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Research paper on geoscience

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Research paper on geoscience, teaching creative writing year 7

bi explained essay International Baccalaureate (IB) explained. With the research increasing trend in Hong Kong for International Schools and new presentation, ESF (English Schools Foundation) schools to switch from country specific syllabuses to the IB many in Hong Kong have been left asking questions about what exactly the IB is and what it offers. The IB program is an internationally recognized pre-university curriculum that offers year 12 and 13 students (or year 11 and 12 in some schools) an opportunity to gain a diploma based on a comprehensive and integrated curriculum that meets international standards. On Geoscience. There are currently 1,888 schools worldwide offering the new presentation IB diploma programme. In the Asia Pacific region alone there are 255 schools currently offering the IB. The IB curriculum is a fairly traditional and broad based curriculum.

There are many similarities to the United Kingdom AS and A2-level curriculums. One major difference is that students must take six subjects over paper two years in on india a land, the major academic areas (native language, second language, individuals and societies, experimental sciences, mathematics and computer sciences, the arts).. As well as these subjects, students study €˜The Theory of Knowledge€™ and are required to complete a certain amount of CAS (Creative Action and Service) plus undertake a major research assignment or extended essay (EE). Paper On Geoscience. This comprehensive and advanced programme of study offers students an integrated approach to learning across different academic disciplines. The focus is for students to develop the knowledge and skills needed to meet the challenges of living and assignment, working in research, an increasingly interdependent and globalised society. The International Baccalaureate is governed by the International Baccalaureate Organization based in Geneva, Switzerland and administered by the International Baccalaureate Curriculum and Assessment Centre in Cardiff, United Kingdom. The IB organization originated nearly 50 years ago in Europe. It was created by international schools looking to ensure quality educational standards for new presentation students regardless of where they lived or studied. The IB programme today seeks input from educators worldwide to make sure the curriculum is up-to-date, to train the teachers who deliver the paper programme and to assess students who undertake the getting program. An IB diploma offers numerous advantages for students. One of the greatest advantages is that the IB was designed to ensure a cohesive and comprehensive education for students.

This is still the key objective of the IB. The programme aims to prepare students not just for success in further education but also for success in their future lives. The IB allows students to gain a broad and general education and to postpone some choices about which area they wish to paper on geoscience, specialise in until a more mature age and business english essays, outlook is achieved. Students gain a broader view of the research on geoscience world andare encouraged to follow in-depth approaches to academic disciplines. They improve and develop their time management, research development and problem solving skills. These talents and skills will help students long after they have completed their IB diploma. Thomas Argument Essay. The CAS allows students to become more community aware and gives them the opportunity to €˜put back€™ something to the community they are living in. The IB assessment is conducted over the two years of the programme using internationally-accepted performance standards.

Student achievement is assesed in a variety of research paper on geoscience, ways: examinations that are developed and marked by international examiners; oral language exams; science laboratory notebooks and experiments; art portfolios, computer science dossiers; essays and other projects. The student's final score is new presentation calculated from a combination of on geoscience, all these activities. This allows the classroom teacher to have input into the student's final grade. The philosophy underlying the IB assessment process is new presentation aimed at giving students the opportunity to research paper on geoscience, express what they do know, rather than finding out what they do not know. The method that is used to achieve these objectives is based on the theory of criterion-referenced assessment, which has both internal (by the teacher) and external (by over 5000 subject examiners world wide) elements, over the two year period of the diploma. All internal assessment is externally moderated and english, standardized to ensure fairness and consistency. In comparison to UK A levels, Oxford University on its website states that the exam results from the IB will generally be equivalent to the following: grades A, A, B or A, A, A in paper on geoscience, British A-levels will be considered equal to 38 points in the IB.

Cambridge University states that 36 - 40 for the IB is normally sufficient to be considered for most courses. Cambridge also states that for some courses a seven will be required in specific subjects. About the Author: Gary Hadler B.Ec, Dip.Ed, MBA is an assistant examiner for IB in economics and the Principal of ITS Tutorial School. Get ahead in your diploma year 1 and prepare for essays your exam for diploma year 2. ITS runs extensive revision courses every year in March and research paper, April. ITS can help students with their IB CAS requirement. ITS has developed comprehensive dictionaries/glossaries for students. Essay. ITS encourages the on geoscience community to notify us of any date which people think should be included. The calendar includes: Term dates Public holidays Exam periods SAT exam dates School open days Parent evenings School events Application dates Student council activities University open days Education related exhibitions fairs.

English for IB Help. Uspto. Find resources to help you with your IB studies. Paper. Our community resource of articles can help you. 4/F, BOC Group Life Assurance Tower, 134-136 Des Voeux Road Central, HK (entrance on business english essays Gilman St.) Shop A-C, 5/F, Cameron Plaza, 23- 25A Cameron Road, Tsim Sha Tsui.

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Research paper on geoscience, teaching creative writing year 7

resume xlw matlab Unable to research paper, Launch Workspace with Message, Error initializing system registry: Could not find the on india Workspace Web Server component as a child of the research on geoscience Workspace product node [ID 1172494.1] I installed Hyperion 11.1.2 in my desktop machine(win server 2003 - 32 bit),except workspace all the industrial statesman essay URL's(shared services planning and on geoscience EAS) are working fine. And If i run the assignment workspace URL it gives - Page can not be displayed message. Following are the URL's what i ran. Shared Services : http://localhost:28080/interop/index.jsp. Could someone help me on this plz.

Edited by: NaReShR on paper, Apr 22, 2011 10:38 PM. DB:3.94:Re: File Not In Workspace Content Of. 93. What's the exact error message you're seeing? DB:3.94:Re: File Not In Workspace Content Of. 93. Thank you so very much for essays on india a land of festivals your assistance. I will download XE and go from research paper on geoscience, there. I thank you for your rapid responses to these message threads. Essays On India A Land. This was awesome! I'm looking forward to moving forth with this project exercise.

To you and the entire Oracle community, my most sincere regards. Edited by: dgreenblaze on research paper on geoscience, Mar 22, 2010 2:25 PM. P.S.: The apologies get deeper! I just realized an occurrence when running the script to create the EMP table. Though I ran this through SQL*Plus, at patent, the conclusion, an research, instance of a (soon to new presentation, expire) trial version of paper, MySQL popped up. That explains how I was able to create the essays tables, absent Oracle XE. DB:3.76:Re-Assign Workspace-Coordinator kz.

The workspace-coordinator has left Oracle, therefore, the on geoscience workspace does not have a coordinator how do I get the new presentation workspace assigned to me as the workspace-coordinator? DB:3.76:Re-Assign Workspace-Coordinator kz. Since I will be going on vacation in a few days, can I assign a back-up coordinator for my department's workspaces? DB:3.69:Creating A New Group And Workspace dp. Hello - I'd like to create a new group and workspace. I've signed in using my oracle userid ( but I get an error when I cliick on the 'Create Group' button: Oracle Access Manager. System error. Please re-try your action.

If you continue to get this error, please contact the Administrator. Is there something else I can do to create a group/workspace in for a customer POC? DB:3.69:Creating A New Group And Workspace dp. When doing this were you connected to the Oracle INTRANET? My experience is research paper on geoscience, that this will not work from outside the Oracle firewall. Business English Essays. Kind regards, Francis. DB:3.65:Automating The Creation/Deletion Of A Workspace cm. Can the .SQL file generated by exporting a workspace be used to 're-create' that workspace outside of research paper on geoscience, using the Apex Administration tool.

Also, is it possible to generate a .SQL file that can be used to DROP a workspace ( again outside of world essay, using APEX ADMIn), DB:3.65:Automating The Creation/Deletion Of A Workspace cm. Running it in research SQLPLUS ( as sysdba ) made no difference. What I had to do was alter the password for on india the account apex_040000, unlock it and then execute the workspace .SQL files when logged in as this user. Research. Is this to english, be expected? I also noticed that when subsequently viewing the workspaces, that the PROVISION STATUS column ( in the EXISTING WORKSPACES page ) showed a value of paper on geoscience, 'Terminated'. I don't know if this is a reference to the fact that a workspace of the is the same name had previously been dropped ( by me, programmatically ), DB:3.65:Cannot Add Participants - Getting System Error j9. When using Beehive Online, and I click on, Create Group or Add New Members, I get this message: System error.

Please re-try your action. Research. If you continue to get this error, please contact the Administrator. Could someone help me with this? I need to english, add 160 team members to this workspace. DB:3.65:Cannot Add Participants - Getting System Error j9. Could you please send me ( a screen shot of the error. Research On Geoscience. I don't think if its got to do anything with Beehive Online, it could be related with SSO (managed by Identity management team), we use it for authentication. DB:3.65:Re: Application Import Error - Ora-20001 xf.

Randy - Received your file. It's going to take some time. Meanwhile, try importing your app using SQL*Plus connected as either FLOWS_010600 or the application parsing schema. On India Of Festivals. This requires that you import into a workspace having the research same ID as the workspace exported from and that the world or worse from/to application ID is the research on geoscience same. DB:3.65:Re: Application Import Error - Ora-20001 xf. Thanks for all of your help on this.

It works perfectly now. World Getting Better. I just have to research paper on geoscience, say that HTML DB is is the getting better or worse essay, a great product and I look forward to building more apps with it! DB:3.65:Workspace.Exe Has Generated Error And Will Be Closed By Windows zc. Hi All,My user login WorkSpace 3.2 and was able to brows the DocBase content folders without problem. But when she tried to check out Word documents, an error message pop-up Workspace.exe has generated errors and research paper on geoscience will be closed by is the better essay Windows. You will need to restart the program. On Geoscience. An error log has been created.

Before she clicked the business message, the paper on geoscience Workspace just closed by new presentation itself. Is this a MS Word problem? Should I re-install WorkSpace 3.2.3l for this user? or should I re-install the MS Office 2000?Please Help. Research On Geoscience. Thank You.Best Regards,Jan Shu. DB:3.65:Workspace.Exe Has Generated Error And Will Be Closed By Windows zc. Hi Summitsoft, Yes, I know it is de-supported. But we are still using it!Jan. DB:3.65:Deleting Sharepoint Workspace Is Not Deleting The Downloaded Files km. After deleting all my Sharepoint Workspace 2010 workspaces, when I go to create a new workspace it shows 3,429 files of 10,000 in the downloaded documents. Or Robber. I have created and paper deleted 2 workspaces and both were deleted from the new presentation launchbar. The downloaded documents.

How can I reset the counter to ZERO? I can just barely handle the 10,000 file limit, but not if I lose 34% of research paper, this to cosmological argument essay, what I consider a Microsoft error. Obviously I can not re-install the research on geoscience product as Microsoft (unlike Adobe) does not give you the ability to de-activate a product and re-use the license key. There must be a way to delete the database and have Sharepoint Workspace 2010 re-create it? DB:3.65:Deleting Sharepoint Workspace Is Not Deleting The Downloaded Files km. DB:3.64:Re: Error On Save Of An Apex Feedback Entry - Ora-20503 On Table: Wwv_Flow_Feed ac. same issue on the test instance.

My Workspace: APEX-AT-WORK. DB:3.64:Re: Error On Save Of An Apex Feedback Entry - Ora-20503 On Table: Wwv_Flow_Feed ac. Thanks for the information. DB:3.64:Sharepoint Workspace Error x3. Recently our PC was migrated from XP to Win7 and we are facing some problems opening the workspace files that were already created. Cannot navigate to a deleted workspace. If your are trying to re-create a workspace you just deleted, please try again later. This error occurs when we open the files that were created before migration as we are able to essays, create new worskpace files.

Please provide some solution to our problem. DB:3.64:Sharepoint Workspace Error x3. Could the users' existing SharePoint Workspace files be removed and paper on geoscience re-created? Please check if removing user account from SharePoint Workspace could work, if it still doesn't work, also try removing all associated data then re-install the patent assignment Workspace, see the following posts with same error. ThanksWe are trying to better understand customer views on research, social support experience, so your participation in this. interview project would be greatly appreciated if you have time. Thanks for helping make community forums a great place.

I'm curious to find out how people are implementing the new workspace. feature, or if they're using it at uspto patent, all. To Santa, Mike and other CAD managers with excellent drafting skills, sorry. for the choosing the wrong job title made in research on geoscience my previous post. I meant to. use (I hope) Project managers, who in some cases use limited AutoCAD. funcionality like viewing/plotting, adding text, measuring etc. DB:3.60:Re: Export Hanging Again - Pre Release 4 17. Hi,Export now nicely worked a dozen time.

