute must-have in every programming language. Without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is friedlaender, just a conjecture. You seem to present a dichotomy: empirically validated claims without innovation, or innovation without empirical validation. I do wonder if these are the only alternatives? Even if they were, languages – along with tools, methodologies, nearly everything in the vicinity of honours, software – are so much in the latter camp today, it would seem that a little more emphasis on empiricism – that which in most disciplines earns the essays of walter friedlaender term “science” – couldn’t hurt. I am entirely unconvinced that “It is also often the case that over time, the personal statement law enormous amount of essays in honor friedlaender, testing by honours, real use is in honor of walter, enough to provide assurances of all kinds.” Indeed, the frequent stampedes of software developers in the direction of essay revolution causes, new, shiny things assure us of in honor friedlaender, very little except that recent religious converts are quite zealous. I take your assertion as more of a sigh. Statement Law. Your thesis, that academic research in in honor, programming languages may be of byron wien essay, diminishing value and, in any case, is hardly science, is well-taken. A few proofreading notes: “innovate new software” – you probably meant “innovative”. “we have in hands” – I think the idiom should be “we have in hand” and not match number unless you wish to write “we have on essays in honor our hands”. Crista, just in case it isn’t clear, I really meant what I wrote in my post: IBM people claimed data-driven validation of “Java is better than C++ for large projects”.
Their evaluation method uses dollars-spent, i.e., it is an accounting method from the business school that answers the question in a positive sense. Matthias, that is revolution causes, something that big, responsible companies, when faced with a technological decision, do, so I would be surprised if they had *not* made a cost/benefit analysis with real, hard data. I’m less inclined to accept IBM’s business decision as empirical evidence for the benefits of essays of walter friedlaender, Java vs. C++, in general, unless they open up their data and methodology to scrutiny. That would be very interesting to see! In any case, CS academics should take note of such data-driven practices. To me, “macro is an innovation but hygienic macro is honours, just an friedlaender, improvement” sounds as absurd as “electricity is an innovation but alternating current is just an improvement”. Ditto for continuation/delimited continuation, lazy evaluation in lambda calculus/lazy evaluation, etc. I also consider “without empirical validation the claim “Haskell programs have less bugs” is just a conjecture” a weird claim.
It is a conjecture, but it would be a *mathematically informed conjecture* not *just* a conjecture. For theoretical physics, theories that avoid producing infinity — renormalization — is considered better than other theories. Why not apply same for type safety? Henry Ford said that if he had asked people what they wanted, then it would have been a faster horse that ate less and school essay, required less grooming. PL research stuck in that space, dreaming up of flying horses. There are basically two issues to consider:
1. Abstraction: FORTRAN, COBOL, APL because successful because they addressed a specific domain and programming in those languages required less effort than in assembler. 2. Notations: the essays of walter friedlaender “wars” between proponents of different programming languages typically boils down to arguing over syntax and more rarely semantics. The future “instructing computers to do to our bidding” comes from ever more powerful domain specific languages using notations that are “intuitive” to those domain experts. Model based software engineering and generative programming techniques form the foundations to support such a vision. There is far more work done in those areas than most programmers realize. The companies being successful with such projects keep it as “their secret sauce” and don’t advertise their breakthroughs. are there any researches on rule based techniques for essays, GUI programming. I would be interested in that.
Yes, the new paradigm of using iPad like internet access devices and using touch and essays in honor of walter friedlaender, drag boxes of language structures to write programs for admission, software agents will define new PLs. There are academic efforts on so called visual programming languages and in honor, I think, the essay on american major revolutionary jump would have had come, if Steve Jobs had remained alive. The research of programming languages that you miss, can be find at the following link. Speaking as the developer of an aggressively non-academic language (Objective-C), I’d like to essays friedlaender suggest a project for some like-minded individual. We’re in the midst of a cloud-hype bubble, especially in government circles (DoD). Doing that the old (current) way, each and every application handles identity management (authentication) and access control (authorization) itself, so that who can access what is essay on american revolution, under the control of the friedlaender administrator for that application. So there’s a lot of attention being devoted to honours doing that in some more centralized way; basing access control on essays explicit policy instead of each administrator’s whims. The current/only way of making policy explicit is an coursework igcse, Oasis standard called “XACML”.
XACML is nothing more or less than a simple functional language for specifying whether a specified subject can perform a specified action on a specified resource in a specified context (environment). So far so good. What’s not so good is that its XML-based, which leads to the most god-awful syntax you can possibly imagine; full of XML barbed wire that makes your eyes bleed. No imagine putting XACML into practice, encoding government access policy into access control specs, convincing themselves (and their managers) that the resulting XACML is doing what its supposed to. So here’s my proposal. Develop a new language that replaces XACML’s syntax with some intuitive alternative, perhaps based on other functional languages out there. Of Walter Friedlaender. Scala is personal statement law, one good candidate. Only the in honor of walter friedlaender syntax is changed; the new language must retain XACML semantics precisely.
A cheap way of student, ensuring that is to have the parser build the friedlaender same tree that JAXB (or OpenSAML) generates from the XACML schema. Thus JAXB could be used to personal statement law serialize the result into real XACML XML files, the XACML compiler (see http://bradjcox.blogspot.com) could be used to turn it into essays friedlaender java for runtime, or Sun’s XACML interpreter could be used to interpret it on the fly. All that changes is the syntax; everything else works unchanged. I’ve made some initial exploration of this notion with a small Antlr parser, but doubt I’ll have the time to really drive this home. Essays Comparing Two Cities. If some one does, drop me a line. Does Jeeves (a Scala DSL) come close to essays in honor of walter friedlaender meeting your criteria? It wasn’t designed to comply with XACML, and it’s described as enforcing “privacy policies” rather than “access policies”, but overall the intent sounds quite similar unless I’m misunderstanding XACML. A Scala DSL is the comparing two cities obvious place to start.
Have done some initial exploration there myself. I’ve not looked at essays in honor of walter, Jeeves. Thanks for the pointer to Jeeves. Just had a look. Its targeted at privacy, not access control. What I had in mind was far simpler, a straight/simple translation from a friendly syntax into XML or Java (or Scala etc) with an emphasis on essays comparing two cities raw execution speed and strict compliance with OASIS-defined semantics. Jeeves seems to go far beyond XACML compliance. Didn’t spend enough time on essays of walter it to tell if it could be used in a way that strictly complies. Those are first impressions based on a quick skim, so easily wrong. I agree with Joe. There seems to be an inability to accept the empirical evidence in the ‘cool stuff’ graph and crna admission essay, move on to new ways of doing things.
So much for in honor of walter, science. Also I am rather surprised that the thesis research by Capers Jones about essays in honor friedlaender, productivity of programming languages is not acknowledged. School Admission. He claims he has examined the productivity of friedlaender, thousands of software projects – doesn’t that qualify as sufficiently ‘scientific’? BTW you may all be shocked to see what ranks high on his list. This discussion reminds me of what Joseph Wizenbaum said about the AI researchers in the 60’s – that they said the breakthrough is just around the corner, but we are still waiting. I am sorry, but I think a lot more has to be done rather than devise new syntax, forms, libraries, etc. School Essay. I work in an environment where we have a very large and essays in honor of walter, complex business application in which the byron essay rate and of walter friedlaender, volume of change is comparing, very high. Productivity is very important to us – the PLs do not deliver enough so we have to augment them with all sorts of home grown tools – the main ones being software management, metadata management, test environment generation and code generation. Friedlaender. But we need more, and we should not have to personal law do this ourselves. I think there are two sides to a programming language.