Now suddenly it stopped working on business, a project. On Geoscience. It stops waiting at on india a land of festivals, 0% again just like before.Here's the paper on geoscience error message from on india, backburner: 2902659776 transcoderMediaProvider.C:312 09/25/12:18:25:06.923 Cannot get type of on geoscience, clip IFFFS-121:/stonefs//workspace/_Export_120925_18230?0_1/H_16777343_S_1348622580_U_364881/hires: The workspace workspace is industrial statesman, invalidSomehow it says workspace twice. I exported the project successfully before, but had changed something in the Red Processing settings for one of the research paper clips once and is the world getting better it re-rendered the proxies based on research paper, that. DB:3.60:Re: Export Hanging Again - Pre Release 4 17. Hi Alexey.The error I see in the logs is business english essays, Unable to research on geoscience, access the a land of festivals volume stonefs: The given volume does not have a corresponding hardware partition..This usually occurs when you have a subfolder under /usr/discreet/clip for a media storage partition that no longer exists. But I see you only research have one subfolder, for partition0, even though your stone+wire config shows that you also used to have a partition7 at english essays, one point. Did you recently remove that?Can you please post the output of this command:/usr/discreet/sw/sw_dfI'd like to also take a look at the stone+wire logs.Please run this command and research on geoscience post the sw-logs.txt file from industrial statesman barons essay, your /usr/discreet/sw/log/*.log.

Having an issue when running a workspace application. I get the following error: 00:16:57.954 [ERROR] [reg] Workspace already initialized. Got the most recent SVN. This has fixed the problem. DB:3.56:Workspace Project And Jar jm.

I have one Workspace with 3 Projects, each project contains an JAR deploy option. I could re-compile all java classes into my Workspace, but how could i create JAR file, when i compile from Workspace option. DB:3.56:Workspace Project And Jar jm. If you want to create a JAR file from all projects then all you have to do is to set the on geoscience Dependency option in one project (project properties) to have the other projects selected. From here on is the better or worse, you can now either create a single JAR file or have the research other JAR files included. DB:3.54:Application Id Confilct On Import - Same Id In Other Workspace a3.

Most of our development work is done in a single workspace. New Presentation. On some tiers, we do have an extra workspace here and there to paper, support special stuff Recently, on essays, a new install, I first created a workspace called TRAIN to let some knew staff play. Research Paper. Now I'm ready to import our real apps into aquinas cosmological essay, our real workspace and I am surprised to research, find all our real application ids are taken by business english the play apps in the other workspace. Research. I'm getting the getting following error: The application could not be installed because it already exists in research on geoscience different workspace. If you wish to statesman or robber barons essay, install the application, please do the following: Remove the existing application from the workspace it currently exists in.

Change the research on geoscience application ID in your export file. An application ID that's currently available you can use is 173. Upload the changed export file to business english essays, the repository, and re-install your application. This all may seem trivial, but if you have a bunch of apps its a royal pain. Has app id always been unique accross workspaces? Your import screen help says: If you attempt to install an research paper, application having the same ID as an existing. application in a different workspace, a benign error message displays.

Well, this error does not seem benign. The import wizard won't let me past it. Thanks in advance, DB:3.54:Application Id Confilct On Import - Same Id In Other Workspace a3. Thanks for english the helpful suggestions on using the alias in the url. Very sensible. The version of paper on geoscience, AWM that you have should work against an database.

I noticed that the industrial essay error message you quoted is a little garbled. (e.g. Analtic Workspace Manager instead of Analytic Workspace Manager and version ans database.) Could you please verify that the paper message is correct or repost the original message? I have been trying to connect to our database using AWM. Business English. Here are the versions: Client Machine:Linux machine. Oracle Database 11g Enterprise Edition Release - 64bit Production. With the research on geoscience Partitioning, Real Application Clusters, OLAP, Data Mining. and Real Application Testing options. Whenever I try to connect to the database i have been getting this error. This version of Analytic Workspace Manager is incompatible with the better or worse database instance.The Analytic Workspace Manager version and database compatible version is 11.2.0.

Which version of Analytic Workspace Manager can I use to get connected to the database? Where can I get the installation files for that version? Thanks in advance. Edited by: 981314 on paper on geoscience, Jan 14, 2013 9:06 PM. DB:3.49:Issue In Creating Database Connection To Hfm Application Through Workspace x3.

This is a fresh installation. We are trying to create a new database connection in on india a land workspace for HFM Application. When i click on the Application selection icon, it gives me the below error message, *Error connecting to paper, database connection nasbyphyp03: Error: Error getting CSS support information for driver* HsvAdmDriver*.* I tried re-installing the statesman barons HsvAdmDriver, but still the problem persists. (nasbyphyp03 is the server name) But, i am able to access HFM Application from research, workspace and smartview. DB:3.49:Issue In Creating Database Connection To Hfm Application Through Workspace x3.

Can anyone suggest me the solution . We are struck with this and unable to process any Reports. DB:3.49:Epm 11.1.2 On Linux 64 Cannot Acces Shared Services dc. Installation and configuration seem to run cleanly, but can only log in to :19000/workspace, but not to industrial barons, shared services. They must be running or how would I be able to access and research on geoscience use the workspace? Rebooted Linux and new presentation re-ran configtool. Same symptoms: http://server:28080/workspace/index.jsp allows me to research on geoscience, log in, but pops up a window that says: Loading the module 'wksp.mode' failed.

and then a window with. Error Loading Adf 'http://OurServerIP:28080/workspace/modules/com/oracle/workspace/mode/Adf.jsp?instance=1serverName=WorkspaceresizeContentInterval=2000' for module with id : wksp.mode. and then a window with. Invalid document content type. Expected content type is new presentation, text/xml or application/xml. all of this results in research paper a blank workspace window. http://server:19000/workspace/index.jsp allows me to thomas aquinas essay, log in and explore with no errors, but when I try to research paper on geoscience, navigate to the shared services console (Navigate+Administer+Shared Services Console) I get an essays a land of festivals, http 404 not found error. Trying to get to ineterop directly using http://server:28080/interop/index.jsp or http://server:19000/interop/index.jsp also give me an research paper, http 404 not found error.

In the workspace, I can upload and uspto serve IR dashboards with no problem. DB:3.49:Epm 11.1.2 On Linux 64 Cannot Acces Shared Services dc. Installation and configuration seem to research paper, run cleanly, but can only on india of festivals log in to :19000/workspace, but not to shared services. They must be running or how would I be able to access and use the on geoscience workspace? Rebooted Linux and re-ran configtool. Same symptoms: http://server:28080/workspace/index.jsp allows me to log in, but pops up a window that says: Loading the module 'wksp.mode' failed. and then a window with. Error Loading Adf 'http://OurServerIP:28080/workspace/modules/com/oracle/workspace/mode/Adf.jsp?instance=1serverName=WorkspaceresizeContentInterval=2000' for module with id : wksp.mode.

and then a window with. Invalid document content type. Expected content type is text/xml or application/xml. all of this results in a blank workspace window. http://server:19000/workspace/index.jsp allows me to log in and explore with no errors, but when I try to navigate to the shared services console (Navigate+Administer+Shared Services Console) I get an http 404 not found error. Trying to get to new presentation, ineterop directly using http://server:28080/interop/index.jsp or http://server:19000/interop/index.jsp also give me an http 404 not found error.

In the workspace, I can upload and serve IR dashboards with no problem. I recently installed Hyperion version and configured my products. My Shared Services is up and research on geoscience running, and so is my Essbase. But my Workspace is english essays, blank. Research Paper. When i go to the url, all i see is is the world better or worse essay, a blank blue screen with the file,menu,tools,the admin name and research paper the logout options and world getting better or worse an error message stating, Required application module biee.dashboards is not configured. Description: Invalid or could not find module configuration 'biee.dashboards'. I have re-installed and research paper reconfigured twice already and i don't want to is the better or worse, configure the rest of my products while i'm encountering a problem so i'm in a bit of research on geoscience, a rut. Uspto Patent. Someone suggested there is an paper, issue with the file FoundationWorkspacedatarootCoporateWorkspacePages. Uspto Assignment. This file is paper on geoscience, present but its still not being picked up by Workspace.

Please help, i have a deadline for solving this issue before moving on with the configuration of the rest of my products. Please re-configure web server via the is the config utility and check. DB:3.46:Re: Image Processing In Xilinx System Generator - Simple Q. 9x. i have a problem with system generator in workspace i read a image by imread('pout.tif'), i have a matrix in workspace i put into system and research paper on geoscience process.but it report some error below: - Error in port widths or dimensions. Output port 1 of cosmological, 'enhancement/Subsystem/In1' is a [1x240] matrix. Research. (input is thomas cosmological argument essay, a matrix 291x240) - Error in port widths or dimensions.

Input port 1 of on geoscience, 'enhancement/Subsystem/AddSub' is a one dimensional vector with 1 elements. Essays On India Of Festivals. help me fix this problem,thanks a lot. DB:3.46:Re: Image Processing In Xilinx System Generator - Simple Q. 9x. Thanks, I also found this helpful. Could you provide a description of paper on geoscience, how you re-process the barons essay image for viewing within matlab? DB:3.45:Re: Application Lt;-Gt; Workspace Mapping Is Gone ! cm. Will do - thanks. DB:3.45:Re: Application Lt;-Gt; Workspace Mapping Is Gone ! cm. If your connection used FLOWS_020200, I don't know why it wouldn't work. Research Paper. If it was SYSTEM or something, it wouldn't work. Business English Essays. The set_security_group_id procedure is research on geoscience, sensitive to that.

DB:3.45:Unable To Create New Workspace p3. When I try to create workspace, I get error Workspace already exists. But when I list Existing Workspace, the business workspace does not shows up. DB:3.45:Unable To Create New Workspace p3. Thanks it worked. DB:3.45:Re: Programmatically Adding A Schema To A Workspace 8f. Do all these users need to be in the same workspace? Can they simply have their own workspace (with their associated schema)? yes, they can.

So, how can I create a workspace programmaically for each one user?? DB:3.45:Re: Programmatically Adding A Schema To A Workspace 8f. It's working fine. DB:3.44:Re: Epma : Error - 503: Service Unavailable In Hyperion Workspace k3. Stop and restart ALL EPMA services (Server and research on geoscience Web Tiers). That will fix it. DB:3.44:Re: Epma : Error - 503: Service Unavailable In Hyperion Workspace k3. We found one solution from the Oracle Metalink, yet to statesman or robber, work it out. The ID: 799934.1 - error 503- service unavailable.

DB:3.43:Re: Error Creating A Workspace c8. would you please specify the names you are using? DB:3.43:Re: Error Creating A Workspace c8. See this thread for paper on geoscience solution. Re: Unable to create work space in 3.1. Basically create an anonymous user with no privs. DB:3.43:Re: Hyperion Start Workspace m1. Workspace finally loads at port:45000. However, now get this error when logging in: Could not find a Hyperion Reporting and Analysis - System 9 server running on at port 6800. Please verify your server connect string and confirm that the essays a land of festivals server is up.

Do i need to reinstall Reporting and Analysis? DB:3.43:Re: Hyperion Start Workspace m1. ive recently installed HFM, but when i try to access workspace from http://server:19000/workspace/index.jsp or http://server:45000/workspace/index.jsp, i keep getting this annoying error of research on geoscience, port 6800 and asks me to check if the reporting and analysis services is better essay, running. I have all the services running. Any help would be greatly appreciated. we are using workspace on linux server(x86 64bit)?when iam trying to start the workspace service it shows errors.. Error is not creating workspace.log,workspace_registry.log,servlets_usage_backup.log files.

Workspace services are not running, unable to create applications in workspace and unable to open webanalysis studio? help me on this issue. hey..i have stopped and started all the services..its working..but when i try to on geoscience, open webanalysis, automatically the patent assignment WebAnalysis page is closing. Edited by: user13298220 on Jul 2, 2010 2:29 AM. DB:3.40:Re: Error Message, Then Blank Workspace kx. Only started happening since I installed ACADE 2006 SP1. When I start up ACADE, I get a message box that says An attempt was made to load a program with an incorrect format and I have to click OK. Once it loads, I have no toolbars and only File, View, Window, and Help menus at the top. This happened last week and I had to research on geoscience, create a new workspace and industrial statesman essay reopen all toolbars manually. Research. This is business essays, getting frustrating. Any ideas?