The problem we have little academic progress on programming languages is because human side of science is very difficult and we haven’t achieved much yet. Once that branch of admission essay, science reaches certain stage of rigor, I think we should expect another leap of progress in programming languages, and progresses in many other things as well. I am working on of walter a drastically different approach to programming languages. https://github.com/hzhou/MyDef, I appreciate any feed-backs. I agree with the of ict poster that most new languages today appear to be mash-ups of existing concepts and languages. In fact, practically all of the new languages I have come across all look like some variation of C# or Java. That being said, unless new processors are going to in honor friedlaender offer radically different approaches to how they process instructions and what they are capable of processing, programming languages are not going to crna admission essay change all that much since they will be limited by what they can actually do within the processor.
If you use a well developed, general, compiled language like BASIC, Pascal, C#, or Java, you are going to pretty much have everything you require to essays in honor of walter friedlaender develop most applications including games. The dynamic languages such as Python, though a good example of a well developed dynamic language, similar to their compiled counter-parts all do the same thing but with a different style. Should research continue into programming languages? In my view yes but not at the expense of coursework of ict student igcse, saturating an of walter, already crowded field of essay on american revolution causes, good existing languages. In this vein choice is not being offered but merely additional confusion. A good example of essays in honor of walter friedlaender, this are the wien essay new “fringe” languages such as Scala and of walter friedlaender, Ruby.
With the exception of some different functionality (functional programming in Scala and dynamic generation in Ruby) you are really not getting all that much for efforts made into adopting these languages unless you like living on the periphery of the programming world. Again, all these languages offer the same functionality that existing languages already have. One of the coursework student really innovative languages to come out in essays in honor of walter friedlaender, the past 30 years or so was Prolog. Byron. It promoted a completely different type of design paradigm for in honor of walter friedlaender, development but it was only viable for expert systems development for which there are only approximately 2000 different applications to which the language can be applied. Prolog was extended after its initial introduction to include OOP concepts but it was still difficult to develop large-scale applications as a result of its nature. Crna School. However, one place where Prolog may be able to shine is game development where built-in rule systems would not require game developers to re-develop a bit of the internal AI paradigms. * Nice discussion — now you can go back and separate some of the issues.
* Who’s the audience for in honor, your research? Yourself? Other academic PL researchers? Programmers in comparing, industry? Funding agencies? Not always an easy question. * What criteria are used to evaluate papers in POPL, PLDI, ICFP, etc? What criteria are used to evaluate DOD or NSF grant proposals?
* It’s nice to try to figure out why some languages succeed and others don’t. There are multiple forces involved, and their relative strengths can vary with time. (I lied: exceptions go to aspects and monads both of which came in the 90s) I beg to differ. Essays Friedlaender. Aspects : were pretty much well known in crna admission, the LISP community using Programmable Interactive Environments (see e.g., a 1978 paper by Erik Sandewall on this matter, section on “Advising and Insertive programming”). Monads : were certainly known under a different name in the 80s (see 1980s paper by Simon Thompson, I think. The 1988 book “Elements of friedlaender, FP” by Reade mentions it around page 299), as a “programmable” semicolon. The last one was invented by of ict igcse, Peter Landin in the 60s, I believe.
See http://okmij.org/ftp/Computation/IO-monad-history.html. There is nothing new on earth, really… This is the goal of essays friedlaender, Language Design. Everything can be derived from this. Human Productivity depends on wien better tools, environments and maintainability. The latter depends upon readability, presentation, abstraction and ease of essays of walter friedlaender, composition – this influences syntax and support for extensional metaprogramming (i.e. Byron Wien. “Growing a Language” through the essays in honor friedlaender specification of pattern transformation rules). Computer Productivity depends on optimising performance to get results quicker for essays comparing, the human user and to in honor friedlaender boost the overall productivity of the system of which it is statement law, a part. Of Walter Friedlaender. This can make ‘Live Programming’ environments possible, where the program is a mix of interpreted and compiled modules – where the latter may be selectively ‘unfrozen’ for rapid prototyping of new features. These results would be counter-productive if incorrect – hence: Verifiability. All work on two cities separation of concerns, constraints, equational reasoning, type theory and dynamic manipulation control interfaces that avoid weaving independent aspects into a stateful model aid comprehension, testing and state-of-the-art proof techniques.
Produtivity is also linked with domain and concepts, jargon and methods used in in honor, that domain. Current languages are inadequate in many of the recent state of art sciences like DNA analysis, drug and polymer design, financial analysis, web searching etc. I jotted down some additional thoughts here: Hi Vivek, thanks for the comments! I don’t think companies find it profitable to wien develop programming languages at the rate that they used to. Now it is the universities which develop these languages, and essays, that too mostly for academic interest. Thank you for writing this.
As a software practitioner without formal education in computer science, and a programming language design enthusiast with a stupid hobby project in the works, it’s heartwarming to know that somebody in academia shares my sense of how to go about what I’m doing. So it’s fundamentally a methods issue. Coursework Student. “What is a rigorous programming language or piece of PL research?” In recent times this has been answered with more and more static analysis and formal reasoning work. But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to discover and build the essays of walter friedlaender things for reasoning about. “Necessity is the statement law mother of in honor of walter, invention.” So, what is it really that we NEED from our programming languages? In PL we definitely have a Sapir-Whorf problem: without a programming language in which to formally express something, we can only grasp about in the air at what we want to essay say. MapReduce could not exist without map() and reduce() themselves, which could not exist without first-class functions. So I would posit this as the essays in honor of walter friedlaender fundamental question of Design in PL: “What can your language express that others can’t?” “But, as I understand your essay, you’re pointing out that we need some discipline of Design, to wien essay discover and build the things for reasoning about.” Yes!
Pretty much! I’m not the first one to suggest this, btw. I think Herbert Simon had a similar thing in mind with his “Sciences of the Artificial” ideas, although the choice of the word “Science” there sends everyone down the essays of walter friedlaender wrong path. In any case, my reflection here, unlike Simon’s analysis, is very much grounded on the tangible effects of wien, *not* having such discipline in Academia: design papers get rejected (for the most part), design proposals go unfunded (for the essays in honor most part). I’m not lamenting it, I’m just making this observation. It’s easy to on american revolution understand why they get rejected: because the community doesn’t know how to assess them. They’re neither Science nor Technology nor Engineering nor Mathematics, so no one knows how to essays friedlaender deal with them.
Venture Capitalists know how to deal with those ideas, but their goal is to maximize profit, and not so much enlighten human understanding. I’d say that patterns are an school admission essay, indicator of wanting to say something but not having the linguistic tools to say it directly. This is where I whine that FORTH is the one and only true language. FORTH is another language that was written by a single person, Chuck Moore. With most languages (I’m unfamiliar with some of the languages mentioned, but) the syntax is fixed. Control structures are predefined. In Honor Of Walter. Basically all you can do is create new functions. FORTH lets you (if you know how) extend the syntax of the interpreter/compiler dynamically.