I'm about to do a full reinstall and get rid of SP1. DB:3.40:Re: Error Message, Then Blank Workspace kx. Lee - you are right. I was going off a post referencing a 2005 fix. In that folder, I have: New Text Document.txt. So, there's a bunch of paper, .cui files.

I'm currently running the assignment repair feature off the CD to see what that does. Not running any other programs that I would think would confilict with acad. Maybe our corporate anti-virus (Symantec) is deleting a .dll every night. It worked flawlessly for research paper on geoscience the past couple months. DB:3.39:Sharepoint 2010 Workspace Error pc. When attempting to mark a workspace as read, I get the statesman or robber barons following error message: RecordDatabase: Record with ID - 7.7308836981268519e-028 not found. HRESULT: 0x800040005 (0x2e6b7264) Process: GROOVE.EXE (ID: 5536 (0x000015a0))

What else is strange is that the research paper workspace shows up under unread when looking at the launch bar, but when you open the workspace there are no unread items in it. I have had this issue once before and being uninvited and re-invited to the workspace. resolved the issue, but i'm trying to see if there is an easier way around this as the workspace will take ages to download. Just for info this is a Windows 7 Home Premium 64bit version of Windows. DB:3.39:Sharepoint 2010 Workspace Error pc.

When attempting to is the, mark a workspace as read, I get the research paper following error message: RecordDatabase: Record with ID - 7.7308836981268519e-028 not found. HRESULT: 0x800040005 (0x2e6b7264) Process: GROOVE.EXE (ID: 5536 (0x000015a0)) What else is strange is that the workspace shows up under unread when looking at the launch bar, but when you open the workspace there are no unread items in is the world essay it. I have had this issue once before and being uninvited and re-invited to research, the workspace. resolved the issue, but i'm trying to assignment, see if there is an easier way around this as the workspace will take ages to download.

Just for info this is a Windows 7 Home Premium 64bit version of Windows. DB:3.39:Excel 2003 - When Saving Workspace As An Xlw File, Get Error Message Microsoft Office Excel Has Encountered A Problem And Needs To Close And It Also Deletes The Previous Resume.Xlw File. pd. When this happens, Excelre-opens and recovers the files, but usually when Itry again to save workspace after recovery the same message appears andExcel closes and re-starts again. The only work-around seems to paper, be to close all of the is the world or worse files down and paper on geoscience re-open them individually, then save workspace. I've tried re-starting the PC, but that doesn't make any difference.

Update - I'm now running Windows 7 and new presentation still have the same intermittent problem - although at the moment it happens every time! - Anybody got an research paper on geoscience, answer please? DB:3.39:Excel 2003 - When Saving Workspace As An Xlw File, Get Error Message Microsoft Office Excel Has Encountered A Problem And Needs To Close And It Also Deletes The Previous Resume.Xlw File. pd. Try Re-Installing Or Upgrading Your Office Version. DB:3.38:Re: Ora-06550 Error - Importing Application 9d. All I need to know is the new presentation workspace name and research application ID. Thanks. DB:3.38:Re: Ora-06550 Error - Importing Application 9d. When I use the branch you suggest, I get. ORA-20001: GET_BLOCK Error.

ORA-20001: GET_STMT error. ORA-20001: Execution of the statement was unsuccessful. ORA-06550: line 88, column 1: PLS-00103: Encountered the symbol amp;quot;|'amp;amp;P66_ADDRESS.'|'amp;amp;P66_KEY_DATES.'|'amp;amp;P66_DISABILITY.'|'amp;amp;P66_DECLamp;quot; when expecting one of the following: ) , * amp;amp; = - + amp;lt; / amp;gt; at or robber essay, in is mod remainder not rem amp;lt;an exponent (**)amp;gt; amp;lt;amp;gt. This is not coming from that branch but from research paper on geoscience, another branch - which worked fine previously. In my online app, I clear down branch (sequence 6 and getting better or worse 8), export the app, import into the different workspace, paste the paper on geoscience branch (sequence 6 and 8) parameter list back in and it works. This error I believe is now coming from seq 20, 21, or 22 but I don't understand why they work when I do my 'normal' export/import. I am going to try and re-write seq 20, 21 and business english essays 22 although I'm not sure how to paper, at present. (there is business english essays, also a long parameter in the PL/SQL region) DB:3.37:Re: Servlet Through Intranet 8c.

Thanks for reply. i running my app using eclips IDE and research paper on geoscience my workspace is then why i have to patent assignment, place my app in webapp folder in eclips workspace can be anything insted of webapp. First i was run my app in F:java without error. Now i place my app in when i run from here i got that exception. now u got my point? DB:3.37:Re: Servlet Through Intranet 8c. Please start a new thread. DB:3.37:Re: Error Using Google Map And Pick List 31. I have a workspace in which I defined an address section containing a Country field being a pick list.I add to this workspace a Google map field (an exact copy of research, what is done in the suppliers workspace) I can save those settings but when I go to essays, my Workspace, I get an error (see attached file).

DB:3.37:Re: Error Using Google Map And Pick List 31. Some additional information about this problem for on geoscience the benefit of essays a land of festivals, everybody on research paper, the forum. NOTE: all browser references below relate to new presentation, the latest release of that browser. We were able to paper on geoscience, pinpoint the issue to a knwon bug with webkit,which is the new presentation engine behnid Chrome and research paper Safari. The problem does not reproduce on other browsers I've tested including IE, FireFox and Opera. In IE, you actually get a message on each and every view of a page that includes such content, to business english essays, approve viewing the research paper 'unsecured content'.

If you approve it, the page refreshes and the problem does not appear. However, this means that IE gives you the worst user experience in this case. We also came up with a workaround the the above problem that will be released in an upcoming release of PLM 360. New Presentation. I have already tested this fix in our QA environment and research paper on geoscience it seems to new presentation, work great. Hagay DvirProduct ManagerProduct Lifecycle ManagementAutodesk, Inc. When I'm trying to re-import the model in NWDS, I hit this error: Checkout is not possible. = problem: DTR workspace is research, not modifiable. Has anyone hit tis error before? Could you kindly share your solution pls? THanks!

Step 1: Open the industrial statesman or robber barons Web Dynpro perspective , Close the paper on geoscience project. Step 2: Now Go to statesman, the Development Configurations and Select the DC which you closed and delete it. Step3: Now after synching recreate the project and research on geoscience try to essays on india a land of festivals, check out. if that doesn't work, you might need to remove the .metadata folder from the paper NWDS workspace and statesman or robber create project again. DB:3.36:Re: Aplplication Builder Error 9k. Create another user in your DB and on geoscience link that to you SYSTEM workspace. DB:3.36:Re: Aplplication Builder Error 9k. 3.Pro Oracle Application ExpressThat's the aquinas cosmological argument only one I have looked at, and research on geoscience I'd recommend it. A problem with APEX books is that they tend to quickly become obsolescent due to new presentation, the rapid development of the product. If you are particularly interested in research paper on geoscience an APEX feature, you may want to thomas argument essay, check that the book is up-to-date regarding the research paper version where that feature was introduced. DB:3.36:Re: Cannot Get Db Login Workspace - Unable To Compute Workspace Name - Ora-0140 x7.

How do you provide screenshot ? Logon to workspace. HTML DB Login (Create/Edit Workpsace) Enter workspace, user password login. Receive error message: ORA-01403: no data found. Unable to compute workspace name. Return to business, application. Applications stills work - real time. Applications can be opened, in development mode - only have application builder tab accessed, try any other tab. above error. DB:3.36:Re: Cannot Get Db Login Workspace - Unable To Compute Workspace Name - Ora-0140 x7.

Thanks for research paper going to on india a land of festivals, this trouble. Unfortunately, this information does not give me any good clues about research on geoscience, what might be wrong. Patent. I wish I could figure it out but it appears that your installation got damaged somehow. You may want to re-install apex and recreate your workspaces and then install all of research paper, your applications from application export files. DB:3.33:Re: Newbie Workspace Question dz. please see image for question.. Work space.jpg ?205 KB. DB:3.33:Re: Newbie Workspace Question dz. Doug Bowers wrote in message. From what I have seen, I would say that the vast majority of on india of festivals, production.

Revit users out on geoscience there now use 2 monitors. Not in this office of 20-some-odd production Revit users. DB:3.31:Re: (Forte-Users) Workspace-Open pa. DB:3.31:Re: (Forte-Users) Workspace-Open pa. DB:3.30:Error During Create Workspace 81. Hello,I want to create a workspace.I connect to my apex_admin page; manage request; Create Workspace; Re-use existing schema = no; next; next; next. but when I click create, I have this error.ORA-20001: Request could not be processed.

ORA-20987: APEX - Unable to create user. ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name - ORA-65096: invalid common user or role nameI find in the forum this post: Creating workspace fails in apex 4.2.2, but I'm not able to resolve the error.Thank for help.PS: I use APEX DB:3.30:Error During Create Workspace 81. Hello,I want to is the getting, create a workspace.I connect to my apex_admin page; manage request; Create Workspace; Re-use existing schema = no; next; next; next. but when I click create, I have this error.ORA-20001: Request could not be processed. Paper On Geoscience. ORA-20987: APEX - Unable to create user. ORA-65096: invalid common user or role name - ORA-65096: invalid common user or role nameI find in the forum this post: Creating workspace fails in apex 4.2.2, but I'm not able to essays, resolve the paper error.Thank for new presentation help.PS: I use APEX The one for research on geoscience shared services is good, as we use the 28080 port, however, I cannot get access to essays, workspace via the servername:19000/workspace link. The only way i can get to workspace is via servername:28080/workspace URL. Is there any problem? Is there any way I can log in to workspace via http://servername:19000/workspace/index.jsp. I would really appreciate if you could guid me on this.

You would usually configure if you are using a load balancer, if you are just using one OHS then you can get the configurator to update the logical addresses. DB:3.28:Re: Workspace Homepage Error da. Hi,I have this same error when I login as a user, but not as admin which means the HomePage.wsp exists. Any ideas on why I might be receiving this error? I've checked to ensure user has security to on geoscience, Shared Workspace folder as this used to thomas cosmological essay, be a problem in prior versions.Thanks,Andrew. DB:3.28:Re: Workspace Homepage Error da. Hi Andrew,When you have access as a user, do you have access to the FR repository in paper order to thomas aquinas argument essay, run reports?Regards,Thanos. DB:3.28:Re: Apex Refresh Parent Page Error For Multiple Model Page p9. Can't log in to research on geoscience, the workspace.

Credentials are ok to log in to the application, but not into the workspace. Assignment. Either the workspace name is wrong or the credentials don't have developer rights. DB:3.28:Re: Apex Refresh Parent Page Error For Multiple Model Page p9. Thanks Tom, I'd mark your answer correct if I could! DB:3.28:Extending An Outlook Meeting Serie Is Not Reflected In The Sharepoint 2010 Meeting Workspace f3. Hello SharePoint specialists.

I created a weekly Outlook 2010 meeting and research linked it to uspto assignment, a Sharepoint 2010 meeting workspace. So far, so good. The re-occurance ended on paper on geoscience, november 1, 2011. Thomas Aquinas Essay. I recently extended the serie to end on April 1, 2012 in research paper Outlook. This is not reflected in the SharePoint Meeting Workspace while the uspto assignment link between the meeting and the meeting workspace is still there. Is there a to-do to trigger Sharepointto reflect the meeting schedule change? There are no errors displayed. The navigation of the dates just stops at research on geoscience, november 1, 2011 in SharePoint. - I don't like to polute the or worse inventees mail boxes for research on geoscience testing , trial error.

- I don't like to loose info from lists an libraries in the Meeting workspace. Any suggestions are welcome. DB:3.28:Extending An Outlook Meeting Serie Is Not Reflected In The Sharepoint 2010 Meeting Workspace f3. Thanks for uspto patent assignment your post. The meeting should be. saved again when you do some changes on paper on geoscience, it. It works in my server. You also can try to remove the is the getting essay meeting and research paper on geoscience then publish again.

DB:3.28:Re: New Installation Hyperion Essbase On Linux : Error Into Workspace Module sp. Hi Olivier,You can check the HTTP server details by running registry report. (epm_registry.bat path :EPM/Middleware/user_projects/epmsystem1/bin)Also, did you re-deployed Foundation web app post configuration of industrial statesman barons, all other components (as last step in research paper on geoscience configuration)??Cheers!Sh!va. DB:3.28:Re: New Installation Hyperion Essbase On Linux : Error Into Workspace Module sp. Hi,You need to configure web server again (where HSS is installed), even if you might have different servers (distribution env), once you configure all components, again need to aquinas cosmological essay, configure Web Server from Shared Services server and Restart all services in sync. it may help.Have a Good Day. DB:3.28:Re: Struts - How To Use An Arraylist As A Bean? xm. I get this as a compiler error when i try to ANT it: [javac] /home/nox/workspace/jakartastruts/listtest/WEB-INF/src/java/com/velcro/controller/ incompatible types. [javac] found : java.lang.String. [javac] required: org.apache.struts.action.ActionForward.

[javac] return (mapping.getInput()); DB:3.28:Re: Struts - How To Use An Arraylist As A Bean? xm. How about this guide: You can use DynaActionForm with ArrayLists or LabelValueBean if that's closer to research paper on geoscience, what you need. DB:3.26:Tfpt Rollback Unable To Determine Workspace (But Running From My Mapped Directory) d7. All:I am trying to run tfpt rollback, but I get the error Unable to determine workspace. However, I AM running from new presentation, a mapped directory.Here's what I did1. Created a new workspace mapped to the folders I am trying to research paper on geoscience, rollback.2.

In 2008 command prompt, switched to that directory3. Statesman Or Robber Barons Essay. Ran tpft rollback (then I get my error).Just to make sure I'm not crazy, I ran tf workspace, and it DID correctly identify my current workspace. On Geoscience. I've tried re-creating the workspace, but I keep getting the same error. DB:3.26:Tfpt Rollback Unable To Determine Workspace (But Running From My Mapped Directory) d7. I eventually found the problem.

There was an aquinas, older version of the research on geoscience powertools installed on the workstation I was using. Both the cosmological september '07 and the october '08 versions were installed, and from the VS2008 command prompt, the '07 version was being invoked. Uninstalled both versions, reinstalled the Oct '08 drop, and everything is research on geoscience, working. DB:3.26:Re: Object Variable Or With Block Variable Not Set - Help 31. I'm using the following code from the new presentation Inventor help example to paper, set my project. But I get this error, Object Variable or With block Variable Not Set. Is The Getting Better Essay. It may be that I'm using .NET, not sure?Thx,JonPublic Sub SetProject() ' Check to research, make sure a document isn't open. If ThisApplication.Count 0 Then MsgBox(All documents must be closed before changing the industrial essay project.) Exit Sub End If ' Set a reference to the FileLocations object. Dim oFileLocations As FileLocations oFileLocations = CType(ThisApplication.FileLocations, FileLocations) ' Show the current workspace.

Debug.Print(Workspace: oFileLocations.Workspace) ' Set the project file to use. ' This assumes that C:TempMyProject.ipt exists. oFileLocations.FileLocationsFile = F:Global-Edit.ipj ' Show the paper on geoscience workspace after making the project change. Debug.Print(Workspace: oFileLocations.Workspace) End Sub. DB:3.26:Re: Object Variable Or With Block Variable Not Set - Help 31. GetObject is what I would have used to.-- Brian EkinsAutodesk Inventor API. style=PADDING-RIGHT: 0px; PADDING-LEFT: 5px; MARGIN-LEFT: 5px; BORDER-LEFT: #000000 2px solid; MARGIN-RIGHT: 0px jholler wrote in english essays message. I solved it with the following.

Maybe you have a better idea, but it works. Research On Geoscience. I. wouldn't have known without your input. Dim oApp As Inventor.Application Try. oApp = CType(GetObject(, Inventor.Application), Inventor.Application) oApp.Documents.CloseAll() Catch ex As Exception Exit Try End Try Thx, DB:3.26:Sharepoint Workspace - How To Configure Account? 97. Have just installed Office 2010 Pro with SharePoint Workspace on a WinXP SP3 box (Yeah, I know.

Will update to Win7 soon.) Never had Groove, or any other SharePoint client on this system. Want to be able to join existing P2P Workspace that was created with Groove. I get through initial start-up (splash screen) and the small Create Account/Creatingaccount animation, then. Get the Account Configuration Wizard screen. Choose New Account.

Next screen populates automatically with my DOMAIN credentials and is the world better essay email address, then. the application exits within 1-3 seconds! No error message, and Security Event Log shows normal application shutdown. Have already done an un-/re-install of on geoscience, SharePoint Workspace viaAdd/Remove Program - Change. Any helpwoould be appreciated.

DB:3.26:Sharepoint Workspace - How To Configure Account? 97. This is essay, a bug, and it only can be solved by going to windows 7. DB:3.26:Re: Error Attempting To Import An App Into Apex V3. zf. Now if you could please use this revised block, but first disconnect, then connect as flows_030100, then do set serveroutput on, then the block: for c1 in research on geoscience (select workspace,workspace_id from apex_workspaces) loop. wwv_flow_api.set_security_group_id( p_security_group_id = c1.workspace_id); DB:3.26:Re: Error Attempting To Import An App Into Apex V3. zf. This problem was solved when we discovered the the role apex_administrator_role had been granted to anonymous. DB:3.26:Re: Workspace Homepage Error xp.

Yes i have started. Business Essays. it is compact deployment. I have used script to start the server. DB:3.26:Re: Workspace Homepage Error xp. I got the paper on geoscience same issues on my DEV. Industrial Statesman Or Robber Barons. I also running 11.1.2 version. DB:3.25:Unnecessary Horizon Workspace Windows Client Sync Errors 8f. Horizon Workspace Windows client is showing me unnecessary and erroneous sync errors, this usually happens when I copy several new files in to my Horizon folder. When I check status of files which Workspace Client reports as failed to sync they are on the Workspace server just fine, but I am still seeing file did not sync.. Paper. message and ! alarm on new presentation, top of Horizon tray bar icon. In this case sync error message was caused by research on geoscience the directory entry itself, but all files did sync just fine.

These errors should be cleared automatically if client does re-sync and it succeeds, current behavior will cause lots of confusion among end-users and english it will result in unnecessary help desk calls. Research. Please fix this. DB:3.25:Unnecessary Horizon Workspace Windows Client Sync Errors 8f. As of Workspace 1.5 I am no longer seeing sync issues with Windows client, so this has been fixed. DB:3.24:A Gray Field Covers The Right Side Of The Screen When Dragging Objects On The Workspace ax. an error occurs when i drag objects on the workspace, a gray field always appears and on the right side of the scrreen. i tried re-installing and updating and still the error occurs. New Presentation. please help. DB:3.24:A Gray Field Covers The Right Side Of The Screen When Dragging Objects On The Workspace ax. thanks for the input larry, im using an AMD FirePro V5900 2GB DDR5 card, i checked the drivers and it indicates that it has the latest drivers installed. the first few days i was using ai cs6, this bug/error wasnt there. it happened around 4 days ago, but when using ps or id, the error doesnt occur. i'll try to on geoscience, check if there are incompatibilty issues between the card and ai. DB:3.24:Error Building Kdebase4-Svn From Aur zs. Anytime I try to build kdebase4-svn from AUR, I get the following error: [ 88%] Building CXX object kcontrol/access/CMakeFiles/kdeinit_kaccess.dir/kaccess.o.

In Datei, eingefugt von /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/kaccess.moc:10, /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/../../../kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.h:15:30: Fehler: Phonon/MediaObject: Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:441:2: Warnung: #warning is this the world getting better best way to research, invert a pixmap? /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:590:2: Warnung: #warning kde4 fixme. In file included from /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/kaccess.moc:10, /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/../../../kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.h:76: Fehler: »Phonon« wurde nicht deklariert. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/../../../kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.h:76: Fehler: ISO-C++ verbietet Deklaration von »MediaObject« ohne Typ. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace-build/kcontrol/access/../../../kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.h:76: Fehler: expected »;« before »*« token. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp: In constructor »KAccessApp::KAccessApp(bool, bool)«: /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:100: Fehler: Klasse »KAccessApp« hat keinen Feldnamen »_player« /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp: In member function »void KAccessApp::initMasks()«: /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:318: Warnung: es wird empfohlen, explizite geschweifte Klammern zu setzen, um mehrdeutiges »else« zu vermeiden. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp: In member function »void KAccessApp::xkbBellNotify(XkbBellNotifyEvent*)«: /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:471: Fehler: »_player« wurde in diesem Gultigkeitsbereich nicht definiert. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:472: Fehler: »Phonon« wurde nicht deklariert. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:472: Fehler: »Phonon« wurde nicht deklariert. /tmp/yaourt-tmp-arch/aur-kdebase4-workspace-svn/kdebase4-workspace-svn/src/kdebase-workspace/kcontrol/access/kaccess.cpp:476: Fehler: »_player« wurde in diesem Gultigkeitsbereich nicht definiert.

make[2]: *** [kcontrol/access/CMakeFiles/kdeinit_kaccess.dir/kaccess.o] Fehler 1. make[1]: *** [kcontrol/access/CMakeFiles/kdeinit_kaccess.dir/all] Fehler 2. make: *** [all] Fehler 2. == FEHLER: Build fehlgeschlagen. Error: Makepkg was unable to essays on india of festivals, build kdebase4-workspace-svn package. DB:3.24:Error Building Kdebase4-Svn From Aur zs. You need to research paper, build phonon before. Its a separate project now. DB:3.24:Re: Unable To Start Hyperion Workspace - Web Application f8. Which version is this? Windows services do not always provide much insight into thomas, the root cause of the research paper on geoscience problem as in new presentation this case. Try running workspace through command line (i.e. from start menu use the link for Start Workspace (Tomcat) or Start Workspace (Weblogic)) It should then throw out paper exact error message.

DB:3.24:Re: Unable To Start Hyperion Workspace - Web Application f8. I am getting the following error message while I run the EPM Diagnostic. Still I am unable to start the uspto patent assignment Web Application. Please help me. Oracle EPM System. Generated on 10/14/10 12:41 PM. Validation run on Validation tool info: drop 9-0 build 3129 on 07/16/2009 01:24 PM. OS name: Windows 2003. Test StatusServiceTest DescriptionDuration. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s.

PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to research paper on geoscience, database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDOPN: OpenLDAPCheck if global roles number no less than 16 0 s. PASSEDOPN: OpenLDAPConnection to OpenLDAP 0 s. PASSEDSSOAvailability of thomas aquinas cosmological, login 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. PASSEDWR: Windows RegistryCheck if EQD excel addin registered for Essbase Client 0 s. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s.

PASSEDEAS: Essbase serverEssbase Server startup check using Maxl command 1 s. PASSEDEAS: Essbase serverEssabaseServerChecker.action 0 s. PASSEDSVR: Essbase Java APILaunch external checker with next command: E:Hyperioncommonvalidation9.5.0.0launchEssbaseJavaAPI.bat EssbaseJAPIConnect admin ****** 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. Essbase / Essbase Administration Services. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s.

PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of research, web application context 0 s. Essbase / Provider Services. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of new presentation, Shared Services 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. Essbase / Smart Search.

PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. FAILEDESS: Essbase Studio ServerConnecting to Essbase Studio Server. Error: Network communication with the server failed.

Recommended Action: Check application is research, started. 1 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. Foundation / Calculation Manager. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s.

PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of english, web application context 0 s. Foundation / Performance Management Architect. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. FAILEDDSC: EPMA DimensionServer Server ConfigurationEPMADimensionServer startup. failed. Error: Bad response code: 503. Recommended Action: Check application is research paper, started.

0 s. FAILEDPMAE: EPMA ServiceCheck if eventmanager service available. Error: com.hyperion.cis.utils.BadResponseCodeException: Bad response code: 503. Recommended Action: Check application is started 0 s. FAILEDPMAJ: EPMA ServiceCheck if jobmanager service available.

Error: com.hyperion.cis.utils.BadResponseCodeException: Bad response code: 503. Recommended Action: Check application is a land of festivals, started 0 s. FAILEDPMAP: EPMA ServiceCheck if processmanager service available. Error: com.hyperion.cis.utils.BadResponseCodeException: Bad response code: 503. Recommended Action: Check application is paper, started 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of is the getting essay, Shared Services 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s. PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s.

PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. FAILEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context Error: Bad response code: 503. Recommended Action: Check application is started 1 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of research on geoscience, http context 0 s.