You bend the language to on american the application, not the in honor of walter friedlaender application to the language. Being a stack based language it has been stuck with word sizes (16, 32, …). Personal Law. It lets you intermix high level code with low level and is a wonderful language for embedded applications. But I feel it has potential if rewritten for this object oriented age. I hope to someday such a version is created. This might just be the best blog post I’ve ever read. Thanks very much!
I enjoyed every word. I think part of the difficulty of PL design these days is that the greatest bottleneck to essays in honor friedlaender human productivity isn’t language anymore. Library availability and quality is probably the essays two cities most important deciding factor in using a language: that is, it’s more about what work you can *avoid* doing, and friedlaender, these days, you can avoid a whole lot. Now, there are many language features that I consider huge productivity boosts: garbage collection, closures, objects, dynamic typing, etc. But as you pile up language features, you get to essay revolution a point of in honor of walter friedlaender, diminishing returns. Macros are great, continuations as well, but the productivity gains are marginal compared to anu physics thesis other features. The best one can expect from developing new language features is to inspire improvements to a new or existing popular language, but the magnitude of the actual impact is far from essays in honor of walter friedlaender, clear. I mean, concretely speaking, something like arbitrary precision integers probably yields greater productivity gains than powerful tools almost nobody understands (continuations, monads). Still, personally, I see potential in a few avenues: importing capability from computer algebra systems (e.g. automatic differentiation, simplification); expansive annotation systems (annotating associativity, that two functions (are supposed to) do the same thing, and so forth, to byron essay facilitate optimization and debugging); integrating some machine learning (e.g. you could define a measure M, like the time taken for the program to run, and tag variables as “to optimize with respect to M”, leaving it to a JIT to figure out optimal values for performance, memory usage or a criterion of the programmer’s choosing); probably others I haven’t thought of. One reason I don’t like to adopt new programming languages: every language designer feels bound to invent a new library, even for the simple things like finding a substring. This is really tiresome.
The best PL work nowadays is being done (again) by friedlaender, Alan Kay and the VPRI crowd. I disagree with Lopes … sounds like a touch of world weariness to me and anu physics, maybe she should take a nice vacation. The simple reason why we can have languages programmed by designers is because of the rigor of the underlying stack. An alternative example, would be HTML5. Just look at the insanity that is HTML5 which basically says that we will take all the anachronistic parsing behavior that is in honor of walter, common across browsers and make that ‘the standard’ (btw thats trollish of me, but I hope everyone understands) … its a race to the bottom but its underpinned by the fact that lower abstractions have a solid foundation. I maybe wrong but I very much doubt an assembly language designed by designers would do much of anything, certainly not in a way where you could build higher level abstractions on comparing top of it.
Lopes is not recognizing the fact that programming (and software) is essays in honor, emerging from its ‘hobbyist’ phase and that today’s developer are much less likely to choose proper programming languages (after all software is wien essay, psychology in the end). An analogy is with the essays in honor friedlaender auto industry … there was a time where we could all maintain our cars and do significant amount of work and customization to them. The 50’s and 60’s even up till the essays two cities 80’s was the auto industry ‘hobbyist’ phase … pop open a hood today and most of us don’t want to get involved. The same is essays in honor friedlaender, happening with computers in general … to the benefit of commercial concerns. Back to the real problem which I believe is two fold … firstly education is a problem in that parts of academia is anu physics honours, still catching up with industry but this is essays, changing … almost to the point where many of the best bits of anu physics, software incubate in a university somewhere to be commercialized by students leaving. But more importantly (and subtly) we need to essays in honor of walter friedlaender give up on this idea that any single programming language is essays, going to be applicable to all things. Of Walter Friedlaender. Its a fundamentally western ideal to pose battles between programming languages as a ‘winner takes all’ exercise. The fact is that there are efficiencies in having a ‘lingua franca’ but we also lose some precision along the way for dealing with exactly the right tool for the right job. Crna School Admission Essay. We need to embrace heterogeneity and apply principles of convergence judiciously … not just bet on programming ‘horses’ and friedlaender, blindly espouse their benefits. Having been a programmer for so long I have seen my various pet languages go through the adoption curve … I cringe when I see the computer media obsessed with ‘memifying’ everything creating hype which in turn forces people to byron wien essay use any specific tech far beyond its original intent which is followed by the eventual backlash where people say ‘INSERT HERE is dead’ and essays in honor friedlaender, actually the technology goes on to live for another 20, 30 years. I love lisp (20 yrs on emacs) but its never going to gain wide adoption, I love xslt, xquery both which are functional languages but developers I know have a ‘marmite’ reaction either hating or loving it.
I’m also an academic, in experimental particle physics however. Students only in honor of walter, get Ph.D.’s going after physics results – measuring physical constants, etc. Two Cities. Which I love doing. However, I’ve always had a side hobby playing with new ways of of walter, doing our analysis (we have a giant data-mining problem in this field). Some of law, these ideas I’ve always thought could really make what we do faster and more “fun” (i.e. less fighting with our huge C++ codebase – many 100’s of of walter friedlaender, thousands of objects and source and essays two cities, config files). But I can never put a student on that for some of the reasons you state above. I am glad you’ve found something that interests you. This is the key to the problem, you have to essays in honor friedlaender have something that you both like and the community will give you credit for. For me, my side hobby ends up as talks and posters at a large conference on computers in particle physics – in a small side parallel session for the about 10 of two cities, us that are interested in this stuff. As far as programming language design and “is it dead”… Haven’t they said that several times about science?
Watching new stuff steadily flow into friedlaender the mainstream (I’m a heavy user of C++, C#, and python – C++ is just *too* slow on the uptake!), I can’t help but wonder what else is out there. Research has to be done not only to coursework of ict igcse come up with new techniques, but also how to integrate them into languages that are practical (vs. pure). In Honor Friedlaender. We are constantly pushing the boundaries of abstract math – I can’t help but think that would have an impact on language design and essay on american causes, generalization of concepts. But there must be some fairly cool constructs that already exist in of walter, academic languages that can be translated to the more mainstream languages. Revolution. Simlification… At anyrate, good luck. And don’t stop pushing the boundaries. There are millions of interesting problems out essays in honor of walter, there. I hope you continue to find ones that are interesting to both you and your journal editors!
Speaking from essays two cities, 30 years of experience in using different PL(s) in the business environment, I have watched the ratio of time between defining application specifications, development, and testing significantly change. Development time has shrunk as newer languages and richer libraries have become available. Development is essays of walter, fairly quick once the two cities specification is friedlaender, known given that the developer has some experience with his/her PL. From the essay limited viewpoint of “would a new PL reduce the development time”, I think that any improvement in a new or revised PL would be of of walter, little benefit to reducing development time. Essays Comparing Two Cities. If I were directing research in PLs, research would be directed toward determining how the in honor of walter friedlaender choice of a PL affects specification and validation effort. I feel compelled to wien point something out. I feel that the commercial success and essays friedlaender, ease of use and the ease of learning of a computer depended on it’s programming language.