PASSEDHTTP: HttpAvailability of http context 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpIs file [E:HyperioncommonhttpServersApache2.0.59bininstallhyperionapacheservice.err] empty 0 s. PASSEDHTTP: HttpCheck string [LoadModule jk_module modules/mod_jk] in file[E:HyperioncommonhttpServersApache2.0.59confhttpd.conf] 0 s. FAILEDSSOAvailability of login Error: Connection refused: connect.

Recommended Action: Start application 0 s. PASSEDREG: RegistryAll links are present in registry. 0 s. FAILEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context Error: Connection refused: connect. Recommended Action: Start application 1 s. PASSEDCFG: ConfigurationCheck whether all configuration tasks have been completed 0 s.

PASSEDDB: DatabaseConnection to database jdbc:hyperion:oracle://LOCALHOST-BI:1521;SID=orcl 0 s. PASSEDEXT: External AuthenticationCheck Native Directory external authentication provider configuration 0 s. PASSEDHSS: Shared ServicesAvailability of Shared Services 0 s. PASSEDWEB: Web AppAvailability of web application context 0 s. Test start time: 12:40:55 PM.

Test end time: 12:41:21 PM. Total test duration: 26 s. DB:3.24:Re: Err-7621 Could Not Determine Workspace For Application (:) On Applicati 9f. I am having the same problem. When I click on a button I sometimes (not always) encounter the same error - Expecting p_company or wwv_flow_company cookie to contain security group id of uspto patent, application owner. Error ERR-7621 Could not determine workspace for research application (:) on application accept. Can you please suggest if there any flaw in uspto the program or something else? DB:3.24:Re: Err-7621 Could Not Determine Workspace For Application (:) On Applicati 9f. I seem to be having this problem with FireFox only, but not in IE. How did you solve the issue?

DB:3.24:Workspace Name Already Exists fs. I am encountering an error, workspace already exists, the workspace we are trying to create does not appear in the manage workspaces list. A workspace was created. Paper. The workspace was then deleted using the remove workspace wizard. Trying to uspto assignment, create it again using the same name is research paper, giving the error. Statesman Barons. The HTMLDB release is 1.6, database version is research paper, Of Festivals. Has anyone encountered this error? Is it possible to paper, reuse the workspace name? DB:3.24:Workspace Name Already Exists fs. Mark - See Workspace name already exists.

DB:3.24:Junitreport Outofmemoryerror When Testsuite Generate Test Re k7. We can see this problem fails many testsuite tests: [mkdir] Created dir: /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text [style] Transforming into /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text [style] Processing /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/TESTS-TestSuites.xml to new presentation, /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text/TESTS-TestSuites.txt [style] Loading stylesheet /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/stylesheets/summary1b.xslBUILD FAILED/qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/build.xml:929: The following error occurred while executing this line:java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space. DB:3.24:Junitreport Outofmemoryerror When Testsuite Generate Test Re k7. We can see this problem fails many testsuite tests: [mkdir] Created dir: /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text [style] Transforming into /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text [style] Processing /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/TESTS-TestSuites.xml to /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/reports/text/TESTS-TestSuites.txt [style] Loading stylesheet /qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/output/stylesheets/summary1b.xslBUILD FAILED/qa/services/hudson/hudson_workspace/workspace/JBoss-AS-5.0.x-TestSuite-sun15/trunk/testsuite/build.xml:929: The following error occurred while executing this line:java.lang.OutOfMemoryError: Java heap space. DB:3.23:Re: Error Unable To Fetch Authentication_Scheme In Application 134. dd. Opening this thread again as I found something that made my import a success. Here is what I have done: After exporting my application from workspace 'A' that runs on schema 'X'. I edited the exported sql file and paper on geoscience changed the is the getting or worse essay security group id to the target workspace 'B' id that runs on schema 'Y' ( i got workspace id using following query: SELECT WORKSPACE_ID. FROM DUAL). Research On Geoscience. Then I did import this sql file using APEX UI and cosmological essay it works :). Paper. just to new presentation, make a note: both of on geoscience, these schemas X and Y are on the same database server.

Scott, I still believe this should not be a ideal way of thomas cosmological, achieving this. Research. As moving my application to my workspace under I didn't edit the exported sql file. Could you now think something about this behavior. I have noticed there are several threads for the same issue. DB:3.23:Re: Error Unable To Fetch Authentication_Scheme In Application 134. dd. Thanks for new presentation the info.

If you can get this to happen again, the results of these queries will be very useful: select short_name||':'||provisioning_company_id from wwv_flow_companies order by research provisioning_company_id. select schema||':'||security_group_id from wwv_flow_company_schemas order by industrial statesman barons security_group_id. select id||':'||owner||':'||security_group_id||':'||custom_authentication_process from wwv_flows. where id in (original (exported-from) app ID,problem (imported into) app ID) select id||':'||name||':'||flow_id||':'||security_group_id from paper on geoscience, wwv_flow_custom_auth_setups. where flow_id in business (original (exported-from) app ID,problem (imported into) app ID) order by security_group_id,flow_id. select table_owner from sys.all_synonyms where synonym_name = 'WWV_FLOW_API' DB:3.23:Re: Loading A Csv File Into A Table a1. So what's the research paper on geoscience workspace name?workspace in on india of festivals which you imported application ( your local working workspce ) DB:3.23:Re: Loading A Csv File Into A Table a1. even i am encountering the research same problem, when i open this link I couldn't run the english essays application.

I provided a CSV file and when I click SUBMIT, I got the error: ORA-06550: line 1, column 7: PLS-00201: identifier 'HTMLDB_TOOLS.PARSE_FILE' must be declared. tried it in host as given in the previous post. DB:3.23:Re: Hfm Instalation(Workspace) 3m. Let me know the research paper on geoscience workspace is seperate software or including any other providerservices or etc.. i have install hfm but i cant find out the essays a land of festivals workspace. DB:3.23:Re: Hfm Instalation(Workspace) 3m. Thank you very much john. DB:3.23:Re: Workspace Configuration pc. Workspace stop working after IP changes? DB:3.23:Re: Workspace Configuration pc.

I resolved this problem by uninstalling the research paper oracle client and re-installing. DB:3.23:Sharepoint Workspace Sync Error f8. I Have some problems on statesman, one computer to sync to a specefic Workspace with Sharepoint Workspace 2010. This Workspace gives an research, error while syncing with the Sharepoint server. The error is new presentation, CSI error 123. Research On Geoscience. Other Workspaces syncing just fine on essays on india a land of festivals, this computer and. on an other computer the targeted Workspace is also just fine. Only on this computer it won't work. I Have already uninstalled and re-installed Office but this is not a solution. I hace alreade googled on this error but the only answer what I find is to reinstall.

the whole computer, this is paper on geoscience, not an new presentation, option for me. Does someone know how to research paper on geoscience, fix this? Thanks. DB:3.23:Sharepoint Workspace Sync Error f8. Could you try to create a new Windows profile, log on industrial or robber, with that profile, turn off the paper on geoscience anti-virus/firewall(I would also recommend you to run a clean boot), to see if we can getit work. create and configure user accounts in Windows XP. How to configure Windows XP to start in a clean boot state. Come back and mark the replies as. answers if they help and unmark them if they provide no help. DB:3.23:Re: New Workspace Within A Workspace? c1. Hi, can I create a workspace within a workspace without using workflow?

I have a workspace, with a field that is industrial statesman or robber essay, a workspace picklist. I would like to be able to generate new items from within the research original workspace. For example, I have a workspace for Purchasing Orders. In this workspace, I have a picklist that refer to the workspace Payments. I wish to within the Purchasing Ordersworkspace be able to add a new payment and of festivals thus creating a new item in the Payment workspace at paper, the same time. Business. (Normally I have several payments per research purchasing order). DB:3.23:Re: New Workspace Within A Workspace? c1. Jonas,I’m not too clear on new presentation, what you’re asking here.Can you please explain what you mean by research paper on geoscience this? DB:3.22:Re-Config Hfm V11.1.1.3, Error Occur On Config Database 89. When I tried to re-config the HFM V11.1.1.3, I got an new presentation, error on research, config database and cannot be proceed. But, I can successfully config workspace, SS, FR and new presentation can login workspace, SS without problems. When I check the application event log, the paper on geoscience following is found.

The Apache service named reported the following error: [warn] module expires_module is already loaded, skipping. Anyone know what's is going on? DB:3.22:Re-Config Hfm V11.1.1.3, Error Occur On Config Database 89. When I tried to re-config the HFM V11.1.1.3, I got an error on config database and cannot be proceed. Uspto Patent. But, I can successfully config workspace, SS, FR and can login workspace, SS without problems. When I check the application event log, the following is found. The Apache service named reported the following error: [warn] module expires_module is already loaded, skipping. Anyone know what's is going on? DB:3.22:Getting Error While Logging Into Nwdi-Vfs Client Must Not Be Null pj.

I have imported tracks into my NWDS but when i try to restart/re-open my NWDS and tried to login to NWDI i am getting below errors: An internal error occurred during: Logon to. VFS client must not be null (VFS client must not be null) Caused by: VFS client must not be null. For the first time it is working fine but, I am getting the issue when i try to on geoscience, Re-open/Restart my NWDS and it is working fine for world better essay the older workspace i am getting the issue for research paper the newly created workspace. I have deleted newly created workspace and recreated workspace and re-imported the getting essay track still i am getting the paper on geoscience same issue when i reopen my NWDS. Please provide your inputs. DB:3.22:Getting Error While Logging Into Nwdi-Vfs Client Must Not Be Null pj. I have done the business english above steps I was able to research paper, reimport but issue is when i close my NWDS and essays on india a land of festivals reopen and try to login i am getting the paper on geoscience issue.

DB:3.20:Re: How To Create A New Team Workspace k8. I have now my first team workspace :) DB:3.20:Re: How To Create A New Team Workspace k8. +Last of it : Beehive 1.5 is available, it does include workspaces, wikis . + This are really very good news! :) DB:3.20:Application Id Reserved Error Upon Import Into Workspace jp. I have two workspaces, development and production, in industrial essay one APEX (3.0.1) environment on I have two applications, one 1 page long and one 33 pages long. The 1 page application is an on geoscience, anonymous login with a jump button to the login page of the 33 page application.

I normally export from development and english essays import into paper, production to make an upgrade of the applications. New Presentation. I can do this successfully with the longer application, upon import I ask to replace the target workspace application ID. When I try this with the research paper on geoscience 1 page application, I get an thomas cosmological argument essay, error about the application ID being reserved. The application IDs are normal numbers. 33 pages - development workspace/appl id 107 == production workspace/appl id 111 - Works. 1 page - development workspace/appl id 119 == production workspace/appl id 121 - Fails.

Luckily the problem is on the 1 page application. Research On Geoscience. I just redo the edits from development in production. Any suggestions how to resolve the error so I don't have to re-edit? I'm fearful that it may start happening on the bigger application. That will not be an or worse, easy one to paper on geoscience, re-edit each time I have a release.

DB:3.20:Application Id Reserved Error Upon Import Into Workspace jp. I solved this but I don't know how I caused it. In the export repository in the target workspace, the uspto patent Application Exists column had a check. I deleted the row from the repository, and I was able to research on geoscience, import into the workspace and essays on india of festivals change the application number to the one which matched the Application Exists number. How I got that check mark to paper, show up is a different story. I can't remember doing anything to cause that. Maybe it was the initial import of the new presentation application to research paper, that then unused number? At least I know how to fix it now. DB:3.20:Re: Workspace Amp; Navigate Viewer kk. yeah, that should be fine. DB:3.20:Re: Workspace Amp; Navigate Viewer kk.

I have passed this info on to our I.T. team. I do not know when they will work on business, it. I will let you know if that resolves our problem. We are running Workspace, so we don't have the EPM version. DB:3.20:Re: Error First Time Login To Fr Studio 13. Typically the error HRFoundationClient Could not connect to foundation servers at is due to Workspace service not running. Can you telnet to that port?

Also have you provisioned your user as Reporting and paper on geoscience Analysis user? DB:3.20:Re: Error First Time Login To Fr Studio 13. Are these version 9.x services? The names indicate to me they are, but i have not installed and do not know and can't find what the service names should be. I would check the logs for thomas aquinas essay the services to make sure the version numbers are correct, could it be possible that the old services are being started (if this was an upgrade from 9.x)? DB:3.20:Re: Error In Accessing Financial Reporting From Workspace 98.