The personality of the computer depended on the programing language. I would say the language was the statement law computer. One example of ease of use I would argue, and commercial success based on language I would argue was the zx spectrum. I argue we should do better and have the modern equivalent. I’m impressed with the integrated software from framework from Ashton Tate and it’s programming language that integrated with documents and outlines. I’m impressed with lisp and essays in honor of walter friedlaender, emacs. I’m impressed with smalltalk. Maybe I’m impressed with scratch visual programming language to a degree. But nothing was so simple as zx Sinclair tokenized basic with a token per key and good syntax error detection. And the language is the computer and commercial succes I believe or was in the 80’s. I don’t think much of java.
I love unix / Linux. But the feeling of a language being a computer is personal law, maybe only framework or emacs besides the zx spectrum. Another interesting computer was the Jupiter ace a forth computer. Back then you turned the computer on in honor and that was it. We could have had a lisp computer. Maybe with ssd’s we will have instant on languages. Things like the iPad are cripplelled as far as programming language potential.
I think it’s a big deal that the programming language is the computer. So having a good one is important. I like the concepts of go. I thought programming languages would have evolved in different ways when I was a kid in on american revolution, the 80’s. Music is interesting in that it is a parallel language has loops and is real time. I was very impressed with framework implementing programming languages in essays in honor of walter, outlines, spreadsheets and documents, a very powerful combination, easy to understand and very productive, think of two cities, it as emacs with outlines and spreadsheets instead of just buffers.
Hope my insights are useful. Did the programming language stop being the computer in the 80’s? Or making or breaking it’s success or making it easy to essays of walter friedlaender learn and understand for the future programmer hacker. I second every sentiment you expressed. Most programming languages are boring after learning M (MUMPS) and its $Order() function. i think adoption of the comparing scienctific discovery is a totally wrong meausure for significance of it. there are many factors in choosing a programming languages, many of them are irrational, others are non-technical.one fine examples is list of benefits of PHP. most of the reasons are legal and financial. others are technichal support and rich set of libraries, at essays in honor friedlaender, last comes the learning curve. nothing is said about productivity, reliabality or even performance. scietific research is discovery of problems and solutions for them. tools are only made to faciliate the comparing two cities research. there are still many problems like multicore, performance and essays, memory management that are open for crna school, research. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. but once you have your solution you need to wait 30 years for someone to essay on american use them, or make a a spin-off company and sell tools made with that idea.
what bothers me is having to use outdated tools and hacked languages for my everyday use (C++ and Ruby) i am writing my own language hoping that i t will be useful for myself. i do it partly to have creative outlet but mostly out of frustration. C++ does not scale in complexity and Ruby does not scale in performance. i would be lucky if i can put all the essays in honor of walter innovations from PL research. my final thought is that, programming laguages are like human languages. they are a culture. Personal Law. it is the friedlaender language programmers speak. one idea that i have in my language is to write a language framework, ship it with a parser generator and let the programmer put their favorite language syntax there. in conclusion, the stall of PL research is because they are solving the wrong problem. Well said. As a fellow academic, I also find the situation distressing.
I’d like to wien essay add one point, using Perl (“interpreted line noise,” somone once quipped) as the example. Essays Of Walter Friedlaender. Reliability of student, 3-rd party modules is a huge incentive to use a language that one might otherwise avoid like the plague. Friedlaender. I’ve no scientific study to backup my own very pleasant experience with contributed Perl modules, which is why I use the language a lot despite my many reservations about it. Totally agree, and I was going to make the same point if no one else did. Essay Revolution Causes. Perl has been around a long time and I’ve never had any trouble finding a library that couldn’t do the job, and in on tenth the time of the C#/C++/VB’s of the world. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. My only problem is the dependency nightmare (a kind of DLL Hell) that you get when you pull the string on the jumper that is a library in Perl. I finished a PhD doing research in essays two cities, distributed systems / databases.
This essay applies equally well there, at least if you replace the essays in honor of walter names of various programming languages with names of systems. Part of what has driven me out of academia is the fact that the kind of work I like to do (design a system, then build it to explore if/how it is two cities, useful) is not well rewarded in academia. Friedlaender. It could be that the focus on publishing papers is actually the right one, since industry seems to do a reasonable job of crna school admission, building interesting systems in my field, at least at the moment (see the explosion of essays in honor of walter, various distributed databases that are now available). However, it certainly isn’t the right one for me. The discussion has been interesting but I feel that one major point has been overlooked. All the languages discussed are text based languages. Coursework. They rely on tools that convert series of characters into computer actions. Where is the research into using motion based languages (Kinect) or music based languages into computer actions? Another part of the problem is that computer languages have two very different purposes: a. make the essays in honor computer do something.
b. allow another human being to understand what is being asked of the computer to do and to be able to school admission modify that. In many cases, this second purpose is the more important. “Write only” languages have very limited application (see APL or Forth). Thus, research into programming languages is partly a research into human behaviors and perceptions. Essays In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. Historically, it has been very difficult to get solid scientific data on honours human perceptions especially when dealing with large objects such as computer systems design. It would be interesting to of walter use a language like latex where the symbols mean something, no reason not to repent the things with symbols, like summation, everybody has bit mapped graphics, not just text, the languages could be more readable by having real math notation. Thank you so much for writing this article!
As a young academic this article is speaking from my heart. I quickly learned that success as an academic in CS requires to pretend you’re following a scientific approach in papers while actually sticking to open-ended experimentation for your own work. I had the luck to do my PhD with a supervisor who never asked me for a proposal and even the on american causes less for a topic. I had no PhD topic for essays of walter friedlaender, more than four of of my five years! He just trusted that gathering the smartest people possible and delegating all, yes all, responsibility to them will lead to great results (and great failures). Now as I am working at personal, an American institution though I can see how the more formal American system with proposals, committees and in honor friedlaender, (are you kidding me?) even classes for PhD students does not as easily allow to honours fake the essays of walter friedlaender system. I am currently at a point where I have given myself another year to find a position that let’s me fake the personal system again or I’ll leave to industry. In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. I had been working in industry before so I know pretty much what to expect there, it’s not all sunshine either but at essays comparing two cities, least it pays well #128521; Thanks, Adrian.
I know that the questions raised here, and of walter friedlaender, the directions that the community takes, are much more important for the next generation of academics (like you) than they are for me. Two comments, somewhat different from law, each other, which I will try to keep brief! 1. I often compare programming languages research on “academic” programming languages to essays friedlaender genetics research on fruit flies. Fruit flies themselves are not hugely economically important (except, I guess, to fruit growers and vendors), but they have certain properties (such as quick turnaround of generations and coursework igcse, low maintenance) that allow us to use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all life. Similarly, functional and logic programming languages don’t have a huge impact on the practice of programming (except in certain application areas), but they have certain properties (such as ease of essays of walter friedlaender, parsing and crna admission essay, absence of side-effects) that allow us to essays in honor friedlaender use them to explore concepts that are fundamental to all programming languages. Wide adoption of these research languages is not a realistic research goal, unless you want to become embittered. A less embittering research goal is to contribute to the understanding of byron, fundamental concepts that can be picked up as needed later.
2. Here’s a parachute-haystack-and-pitchfork story. Of Walter Friedlaender. Java was created as a language that used dynamic types and crna, garbage collection; that was a good thing. However, it didn’t have any parameterized types; that was a bad thing. It was especially unfortunate because there had been research for many years on parameterized types, research that was rendered virtually unusable by the building of of walter friedlaender, a large codebase using Java data structures with non-parameterized types. But then along came Odersky, Wadler et al. and created Pizza and GJ, a heroic and byron wien, brilliant effort to harmonize classic parameterized types with an existing non-parameterized codebase (“making the future safe for the past” indeed); that was a good thing, and thankfully Sun recognized it as such. The point of of walter friedlaender, all this is that Java parameterized types would not have been able to be made possible without Odersky, Wadler et al.’s deep understanding of parameterized type systems.
That deep understanding came from many years of exploration of those systems, involving a chain of researchers and teachers extending back to admission Church but certainly involving a lot of academic research work on languages like ML in the 1970s, 1980s and 1990s. Every innovative concept in a PL research paper, however small, has a chance to deepen someone’s understanding of an important topic. Enough deepening, and you suddenly get dramatic bursts of usefulness in widely-used languages. Generics are great!… in my opinion. I love monads too. But how should my opinion count wrt studies like this one: Is this a case of giving Perls to undeserving developers? How can we find out if the in honor of walter friedlaender number of programming errors / headaches was effectively reduced by the introduction of of ict igcse, generics in Java? Or were developers doing just fine without generics?
These are the kinds of essays friedlaender, questions that I asked myself regarding AOP, too, so this is not just about other people’s language designs. We all know that certain people, like Wadler, are great language designers. What is it about their designs that make them “better” than Rasmus Lerdorf’s designs? Are we going answer this last question only a-posteriori by essay, studies such as the essays in honor friedlaender one above? How do we identify a fantastic design before wide deployment? — by the credentials of the designer?… I have a lot more questions than answers, and the main purpose of statement law, this essay is to ask all those questions. Parameterized types are great, but even I would not be crazy enough to in honor friedlaender try to convert a Java codebase using non-parameterized types into one using parameterized types (the process that the Microsoft paper was apparently studying). The whole point of the Odersky/Wadler work was actually to make it possible for those codebases to remain exactly the coursework of ict student igcse same, while permitting programmers to introduce parameterized types as the fancy took them. I love parameterized types, but don’t share your (and Wadler’s) enthusiasm for monads. (I consider them to essays in honor of walter friedlaender be, at best, a good solution to an ugly problem endemic to functional languages.) I would rather recognize outstanding papers one by one than to bestow upon student, anyone the crown of “world’s greatest language designer”.
Thank you! You’ve expressed very clearly the thoughts and frustrations I’ve been experiencing as an academic myself. Like you, I’ve often used Tim Berners-Lee as an example of someone who probably wouldn’t have been able to obtain a PhD thesis or get a journal paper accepted for his design of the web browser (Ward Cunningham, the inventor of Wiki Wiki, is another example of someone who got his glory in avenues other than academic ones). Like you, I’ve had to in honor of walter friedlaender move away from designing software systems just so I could get some publications out. Almost like you, I found that applied machine learning provided me with the kind of domain that I still could enjoy working in and in statement, which it is easier to essays publish work following the scientific method. So, yes, I can definitely play the game so I can get published and promoted! #128521; But I still find that my best work is in designing software systems. My best work has mostly gone unpublished so far (or at least not for a wide enough audience), because it doesn’t fit in essay, the nice grid of traditional criteria that lazy/tired/risk-averse reviewers can use to assess it. In Honor Of Walter. It’s not the end of the world for me, as I can still publish other work, but obviously something is wrong here… Does this new language/system allow me to think differently (i.e. is it introducing a useful new paradigm)?
Does it allow me to do things I couldn’t do before? Or does it at least allow me to do certain things more easily than before? These questions are hard to assess using typical quantitative analysis. Like Christopher Alexander would say, we’re looking at thesis, “the quality without a name”. How subjective! How difficult to assess! So what can we do? One solution would be to do like the essays in honor Design Patterns evangelists did, and form our own community (our own conference and journal), with our own set of rules and criteria (you have already listed some in wien, your essay. That’s a good starting point.).
We need some reputed and risk-taking leaders. We need them coming from diverse backgrounds. We need them to have an open mind, and yet to be endowed with intellectual honesty and rigor. In any case, thanks for giving us frustrated, software-designing, academics a voice! This article is very well written, but it seems to of walter be based on mixing up science with engineering, and then wondering how the engineering activity of coursework student, design fits into the resulting mixture. Let me try and disentangle a few things, because I think Crista already knows the essays answer but just hasn’t laid the crna school admission essay parts out clearly enough to make that answer obvious. While I cannot claim to have discussed the philosophy of our discipline in my old department (which combined EE and CompSci), I don’t recall any faculty member ever having confused their engineering activities with their scientific ones, and we certainly were involved in both. Essays. Science and engineering are completely distinct and separable even when both are being done together, because they have completely different modus operandi (MO) and purposes. The purpose of personal statement law, science is to essays in honor of walter friedlaender understand something that is not currently understood, and school essay, it does so through application of its one and only MO, the extremely well known and very formal Scientific Method.
Very briefly, it has two halves, a theoretical half in which mathematical theories are devised and testable hypotheses extrapolated, and an empirical half in which observations of the unexplained behavior are made and the measurements compared against the predictions in of walter friedlaender, order to disprove the hypotheses. If after countless such cycles of the MO nobody around the world can disprove any of the predictions derived from a theory, then it gains credence in the scientific community as tentatively valid in the domain tested within the bounds of experimental error, despite no positive proof being possible through this MO. Engineering is completely different. Its purpose is to create something useful by combining established techniques and, near its bleeding edge, also by applying new understanding obtained from science. Personal. Its MO is also completely different from that of science, involving the friedlaender equally well known but less formal process of essay, discovering requirements, evaluating alternative approaches, designing solutions, implementing and essays in honor of walter, testing prototypes, and in the case of commercial production, devising the production systems as well. This MO varies quite a lot depending on the engineering discipline, but it almost always has this general form.
None of this is in dispute in admission, the science and essays in honor, engineering communities, as their purpose and MO has not changed for many decades coming up to centuries, although the comparing two cities language used to describe them has changed somewhat. Of course, “Computer Science” is a relatively new kid on the block, but even in CompSci nobody I know confuses their science with their engineering, nor with their mathematics. Essays In Honor. CompSci embraces all three disciplines, but they are completely distinct at any given time, and I expect that every computer scientist is aware that the label “Computer Science” is a poor reflection of what they actually do. Most CompSci activity is very down-to-earth engineering because it has the purpose and uses the essays MO of an in honor, engineering discipline to coursework make things. Theoretical CompSci is a branch of in honor, mathematics, and quite rightly has its own label because its domain is so specific. Essay Revolution. And finally, only very rarely is the essays in honor of walter MO of essays comparing, science applied to investigate an essays friedlaender, as-yet unexplained phenomenon in anu physics thesis, CompSci — the computer scientist is then doing Science. Of Walter. These three activities cannot be confused even when all three are being applied simultaneously. They fit together perfectly and each subdiscipline plays its part in whatever the anu physics thesis computer scientist is essays of walter, doing. So now we get to the crux of the alleged difficulty, which I don’t think actually exists. “Is creating a new programming language in a CompSci research department actually science?” If it uses the Scientific Method then it is, and if it doesn’t use the Scientific Method then it is not. This is anu physics, *by definition*.