You should not be accessing workspace via the research on geoscience direct JVM port. You need to on india of festivals, access workspace via the proxied http connection. If you are using a default installation with apache as your HTTP server it is research, configured properly you should be able to of festivals, access workspace by using the HTTP port of 19000. DB:3.20:Re: Error In Accessing Financial Reporting From Workspace 98. hyperion Workspace web application is up, it's also up the workspace agent that I run using the start workspace agent services shortcut in Start menu but at research paper on geoscience, port 19000 they don't respond. If I launch the is the world configure web server I see that 45000 is the port setted for workspace. Have I to re-deploy the research paper app? DB:3.20:About Workspace Application zd. i've just installed 9.3.1. i tried to new presentation, open workspace but at first an error occured log on failed, use valid username and research password or like this. Thomas Aquinas Argument. anyway, i handled with that problem by re-configuring reporting and analysis.

now i can open workspace but on that window, under the navigate there is no application. (i did not create any application, is there any sample application coming with 9.3.1 installation?) DB:3.20:About Workspace Application zd. thanks a lot Manmohan; yes, i registered again all of the services in the configuration utility with Shared Services; but still exists. DB:3.20:Sharepoint Workspace Error : Error In Configuration List z1. I'm trying to sync my SharePoint library with Workspace and research paper on geoscience it gives following error in new presentation SharePoint Workspace , SharePoint Workspace detected an error in the configuration of this list. Any idea how to troubleshoot ? DB:3.20:Sharepoint Workspace Error : Error In Configuration List z1. Hi -- I know you posted this months ago, but I just ran across it while searching for something else.

That error usually indicates that the library was created in paper an version of SharePointprior to SharePoint Server 2007. Because of this, it contains content IDs that do not follow the current system, and SharePoint Workspace cannot interpret the content. type of essays a land of festivals, those items, which it needs to paper, do to take them offline. Aquinas Argument. In some cases, the administrator can change the content type of the items to a current content type, but it is often easier to research, move the new presentation content to a new library. A standard user cannot do anything to research, resolve this problem, but should be able to is the or worse essay, take the rest of the on geoscience site offline by doing this: In the New SharePoint Workspace dialog box, clickConfigure. Select the first library asociated with the error. Under Download settings, choose No Content. Repeat steps 2 and 3 for any other libraries associated with the error. Click OK.

I hope this helps!Let me know if you have questions. DB:3.18:Adding Url Content To Custom Workspace Page m9. When adding URL content with a .com extension the essays a land of festivals links work fine, user can close and open the Workspace Page and content displays correctly. When adding URl content that ends in .aspx (a Sharepoint site), initially the content will display, but when the user closes and re-opens the paper on geoscience page, a Website cannot be found error is displayed instead of content. Any solutions / ideas to work around this?

DB:3.18:Adding Url Content To Custom Workspace Page m9. Is it happens only with the patent word planning in it. DB:3.18:Bpm Workspace Login Error dm. when i am trying to login with SSO into BPM workspce , its shows BPM login error (logs out), while re login into paper, the BPM workspace it showserror occurred while logging in..any suggestion here, appreciated. DB:3.18:Bpm Workspace Login Error dm.

Hi user,We are missing vital information here.What is the provider that you are using?How many providers do you have configured?Can you share your configuration settings?Are the users groups displayed in your Weblogic Admin server?Antonis. DB:3.18:Problem With Tfs 2010 Workspace:Working Folder Is Already In Use By A Ghost Workspace !! kx. I'm working from new presentation, vs 2005 and research vs 2008 with TFS 2010, Everything was working fine when I performed a disconnect in vs 2005 and vs 2008 to perform a recovery test on TFS 2010 server. When I tried to connect again and re-map my working directories to TFS project, I received an error The working directory is thomas aquinas cosmological, already in use by on geoscience work space MyComputerName;MyServerNameAdministrator:1 on Computer MyComputerName. When I tried tfs workspace /remove:*, it removed every workspace but the one with owner Administrator:1 didn't appear in the deleted list. When I search for it using tfs workspace /MyTFS2010ServerCollectionURL it appears . When I try to remove it , it tells me that there is assignment, no workspace matches MyComputerName in this server . Does anybody have any explanantion, any help would be appreciated !, DB:3.18:Problem With Tfs 2010 Workspace:Working Folder Is Already In Use By A Ghost Workspace !! kx. Thanks for all your help,

I tried the research paper following and it removed this ghost workspace finally. C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 10.0VCtf workspace /delete /collection:tfs_server_ipMy_TeamProject ClientMachineName;The_Ghos_UserName /login:Tfs_ServerAdministrator,server admin password. You will get this warning: A deleted workspace cannot be recovered. Workspace 'MMAHER-PC;Administrator:1' on thomas cosmological, server '' has 0 pending change(s). Are you sure you want to delete the workspace? (Yes/No) y. C:Program FilesMicrosoft Visual Studio 10.0VC. Finally, the delete command (and NOT the remove) did the paper on geoscience job, Thanks for english all who replied to my question. Software Development Lead. Trusted Positioning Inc, Canada.

PhD Candidate in Queens University, Canada. DB:3.17:Workspace Error When Configuring Thinapp c7. I'm getting an error when configuring the network share for ThinApp for Horizon Workspace (2.0). Research On Geoscience. The error is: Error configuring packaged applications:RepoUpdateRegistry() failed with error: ERROR_GEN_FAILURE I have removed the connector from the domain and re-added it and I have verified that there is full access to essays on india, all users on paper, that share. I've added it to Horizon View with no issues. Also, something odd is that if I select Save again after receiving this error, it says that the save was successful but will not sync any of the application packages. Any help is on india, appreciated. Thank you!

DB:3.17:Workspace Error When Configuring Thinapp c7. Thank you for the confirmation. DB:3.17:Re: Migrate / Copy Data From One Workspace To Another Workspace dm. Export schema that is paper, assigned to workspace and then import it to different name. Thomas Cosmological Essay. Then assign this new schema to your another workspace. DB:3.17:Re: Migrate / Copy Data From One Workspace To Another Workspace dm. Take a export from research paper on geoscience, your existing schema like as follows: expdp userid/password@dbname schemas=SCOTT directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=expdpSCOTT.log.

1. Here expdp*- is command. 2. userid/password@dbname - your connection string to connect that schema or system user,password. 3. English Essays. schemas= denote which schema you want to export. 4. directory= denotes oracle directory where your file will be reside. 5. Research On Geoscience. And dumpfile= denote this file will content all ur exported data. 6. logfile= will track the process information. impdp scott/tiger@db10g schemas=SCOTT content=DATA_ONLY directory=TEST_DIR dumpfile=SCOTT.dmp logfile=impdpSCOTT.log. All are same as mentioned in export except CONTENT key wor mentioned as follows: **CONTENT Specifies data to unload where the cosmological essay valid keywords are: (ALL), DATA_ONLY, and METADATA_ONLY. Hope it will help you. DB:3.17:Re: Error Importing Application 3c. I recommend that you remove the workspace named SYS (which has the SYS schema assigned to research paper, it) but of course, don't remove any schema objects in the process.

Then try the application import test again and see if that made any difference. I'm curious how you assigned the industrial statesman SYS schema to research on geoscience, a workspace in the first place; we try to world essay, make that difficult to research paper on geoscience, do. DB:3.17:Re: Error Importing Application 3c. Thank you. I will not be able to perform my tests until September 27 but I look forward to doing so if you can have the server available on that date. DB:3.16:Re: Error While Access Dimension Library From Wpms Workspace. 77. I hope EPMA has been installed on a windows OS as I already advised it a while back Re: EPM Installation - assembly missing!! DB:3.16:Re: Error While Access Dimension Library From Wpms Workspace. 77. please let me know how do i setup the Dimension Server on is the world getting better or worse, my windows client machine and point it to my Linux server machine?

1. I have installed all components on my Linux machine. 2. And now I want to access EPMA Workspace from research paper on geoscience, my Windows client machine. 3. I understand that I need to install Dimension server on my windows client machine as well. 4. I have installed the Dimension server on my windows client machine. 5. Industrial Or Robber Barons. Now, Im stuck at research, the configuration part - please help. Hello! I have installed the 2012 Map software. I have selected the is the world getting essay workspace that i want to use until 2013 is released I went to the workspace customization settings, and selected my favorite workspace as the default current. I apply/ok to leave customization dialog box. When i close out research on geoscience of the program entirely, and re-open the software, a different workspace is essays of festivals, loaded during startup. How do i change my favorite workspace to paper on geoscience, automatically open during startup?

Thank for new presentation your advice everyone. I'm having this prolem on research, Map 2012, too.Map2010 doesn't have this problem.Don't know about 2011. My only work around is to set the is the world getting essay /w switch in research paper on geoscience my Desktop shortcut. Interestingly, if I change the workspace; close AutoCAD; and argument re-open by research double-clicking on a drawing file then my last used workspace appears. DB:3.16:Fr And Web Analysis Reports Will Not Run In Workspace pk. I have configured both FR and uspto Web Analysis and then re-configured workspace to pick them up. Research Paper On Geoscience. 'Reporting and Analysis shows up in business english my foundation metadata under workspace. All my related ports are enabled. Database connection manager, import financial reporting reports, preferences financial reporting, tools/link to web analysis, do not appear in workspace. get 'required application context analyzer is missing. please contact your adminstrator.' error when try to run a web analysis or financial reporting report from workspace. Web analysis as a client with reports is working fine. Financial reporting allows me to create a database connection, create a report, pdf preview from the client but web preview breaks with generic page not found error.

Any suggestions would be most appreciated. DB:3.16:Fr And Web Analysis Reports Will Not Run In Workspace pk. I have configured both FR and Web Analysis and then re-configured workspace to paper on geoscience, pick them up. 'Reporting and Analysis shows up in my foundation metadata under workspace. Getting Or Worse Essay. All my related ports are enabled. Database connection manager, import financial reporting reports, preferences financial reporting, tools/link to on geoscience, web analysis, do not appear in workspace. get 'required application context analyzer is missing. please contact your adminstrator.' error when try to run a web analysis or financial reporting report from workspace.

Web analysis as a client with reports is working fine. Financial reporting allows me to create a database connection, create a report, pdf preview from the client but web preview breaks with generic page not found error. Any suggestions would be most appreciated. DB:3.15:Re: Financial Reporting Studio 7a. Can I save the report in different format and in different drive/folders? When I am trying to generate a report in Pdf format in workspace its showing error: The website cannot display the page. Most likely causes: The website is under maintenance. The website has a programming error. DB:3.15:Re: Financial Reporting Studio 7a.

Thanks John, i get your point. DB:3.15:Workspace Does Not Save With Project 17. So I saved a New Workspace and is the or worse essay Import Workspace from project is checked but when I open said project I have to re-slect my workspace. Any ideas? Windows XP SP3, Matrox RT.X2 HD.

DB:3.15:Workspace Does Not Save With Project 17. So I saved a New Workspace and on geoscience Import Workspace from thomas cosmological essay, project is research, checked but when I open said project I have to re-slect my workspace. Patent. Any ideas? Windows XP SP3, Matrox RT.X2 HD. Admin Workspace Workspace Options. When I make a change and research paper on geoscience enter my password, the assignment page returns a javascript error: Uncaught ReferenceError: createFieldsList is on geoscience, not defined.

Awesome! Glad we got this worked out. Have a great weekend. Software ConsultantBMC Software. DB:3.12:Sharepoint Workspace 2010 Error Of Hresult 0x80004005 9k. We have an user in Germany who is uspto, unable to setup his Workspace 2010 with the error below.His computer setup is on geoscience, Windows XP Professional SP3, Office 2010 Professional Plus 2010. English. He is the only one out of a few hundred users who have the same setup and. were able to install Workspace. Property name is invalid. HRESULT: 0x80004005 (0x00000000) Process: GROOVE.RXR (ID:5868 (0x000016ec))

We have tried the following steps without any success. 1. Create a known good user account on this computer. 2. Research. Re-install SharePoint Workspace 2010. 3. New Presentation. Re-install Office 2010 Prof. Research. Plus. 4. Run Groove.exe /all /clean. Any advice on how to resolve this error? Thanks. DB:3.12:Sharepoint Workspace 2010 Error Of Hresult 0x80004005 9k.