THERE CAN BE NO AMBIGUITY on this score, although of course it is essays in honor friedlaender, possible that the MO of science is applied poorly by a computer scientist who is only a half-hearted or slipshod scientist. Anu Physics Honours Thesis. Even then however, whether the MO of science is being used or not is pretty clear. In virtually all cases the answer will be ‘No’, science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, although the possibility of an exception cannot be excluded. There is a second question that arises from the above: “If science is not being done because the MO of science is not being used, does this invalidate the CompSci work?” No, of course not! CompSci involves 3 subdisciplines, and if the MO of science is not being used then the work could still be doing excellent engineering or very deep and original mathematics of computation. Getting hung up on “evidence” (which is not a term generally used in in honor of walter, the MO of essays comparing, science anyway, observation and measurement being far more specific and appropriate) is quite wrong, when two of the in honor friedlaender major subdisciplines of CompSci do not involve science at all. Note also that both science and engineering employ measurement as a very important tool, but for different purposes, which is another reason why focusing on “evidence” is not an igcse, effective way of determining whether science is being done.
And so finally to essays of walter friedlaender Crista’s declared wish: “I would love to bring design back to my daytime activities.” Do it! Don’t get hung up on “scientific/quantitative validation” when you’re doing design. Design is coursework, not science, it’s within the engineering subdiscipline of CompSci, easily recognized by any engineer through its distinctive purpose and MO. The same would apply if you were doing theoretical computer science: your domain of mathematics would require rigorous theoretical proofs if done formally, but as its name implies it is a theoretical subdiscipline and in honor, not science because the observational half of the MO of science is not present and statement law, not appropriate. Try applying this acid test of “Is the MO of science being used?” to all the CompSci activities you can think of, and you’ll see how rapidly any doubts about what is going on in honor evaporate. Anu Physics Honours Thesis. Even when you’re using *mathematics* to essays friedlaender *design* an instrument to revolution measure *unexplained* behavior in a computer system, all three subdisciplines can readily be identified. Of Walter Friedlaender. They truly are orthogonal in practice, and can be combined without confusion. Of course, the world is far from perfect, especially research funding committees, but that’s nothing new.
Human imperfection aside, the alleged conceptual problem concerning design of PLs doesn’t really exist from revolution, my experience of research faculty. Computer scientists usually know which subdiscipline they’re using at any given time, at least those with an engineering background, and they employ the MO that is appropriate for that subdiscipline. Good essay though, provided much food for thought. PS. Extending the topic of the essay a bit, while the MO of science is essays, not appropriate when doing engineering, surely the MO of engineering is extremely appropriate. Yet, most software developers treat their MO almost with contempt. It’s no surprise to anyone that the bridges of the software profession collapse millions of times a day across the world. There used to be a term for this, ‘The Software Crisis’.
Nowadays the word for anu physics honours thesis, it is ‘Normal’. Hi Morgaine! I’m having a serious personality disorder right now Virtual Worlds and in honor, Programming Languages sit in completely separate parts of my brain! Thanks for the comments, though. Well Opensim (Crista mentioned Virtual Worlds, and OpenSimulator is an causes, open source toolkit for VWs in which we share a common interest) is a perfect example of an in honor friedlaender, engineering project, and personal statement, quite an ambitious one. Nobody would ever suggest though that what they’re doing is science when they’re designing and implementing it, even if their contribution were being done as part of friedlaender, a CompSci research project, because the MO of science — the Scientific Method — is not being used, nor appropriate. Any science that they might be doing would be using Opensim as a tool (for example, writing simulator modules for 3D visualization of some scientific data), and their design and implementation work is anu physics honours, engineering, even if completely original, because it has the in honor of walter purpose of engineering and uses the MO of engineering within their project. These aspects of what a computer scientist is doing are completely separable. Below, Ant [March 8, 2012 at 2:51 pm] elaborates further on this separability of byron essay, disciplines by their respective MOs. It’s a powerful tool for determining what a computer scientist is doing at in honor, any point in personal, time. I agree with comments by Richard and essays in honor of walter, Joe that we can still gain.
(major) improvements with domain-specific languages as then the language fits. better to crna admission essay the job we are solving. Essays In Honor Of Walter. The challenge is then still how to wien essay study if a. particular language works better: Companies who develop their in-house. languages often do not have time to do that, albeit some exceptions exist (e.g. Perhaps one interesting area for the language research (programming. or modeling) is then to study the friedlaender fit to the task. 1) There is no external incentive. Moore’s law (the hardware industry) took charge of the crna school admission essay advancement of computing. Society do not differentiate software from hardware and perceives that computing advances. So it does not perceive that software is essays in honor friedlaender, not advancing. There is no need of software to advance.
There is no need of the software industry to advance. There is no need of CS to advance in essay revolution causes, software. There is no need of essays in honor friedlaender, PL research. 2) There is no internal incentive. Academic research is driven by crna admission essay, fashion and career advancement.
PL faded as fashion since the essays in honor friedlaender 70s. Academic PL research is middle term to byron essay long term research. Above 5 years, with a decade being normal. PL is long term. It is a professional suicide. The field is in honor of walter friedlaender, composed by vocacional researchers and enthusiast mostly. 3) Interdisciplinary and pure.
Interdisciplinary research is fashion and get the essays two cities funds. Is more fashionable than “pure reserach” and “PL research” so it is quite more fashionable than “pure PL research”. Interdisciplinary funds attract non-CS to in honor of walter friedlaender relabel their research. projects as computational simulations, so CS is full of research for the sake of other fields. The computational non-CS fields advance greatly. Pure CS advance slowly. For instance bioinformatics.
In other words, the subdisciplines of CS that advances are. the ones that serves other disciplines. CS does not have the aim of personal, producing scientific knowledge. of its own discipline for its own purposes. Sarcastically “CS is just the tech support of the rest of the essays in honor friedlaender sciences”. For instance a PL research project will get funds. for GPU computing support PL features. 4) Applied and basic.
Replace the personal statement law word “Interdisciplinary” with “Applied”, and “pure” with “basic” in the section above. … it is more quite fashionable than “basic PL research” … 5) Academia is conservative. Even with the essays in honor of walter friedlaender multicore challenge craving for personal, a paradim shift. PL reserarch groups do not take big risks. and play safe bets with short term projects. Projects that start from essays of walter, scratch ignoring. pre 90s concurrent PL research. 6) Polishing and Cocktail. PLs are created constantly. The usual methodology employed by a PL designer.
is to take his/her favorite PL and add some features from essay on american, other PLs. Essentially it polishes a PL, it completes what is missing. More knowledgeable PL designers prefer to in honor friedlaender base their new PL. on many PLs so just put them all in thesis, a blender and synthesize a cocktail PL. The nature of the in honor friedlaender methodology employed implies that no new. PL paradigm will be created.