Thanks for is the world or worse the suggestion. We already tried it (item #4 in my original post) and on geoscience it does not resolve the error. DB:3.12:Re: Workspace Blackout Error Lower And Right Parts Of The Screen z8. Wondering if this has happened to anyone else? (see picture) It only happens in C3D, our office uses other autodesk products as well. I will open a drawing i am working on and the workspace is fine. Industrial Barons Essay. Close the origional drawing and try to open a new one and this happens every time until I save, close, close C3D and start a new instance of C3D. Civil 3d 2012Windows 7 64 bitNvidia Quadro 4000Xeon W3565 @ 3.20 GHz.

DB:3.12:Re: Workspace Blackout Error Lower And Right Parts Of The Screen z8. These are the ones I just downloaded. I'm going to try them tomorrow. I'm currently running of the basic drivers. It looks like the Performance Drivers may be a replacement instead of an on geoscience, add-on like it used to thomas cosmological, be. I'm on Wind 7 64 bit. DB:3.12:Re: Availability Of Analytic Workspace Mgr cs. DB:3.12:Re: Availability Of Analytic Workspace Mgr cs. Also, Metalink has a Beta Draft (May 2003) version of research paper, OLAP User's Guide Release 2 ( Part No.

A95295-03. It is aquinas cosmological essay, updated with info on the new DBMS_AW packages, better organized and explained. On Geoscience. It is helping me with some my technical gaps. DB:3.12:Could Not Start The Hyperion Workspace-Web Application Error 1067 pp. I have installed hyperion from scratch in a distributed environment. everything was working fine. World Getting Or Worse Essay. i.e. shared services, workspace, essbase, sql server, and hfm.

I was able to logon and on geoscience navigate different options in the hyperion products. but essbase stopped working when I re-started all four servers . (1) When I restarted all four servers and stopped and is the world or worse restarted all hyperion services as per giving sequence then everything works fine but essbase EAS console and workspace web console. i was getting error message could not connect to administration server whenever i try to paper on geoscience, connect EAS console to essbase then I went to services there I saw workspace agent and workspace web application service is down. (2) as soon as I started those both services then my shared services automatically stopped but I was able to logon in Essbase console and workspace console but my shared services are down. (3) as soon as I start shared service they started but my workspace agent and workspace web application automatically stopped. and getting when I try to start again workspace web application then I get this error [ Could not start the hyperion workspace-web application services on local computer. Paper On Geoscience. Error 1067: the process terminated unexpectedly] I have been searching online and googling but have a hard luck to get some best solution for business essays this. can some one help me or guide me to research paper on geoscience, walk through with this issue. Thank you very much in advance . DB:3.12:Could Not Start The Hyperion Workspace-Web Application Error 1067 pp. I solved this issue my self. DB:3.12:Re: Workspace To Do Error - Unclear Of Meaning fj. I have set up a conditional validator based on values in another field and cosmological argument now I am getting the research TO Do warning in the workspace manager for that workspace. The TO DO message is: There are fields in statesman barons essay this workspace that have validators which reference unassigned fields

The filed with the validator is a single line text field and the condition field to check is a picklist? Not sure what this means, when I create or edit a record in research paper this workspace the conditional validation works so I am not sure what is incorrect about the set up. DB:3.12:Re: Workspace To Do Error - Unclear Of Meaning fj. I could not find a bug that specifically fixed this warning message, but we could assume another fix took care of on india of festivals, it. Please let me know if you see other problems around field validation. Bastien MazeranSupport SpecialistProduct SupportAutodesk, Inc. DB:3.12:Delete A Workspace Child Nodes Are Not Deleted 79. I'm using modeshpae 3.3 Final and found if i delete a workspace and re-create the on geoscience workspace with same name, all child nodes under the workspace are still exists, but the java doc said delete workspace will permanently destroys the workspace.

Could you guys check this issue and fix it in next version? DB:3.12:Delete A Workspace Child Nodes Are Not Deleted 79. This was fixed in aquinas essay 3.5.0.Final. DB:3.12:Re: Export File Is Not A Valid Htmldb Export File 13. Eman - I don't follow most of what you said in these posts. Can you give a more specific explanation of research, what you are trying to do? For example, I export application 123 from workspace TEST in an HTML DB 1.6.1 database (A) and get an application export file. Then I login to workspace TEST on aquinas cosmological, HTML DB 1.6.1 database (B) and try to research paper on geoscience, import the new presentation export file using the provided import/install pages.

The import step gives me no errors (or it gives me the error at that point). Research Paper. Then I go to the install step . (don't leave out any details). Also say whether workspace TEST on business, database A has the on geoscience same workspace ID as workspace TEST on thomas cosmological, database B or if they are different (select :workspace_id from dual in research paper on geoscience sql workshop). Also, does application ID 123 already exist in database B? If so, in what workspace? Finally, if you see any report pages that have information like workspace ID, export file application ID, etc., repeat it all here, exactly as it is uspto patent, shown in the report. DB:3.12:Re: Export File Is Not A Valid Htmldb Export File 13. thanks. i dont have any 10g stuff so 9203 onwards will suffice. Research Paper On Geoscience. Next question is how do I actually upgrade from uspto patent assignment, 9201 to research paper on geoscience, 9203? OTN only has 9201, 9202, 9204 downloads. Start with or and use MetaLink to thomas aquinas cosmological argument, get the research paper (or greater) patchset for your platform. When you say 9iR2 what version do you mean?

Is that 9203 onwards? DB:3.12:Unable To Access Newly Created Workspace xx. I installed HTMLDB without problem. Uspto. I am able to login into the Administrator screen using the default admin/admin userbane and research password. From this screen I then successfully created a new workspace. But when I then attempted to login into the new workspace using the new username and password, I get an world or worse essay, Authentication Error. I have deleted the workspace and re-created new workspaces (using different schemas and research usernames and passwords - all to no avail. I have tried using upper case and lowercase on the passwords as well. Is The Essay. It doesn't work! How does one login into a new workspace? Thanks for any help.

It would be much appreciated. DB:3.12:Unable To Access Newly Created Workspace xx. Try the next: as workspace write your new created workspace name and on geoscience as login/password your administrator login/password. DB:3.12:How To View Administrative Control For Workspace 87. I am able to view the web page when i type the essays following URL. however, when i try to paper, type the below URL, system throws error server not available error. how to view the administrative console to business english essays, re-deployment of any application. DB:3.12:How To View Administrative Control For Workspace 87.

we are using the Oracle Application Server for our WebApps, so we can use the Oracle Enterprise Manager for research any admin tasks: DB:3.11:Re: Flash Chart Issue On Onload pp. surely sir , workspace is english essays, SORS. DB:3.11:Re: Flash Chart Issue On Onload pp. Finally it worked for me . Browser chrome cached the date range was not replacing it , weird .. Thanks you so so much.

DB:3.11:Re: Workspace Authentication Error 9m. Please give me the instructions to enable DCOM even though it has been enabled in my HFM. Research Paper On Geoscience. I have tried the DCOMCNFG but could not find the thomas aquinas argument essay service. I have tried the re-configuration before, but there was no luck. I will appreciate your help. DB:3.11:Re: Workspace Authentication Error 9m. If this problem has gone away fine - but it appears that you are using Single Sign On (SSO) and from the log its this bit thats failing. If I were you I'd check the SSO java routine thats been written to ensure that you are picking up the correct autentication source. The documentation gives an example of flat file - oh yeah people use that alot. Paper On Geoscience. - but the source has to be configured correctly and whilst it may have been wriiten in a development environment it might not have been correctly migrated to yor environment. Hope this helps.

DB:3.11:Problem With Hol-Mbl-1304 - Horizon Workspace - Explore And Deploy xz. I'm in the Horizon workspace lab. From the of festivals CEO's desktop, I tried to research on geoscience, Open the thomas aquinas cosmological argument essay Horizon Web Page but it was grayed out. I instead clicked on the LOGON link. Horizon Workspace popped me with the following error: The Horizon Workspace service is paper, not available. Patent Assignment. Please try again later. I tried going to vCenter through the web client but got popped with an authentication error. I tried going through the research paper on geoscience Gateway portal but got popped with A communication problem occurred.

The page you want to view cannot be loaded. 502 Bad Gateway I ended up exiting the statesman or robber barons essay lab, re-enrolling, and research paper launching a new lab. Everything seemed to work OK except that the CEO was not automatically logged onto Workspace. Just a heads up. DB:3.11:Problem With Hol-Mbl-1304 - Horizon Workspace - Explore And Deploy xz. Yea, I just kicked it off again and everything was fine. Thanks for the info!

DB:3.11:Re: The Tool Cannot Be Found In The Current Workspace c3. I am recieving the error the tool cannot be found in the current workspace when clicking on the elevation callout tool under the new presentation annotate ribbon. How do I go about troubleshooting this issue? DB:3.11:Re: The Tool Cannot Be Found In The Current Workspace c3. This can be changed by closing the on geoscience software and new presentation starting from the paper desktop icon with Metric or Imperial in the title. This can also be achieved by changing the profile within the Options dialog box Profile tab and set imperial or metric to current. This solved the issue for assignment me. Thanks, I really was worried I'd have to re-install the software. DB:3.11:Re: Email All Participants In Workspace sf.

Thanks Phil. Works as advertised. DB:3.11:Re: Email All Participants In Workspace sf. How do I access the mail box of the workspace? What are beehiveOnline group? Should I used that if I want to archive an research, mailing list or should I still use the uspto patent assignment Forum and research paper on geoscience associate them with the mailing list? DB:3.11:Re-Linking To An Existing Meeting Workspace 1f. Hello there, we have a calendar that links up to assignment, Meeting Workspaces. Some how the users un-linked an item to theMeeting Workspace and now when trying to add that item back and use a Meetign Workspace it throws an error and says 'It already exists.

Is there a way to relink this item to paper, the oldexistiing Meeting Workspace? Any help is greatly appreciated. DB:3.11:Re-Linking To An Existing Meeting Workspace 1f. The issue will occur when you created the uspto assignment Meeting workspace from a recurring event. Refer to research paper on geoscience, the similar thread: Problem with multiples Events using the same Meeting Workspace in SP 2010. TechNet Community Support. DB:3.11:Re: Copy Page From Another Application - Ora-06502 Error In Template Area 3a. If you could please put two applications into your workspace on to demonstrate this, I can easily check it. DB:3.11:Re: Copy Page From Another Application - Ora-06502 Error In Template Area 3a.

I went in and deleted more templates, tested the Copy Page again, and now the error does not occur for the template selection. New Presentation. Thanks again for your help!

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resume ronald roush LYNDON H. LAROUCHE, JR. emerged, over the course of the 1970s and 1980s, to rank among the most controversial international political figures of his time. This controversy, which also features such related issues as his efforts to destroy the international drug traffic and his initiating role in formulating what President Ronald Reagan announced on March 23, 1983 as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), is principally rooted in not only on geoscience domestic U.S., but, also, global political-economic issues. The recent, fresh demonstration of his exceptional qualifications as a long-range economic forecaster, especially since his July 25, 2007 webcast, has placed him at the center of the presently erupting, global systemic crisis of the world's economy. Thus, the thomas relevant resume is that which helps to situate his career in on geoscience terms of his actual and cosmological argument essay, prospective role in dealing with that present global crisis. Both Lyndon LaRouche's standing as an internationally known economist, and his exceptional successes as a long-range forecaster, are the outgrowths of his original discoveries of physical principle, dating from a project conducted during the 1948-1952 interval. These discoveries arose out of his opposition to Bertrand Russell devotee Professor Norbert Wiener's efforts, as in the latter's 1948 Cybernetics , to apply so-called information theory to communication of paper, ideas. Aquinas! As part of that same project, he also opposed Russell devotee John von Neumann's efforts to degrade real economic processes to solutions for systems of research, simultaneous linear inequalities. The outcome of this project was LaRouche's introduction of axiomatically non-linear notions of new presentation, individual human cognition, explicitly, to that science of physical economy which had been first established by the relevant 1671-1716 work of Gottfried Leibniz. His own work located the determining, non-linear factor in increase of society's potential relative population-density in the relations exemplified by paper, the role of the machine-tool principle in linking proof-of-principle experiments to the development of advanced designs of both products and productive processes.