The resulting PL will be of the same paradigm of the original PLs. The features of PLs are memes. 7) Language scale and Paradigm scale. The Academic PL design field can be analyzed at the language level. or at the paradigm level. So it would be convenient to consider the innovation of PL paradigm research. along the innovation of essays two cities, PL language research posed by Crista. Imperative paradigm 1842 (Ada Byron, Charles Babbage) Functional paradigm 1930s (Alonso Church) 1958 (LISP McCarthy) OO paradigm 1963 (Simula 63 Nygaard Dahl) Logic paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer)
Relational paradigm 1972 (Prolog Colmerauer) 1970 (Codd) 1976 (Chen) The last profoundly new paradigm appeared in 1972 with Prolog, a language of the logic and relational paradigms. From the PL paradigm scale perspective: … “that not much seems to in honor friedlaender have emerged since 1979” … is related to anu physics thesis the question of: In order to something new to emerge are new PL paradigms necessary? In this case the word paradigm would correspond exactly. to the sense it is essays, used in Thomas Kuhn “The Structure of Scientific Revolutions” (mentioned previously by Felleisen). So applying the Kuhn’s perspective to the PL scenario the exploration ended.
in the 70s and crna admission essay, it will not be unlocked until the next paradigm revolution. 8) The scientific method. The study of the scientific method is done by the philosophy of friedlaender, science. Epistemologically the crna school admission success of the industrial society rests in the availability of technology. Technology is produced by engineering. Epistemologically the discipline of engineering is the solution of problems. by the application of in honor of walter, science and mathematics. Science lets engineers understand and predict their solutions. Mathematics lets engineers express their solutions and calculate (parameters, predictions, etc.).
Epistemologically science and math are disciplines that study objects, so their aim is to produce theories, i.e. scientific or mathematical knowledge about. The object of study of a science is concrete, i.e. Anu Physics Thesis. it exists in the natural physical reality. The object of study of mathematics is abstract. It is a pattern that manifest in the reality. The nature of the object of study determines the methodology. The methodology of in honor friedlaender, science is experimental verification. The scientific theory should correspond to the natural physical reality (experiments). The methodology of wien, mathematics is proving theorems. Epistemologically software engineering is not an engineering, it is a craftsmanship because there is no science of essays of walter, software. There is no theory of admission essay, software in CS. Suppose that a scientific theory of sofware of the kind needed by.
software engineers exist, then their would be widespread adoption. and use by the software development community. As Parnas points out in his article “Really Rethinking Formal Methods”, it didn’t happened yet. The rest of the engineerings are successful because they count with the. sciences and mathematics that they need, so they can.
understand and predict the behaviour of their systems. We software developers cannot understand even less predict. the behaviour of our systems and the corpus of knowledge of CS and SE. does not aid in to getting the profession close to the rest of the engineerings. 9) Back to the PL and Crista blog. Some questions that arise contrasting the brief epistemological framework with Crista’s blog. Crista’s blog considers that academic PL research has industrial and essays in honor of walter friedlaender, applied aims. Most academic PL research so far was restricted to industrial and applied aims.
Her viewpoint as most PL reasearchers in academia restric to industrial and applied aims. Should academic PL research be restricted to industrial research and produce technology? Is this restriction what stops PL research of evolving? The restriction of focusing on doing doctoral work that produces technological results. More specifically in Crista’s blog it refers to widespread adoption of a PL language. The success of an wien essay, industrial PL should be judged by this criteria.
But should a research PL language be judged by the same criteria? The aim of PL research should be to produce technology. and satisfy the needs of the industry? or to produce theories of PL, scientific knowledge that lets us. understand PL better and more deeply? 10) Academic PL research does not have an exploratory agenda since the 70s. The agenda was dictated by the hardware evolution through the. demands of continual adaptation of essays, PL to succesive new generations. So far the crna school admission essay continual patching of PLs worked and was enough.
Hardware evolution is still insufficient incentive for further. exploratory PL research. Exploratory research is conducted marginally as a hobby. For instance in essays friedlaender, an academically unrespectable site like. Cat’s Eye Technologies page about esoteric PLs. PL names like brainfuck or funge will shun many. academic PL researchers.
11) Academic PL research never had a (epistemologically) scientific agenda. One that is not restricted by industrial or applied aims. But this is part of a general situation, that CS research never had a scientific agenda or producing scientific. knowledge about software. A discipline uninterested in producing a theory of software following. the scientific method will not produce a theory of PL. Just because CS has the word science in essay, it does not make it.
a science in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the word scientific is used in friedlaender, “scientific evidence”, but it is not scientific in the epistemological sense. In Crista’s blog the purpose of a doctoral work is to wien produce technology. So the evidence is essays in honor friedlaender, about technological success, its effectivenes. Epistemologically a scientific evidence validates experimentally. a scientific theory or some piece of it. 12) In other sciences there is an essay causes, internal agenda of the discipline. and an external agenda.
The internal agenda is to friedlaender advance the school admission state of scientific. knowledge of the discipline and the external agenda. is to apply its results in in honor, benefit of the society. CS does not have an wien, internal agenda in general. Specifically in PL research there is no internal agenda. In Crista’s blog the agenda is external and essays friedlaender, it is about doctoral proposals.
fitting in ths STEM goal. The lack of of ict, internal agenda means that epistemologically. CS does not have scientific goals and CS does not follow the scientific method. Perhaps it is natural in Crista’s words “that not much seems to have emerged. In the most mature sciences (epistemologically) like physics. most scientists are devoted to produce or verify scientific knowledge. and a minority to apply it and produce technology.
On the other hand CS is devoted to produce techniques. or technologies but not scientific knowledge (about computers, or software or PL). In the in honor of walter friedlaender theoretical side, theoretical CS is pure mathematics. They are mathematicians that write theorems and follow. the mathematical method: theoretical CS prove theorems. So theoretical CS is igcse, not producing scientific theories. On the other hand the essays most mature sciences and engineering. took centuries to develop. CS and SE have about honours, half a century.
But the regard or disregard of the scientific method by CS. determines it to essays of walter be a protoscience or pseudoscience. And the regard or disregard of the engineering method by SE. determines it to be a protoengineering or pseudoengineering. This final post of yours, number 12, is accurate, well reasoned, and to the point.
However, I rather doubt that CompSci is a proto — or budding — discipline of any specific kind. It’s a composite discipline, and in 4 decades of involvement I haven’t detected any evolution towards it becoming anything other than what it already is. As has always been the admission essay case, it comprises engineering, mathematics, and essays in honor friedlaender, far less commonly, also science when investigating unexplained phenomena by comparing two cities, applying the MO of science. Theoretical CompSci continues to be a specific branch of in honor, mathematics, and Software Engineering continues to be engineering, despite the term SE coming into essays disuse in recent times. You’re right that the vast majority of essays in honor of walter, people just don’t take engineering seriously when creating software.
Your term ‘pseudoengineering’ is harsh, but accurate. The saddest part of this for me is that one might sensibly expect computer scientists to essay revolution have a strong interest in essays in honor of walter friedlaender, placing their engineering subdiscipline on a more formal footing, but such activity is almost non-existent in the ranks. This has resulted in the standing of statement, computer science professionals being abysmal outside of pure academia, and rightly so because their ability to perform quality engineering has no solid footing in their discipline. CompSci has really missed the boat on this one. Hopefully one day CompSci will wake up and realize that it has failed to feed one of its babies, and give it the attention it deserves. Software bridges may then start collapsing less frequently, and in honor of walter friedlaender, being a professional in software engineering may then actually mean something. There is coursework student igcse, no sign of it yet though. I restricted to present the idealistic perspective. Fortunately you presented the realistic perspective. So it can provide a wider and more balanced panorama. The idealistic position is about what CS SE should be.
The realistic position is in honor, about what CS SE is actually. The expectations of society and the scientific and coursework of ict igcse, engineering. communities are expressed in the idealistic position. On the other hand you need to know who you are, where you are and what are you doing. so the in honor of walter realistic position is necessary as well.
Certainly the anu physics thesis discipline in its actual form comprises all M.O. I hope some day CS SE gets closer to in honor the rest of the sciences. and engineering but it will take time. It took centuries for the most mature disciplines to develop. to its current state. A simple analogy I consider is about a craftsman, a mechanic and an engineering. A craftsman understand the item he makes.
He understand it enought to make it work. A mechanic understands an engine so he can diagnose and repair it. But their understandings are partial and superficial. A mechanic lacks a complete view of the engine as a system. and its subsystems. He doesn’t know why each part has the dimension it has.
Nor he has a knowledge about the forces and torques implied. Nor the mechanics of the fluids and gases involved, or the combustion process and the thermal dissipation, etc. On the other hand, the scientific knowledge possessed by coursework student igcse, an engineer let him understand an friedlaender, engine in a complete and profound way. A mechanic cannot devise an engine. An engineer can. Engineers are happy learning tons of science and essays comparing, math. to make the impossible possible or to in honor improve their creations. The situation of a software engineer is closer to the craftsman and to the mechanic.
A SE understands the essay software enough to make it work, like a craftsman. A SE understands the software enough to debug it like a mechanic. But this understanding is partial and superficial. The completeness, breadth and depth of understanding of essays of walter friedlaender, a system that characterizes mature engineerings are still light years away of SE. And CS still did not produce the sort of scientific knowledge needed. The question is byron essay, what languages have enough depth to build a massive, complex, real-time, distributed and in honor, embedded system, complete with any sorts of essay on american revolution causes, I/O (and slick user interfaces), and in the process have enough depth to create all of the other language’s to boot. I can think of only three, Assembler because of it a necessity, C/C++ because of its proliferation, and Ada because of its expressive power.
Most of the in honor other languages that have appeared over the years have brought very few earth shattering features or concepts to light that cannot be reduced to a mere library. If you what to know my theory of why we have so many languages today, read Genesis 11:5-9. “Unfortunately, this argument is the hardest to coursework of ict igcse defend. In fact, I am yet to see the first study that convincingly demonstrates that a programming language, or a certain feature of programming languages, makes software development a more productive process.” It sounds like a copout. You seem to be biased in essays in honor friedlaender, that any study around that has good results won’t be good enough for you. Well, let’s make one then.
We’ll use 30 people minimum for statistical significance. Get 30 people that know C and PHP. Tell them to write a web app where the user types in a sentence the essays app returns both a list of words in the sentence the essays of walter number. Coursework Student. Measure how quickly each app is produced and how many lines of code it takes. If your view is essays of walter, correct, PHP will provide no advantage due to either it’s dynamic, scripting nature or ability to easily mix HTML server-side script. Experiment 2. Take another dual set of igcse, 30. Half will use Java to code an enterprise web app. In Honor. The other half will use Sun’s DASL language and toolkit.
Measure time taken, lines of code, etc. Statement. If your position is correct, then the DASL people won’t finish way ahead of the essays in honor Java guys with much less code. (Illustrated: an app of around 8-10k DASL compiles to 200k+ lines of crna school admission essay, Java, XML, SQL other stuff.) Experiment 3. Have a set of people write an app with certain safety requirements. One group uses C one group uses SPARK Ada. Compare believability of correctness arguments, time to produce/test arguments, time to essays in honor friedlaender build application, size. Do a similar comparison against Escher’s Perfect language with auto-generation of C++, Java or Ada. Experiment 4: Two teams design a batch processing app that consumes possibly malicious data performs complex operations on it. It must have high performance and no observed reliability/security issues over a year.
One team uses C++ and byron essay, one uses Ocaml. In Honor. Compare the student time to of walter produce the app, app size, annual no. of crashes, annual no. of security flaws, and general bug count over the year. Crna Admission. If your position is correct, Ocaml’s superior design will provide no advantages. Experiment 5: Two teams design an application for processing log files producing a report about them. One team uses Pascal and in honor friedlaender, one uses Perl. Comparing Two Cities. If your position is correct, Perl’s dynamic nature powerful built-in regular expressions shouldn’t get the job done faster. Anyone thinking that’s not fair can do a similar competition with both languages for a standard console app that doesn’t rely on in honor of walter friedlaender either language’s specialties. Of Ict Student. Perl developers will still finish first. Experiment 6: Two teams design a SCM. One uses Java with a good IDE one uses Allegro Common LISP with it’s platform.
Measure time to produce, compile times, lines of code, ease of of walter, database integration where needed, and ease of modifying the personal statement law application. Allegro CL should provide no benefits from essays, dynamic nature w/ optional static performance typing, AllegroCache OODBMS built-in, and incremental compilation. Experiment 7: Two teams do system administration tasks, a business app and a web app using no fancy auto-gen extra tools, although web frameworks are allowed for either. One team uses C++ and one uses Python. Measure time to coursework student igcse completion, lines of code, bugs/crashes over a year, cost of IDE’s and time to train developers to essays friedlaender achieve this. I’m betting on Python. Extreme example: Compare assembler to on american revolution causes C/C++ for most apps. There’s no features that the latter language has over the former that aids the software development process? Codasys vs SQL? Prolog vs Mercury? Gypsy vs Coq?
Certain language features and design points definitely help in both general and essays in honor friedlaender, specific cases. Anu Physics. It’s beyond obvious. If there isn’t a good study proving it yet, then that just shows how poorly academics are doing their studies on the topic these days. Version: GnuPG v1.4.10 (GNU/Linux) As a professional mechanic for essays in honor friedlaender, six years before attending college, your analogies follow the honours thesis line of “a tool for essays friedlaender, every job”. Comparing Two Cities. Or what carpenters would say, “when all you have is a hammer, everything looks like a nail”. My job is writing code for essays in honor of walter, deeply embedded products. The kind of stuff where if it works, no one ever knows that it even exists. It is all (with the exception of very few lines of igcse, asm) written in C. In Honor Of Walter. The tools I use to work with my code, are primarily written in Perl, though some are written in Python. Admission. The build tools are a combination of ‘make’ (and the assorted autogen) and Python (SCons).
Configuration is through XML. Essays In Honor Of Walter Friedlaender. Documentation is school admission essay, through plain vanilla html/css. And there are a dozen small bash scripts that automate life for me as well. I think that gets to essays in honor friedlaender the heart of your comment. If your only tool is PHP, everything looks like a Web Page.
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