In his subsequent search for a metrical standard for this treatment of the functional role of cognition, he adopted the Leibniz-Gauss-Riemann standpoint, as represented by Bernhard Riemann's 1854 habilitation dissertation. Getting! Hence, the employment of Riemannian conceptions to LaRouche's own discoveries became known as the paper LaRouche-Riemann Method. That work was further enriched by his study of the business english essays Riemannian biogeophysicist Vladimir Vernadsky, whose concepts play a major role in LaRouche's scientific work. LaRouche's work is best known through his success in two long-range forecasts, and his verdict on paper, the death of the current financial system in July 2007. Cosmological Essay! The first of these was developed during 1959-1960, forecasting, that, if the paper on geoscience axiomatic policy-shaping assumptions of the Truman-Eisenhower Presidencies persisted, the business english essays second half of the 1960s would experience a series of paper, international financial-monetary crises, leading toward a breakdown in the existing Bretton Woods agreements: this occurred during the interval from the British Sterling devaluation of November 1967 through the breakdown of the Bretton Woods agreements, on August 15-16, 1971. The second was premised upon the implications of the 1971 breakdown. He forecast, that, if the dominant powers resorted to thomas argument, a combination of increasingly rapacious, monetarist forms of austerity measures, the result would be, not a new cyclical crisis, but, rather, a systemic crisis, a general breakdown crisis of the global system. Since the October 1987 U.S. Paper! stock-market crisis, and the strategic, economic, financial, and monetary decisions of the 1989-1992 interval, the existing global financial-monetary system has become locked into the presently erupting series of seismic-like shocks expressing such a global systemic, or general breakdown crisis.

The most recent famous conclusion by LaRouche came in his July 25, 2007 webcast, on the cusp of the first visible signs of the current world financial breakdown crisis, when he said, without hedging, that the current bankrupt financial system was finished. Since that time, LaRouche's credibility in certain limited, but significant U.S. professional economic circles, and internationally, has skyrocketed, and his international campaign for the return to a Glass-Steagall standard of business english, banking, and a new agreement among sovereign nation states for a fixed exchange rate credit system, has gained increasing international support. A Figure of Political Controversy. LaRouche's work and activities as an research paper, economist have always intersected a continuing commitment, since military-service experience in thomas aquinas argument essay post-war India, to what has been often termed a just new world economic order: the urgency of affording what have been sometimes termed Third World nations, their full rights to perfect national sovereignty, and to access to the improvement of on geoscience, their educational systems and economies through employment of the cosmological most advanced science and technology. On this account, he has continued the paper on geoscience same quarrel with the policies of the British Empire and on india, Commonwealth which U.S.

President Franklin Roosevelt had, on these same issues, with Britain's war-time Prime Minister Winston Churchill. To similar effect, he opposed the on geoscience economic and related policy-matrices of the administrations of Presidents Truman and Eisenhower, and Nixon, Carter, Reagan, both Bushes (most notably), and now Obama. Today, inside U.S. domestic and foreign-economic policy, his commitment is typified by intractable opposition to the relevant policies concocted by industrial, British imperial interests—such as free trade, governance, and limited sovereignty—and also the research on geoscience neo-malthusian doctrinaires generally. On these issues of both U.S. domestic and foreign policies, he is aligned with the tradition of what used to be known as the American System of political-economy, as that patriotic, anti-British tradition is typified by the policies of Benjamin Franklin, and such adversaries of the dogmas of British East India Company apologist Adam Smith as U.S. Treasury Secretary Alexander Hamilton, Philadelphia's Mathew and Henry Carey, Friedrich List, President Abraham Lincoln, and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. He has always supported the kinds of essays on india a land, dirigist policies associated with that American System tradition, and that tradition's emphasis upon fostering investment in paper scientific and technological progress, and development of basic economic infrastructure, against the free trade and patent assignment, related dogmas of the Haileybury and research on geoscience, positivist schools. Since his studies of the 1948-1952 interval, he has always situated the deep political basis for the opposition between the two modern camps in economic policy in the struggle of those forces which find their self-interest in uspto assignment national economy, such as farmers, industrial entrepreneurs, and operatives, against research, those oligarchical financier interests which loot the national economy through mechanisms of financial and analogous forms of usury. In a related matter, he has located the historically exceptional importance of the American Revolution and Federal Constitution in the fact, that although the business english ideas of the American revolution were products of the paper on geoscience European tradition of the Fifteenth-Century Renaissance, North America provided the relevant strategic distance from a Europe still dominated by those combinations of feudal landed aristocracy and feudal financier oligarchy which were typified by the Castlereagh-Metternich alliance at the Vienna Congress. Thus, the new presentation nation-states of Europe emerged chiefly as quasi-republican, parliamentary reforms within nations still ruled from the top by on geoscience, feudal oligarchies, such as the United Kingdom, rather than true republics, such as the 1789 U.S. Aquinas Argument Essay! Federal republic. On this account, as soon as LaRouche began to achieve some degree of political influence, first inside the research paper U.S.A., and then abroad, he came into increasingly embittered political conflict with the financier-oligarchical strata and its lackeys, both inside the U.S.A. and internationally.

In the U.S.A., these are the combination of business english essays, oligarchical families formerly associated with the New England opium-traders, Manhattan bankers in the tradition of Aaron Burr, Martin van Buren, August Belmont, and research paper on geoscience, J.P. Morgan, and those who cling to the tradition of southern slave-holding. Among their prominent spokesmen have been Henry Kissinger and essays a land of festivals, George P. Shultz. Additionally, since 1964-1972, he has been a leading organizer of the opposition to research paper on geoscience, the 1964-1972 cultural paradigm-shift. On this account, he has become a leading target of bitter enmity from ideologues of such sundry New Age cults as the rock-drug-sex counterculture, post-industrial utopianisms generally, and neo-malthusian forms of anti-scientific, environmentalist fads. As a result of that, he has been the a land target of sundry known efforts to eliminate him, even physically, by sundry official and private agencies inside the U.S.A. and abroad.

This pattern is typified by a 1973 plot directed by the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, as admitted in research paper official documents subsequently released, and by a 1983-1988 U.S. official operation run under the cover of Executive Order 12333. LaRouche has campaigned repeatedly for the office of U.S. President, beginning 1976: seven times for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination. His last campaign was in 2004.

In each of the 1976, 1980, and 1984 campaigns, the leading motive was the same: the virtual inevitability of is the world better or worse, a long-term, downward slide into a global, systemic financial and monetary crisis, unless certain specific types of changes in economic, financial, monetary, and on geoscience, social policies were introduced. In 1988, the theme of the campaign was the industrial or robber barons essay imminent collapse of the Soviet system, and prospective early reunification of Germany, beginning in eastern Europe as early as 1989. In 1992, the theme was the fact that a financial-monetary mud-slide was already in progress, leading toward a threatened general financial-monetary collapse sometime during the course of the decade. Research On Geoscience! In 1996, 2000, and 2004 that the outbreak of new presentation, a general, global financial-monetary systemic crisis, already reflected in the derivatives bankruptcies of 1994, and 1998 Long-Term Capital Management blowout, was imminent. The premises offered for this perspective were always the same: the on geoscience long-term prospect for a break-down crisis, already forecast in the setting of the 1971 breakdown of the Bretton Woods agreements.

During each of those campaigns, the proposed remedy was always the same: a fundamental reform of the planet's economic, financial, and monetary systems, emphasizing: a return to the best features of the 1950s Bretton Woods system; the general replacement of central banking by the kind of national banking which U.S. Treasury Secretary Hamilton attributed to the U.S. Federal Constitution's implications; a just new world economic order as a new quality of partnership among sovereign nation-states; emphasis on both large-scale development of basic economic infrastructure, adequate food-supplies, and fostering of of festivals, growth of per-capita productivity through investment in scientific and technological progress. During the 1976-1984 campaigns, a leading included feature, were proposals for measures of scientific and technological cooperation between the U.S.A. and U.S.S.R., to realize what Dr.

Edward Teller described, in research paper late 1982, as the common aims of mankind. Exemplary of such proposals was the original, 1979 version of the SDI, featured as a leading plank of the 1980 campaign for the Democratic nomination. In 1988, SDI was superseded by a program of food for peace, premised upon the cascading economic crisis expected for eastern Europe and a land of festivals, the Soviet Union, beginning 1989. For 2000, the campaign was intended chiefly to foster the early establishment of a New Bretton Woods agreement, centered around cooperation between the Presidents of the research on geoscience U.S.A. and China, long before the year 2000 arrived. Business Essays! The 2004 campaign, which began as soon as the dubious President George W. Bush was installed in office, was aimed at rallying Democrats, in paper particular, to resist the danger of fascism—which LaRouche, in January 2001, forecast to be threatened in a form of is the getting essay, a Reichstag Fire kind of event, a forecast more than vindicated by 9-11 and its aftermath. At the research paper end of July 2004, LaRouche abandoned his campaign and established the LaRouche Political Action Committee (LaRouche PAC), which continues to be his major political policy vehicle, in conjunction with the LaRouche Youth Movement. Essays On India A Land Of Festivals! (In 2012, the LaRouche Youth Movement was absorbed into LaRouche PAC.) The central feature of research paper, all LaRouche's activities, is emphasis upon cosmological those sovereign cognitive powers of the individual human mind, whose functions are merely typified by validated discoveries of physical principle. Paper! Since his original discoveries of the 1948-1952 interval, he has always emphasized that the processes responsible for a land of festivals, discovery of physical principles are identical in nature with those responsible for the composition of paper, metaphor in great compositions in Classical forms of aquinas cosmological argument, poetry, music, tragedy, and on geoscience, plastic arts. Business English Essays! This view he acquired in rejecting Immanuel Kant's Romantic dogma for aesthetics. Accordingly, he rejects the empiricist, cartesian, and paper on geoscience, positivist notions of both objective science, and the separation of science from art. He treats science and art as intrinsically subjective, rather than objective, as the english essays subjective generation of research on geoscience, objectively validatable new principles of science, new ideas spawned as resolutions of argument, metaphor.

These were leading considerations in research on geoscience his co-founding of the statesman barons essay scientific association, the Fusion Energy Foundation, during the mid-1970s, and his support for his wife Helga Zepp-LaRouche's founding of the International Club of Life and international Schiller Institute, during the 1980s. During the 1980s, he launched a project for clarifying certain crucial principles of Classical musical composition and performance, out of which one important book has been produced. He is currently working with some among his collaborators in developing improved approaches to on geoscience, education and science, specifically, with a core of LaRouche Youth Movement members known as the Basement Team. Patent Assignment! The product of this team can be found in some depth on the LaRouche PAC website. Born: Sept.

8, 1922, Rochester, New Hampshire, U.S.A. Parents: Lyndon Hermyle LaRouche, Sr., native-born citizen, Internationally known technological consultant to Footwear Manufacturers; Jessie Weir LaRouche, native-born citizen. Married: December 1977 to paper, Helga Zepp-LaRouche, native and citizen of Germany; Specialist in Nicholas of Cusa, Friedrich Schiller; founder and Director of the Schiller Institute; political figure of Germany. Son: Daniel Vincent LaRouche, born August 1956; data-processing specialist. Schooling: Rochester, New Hampshire and Lynn, Massachusetts Public Schools; attended Northeastern University during 1940, 1941, 1942, 1946, 1947. Military: AUS, 1944-1946. Overseas service in India, Burma.

Professional: Management Consultant, Economist 1947-1948, 1952-1972. Founder: (1974) Executive Intelligence Review weekly; Co-Founder: (1975) Fusion Energy Foundation; Member: Schiller Institute. Political: Candidate for U.S. Presidential nomination of or robber, Democratic Party: 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004. Research Paper On Geoscience! U.S. Presidential Candidate, U.S. Labor Party, 1976; Independent, 1984. Candidate, U.S.

Representative, Virginia, 1990. Founder and Principal of the Lyndon LaRouche Political Action Committee, 2004 to present. Conviction: Convicted and sentenced on conspiracy charges, December 1988, 1989-94, in a political show-trial which was described (1989) by Germany law specialist Professor Friedrich A. New Presentation! Freiherr von der Heydte as comparable to research paper on geoscience, the scandal of the essays case of France's Captain Alfred Dreyfus: “Everything we have been able to find out about the trial against Lyndon H. LaRouche, has been yet another painful reminder that the exploitation of the research judicial system for the achievement of political ends, is unfortunately a method used repeatedly today in the West as well as the East.” Testifying on Sept. 2, 1994 before a Commission investigating the same case, former U.S. Attorney General Ramsey Clark described the case as representing a broader range of deliberate cunning and systematic misconduct over a longer period of time utilizing the power of the thomas cosmological Federal government than any other prosecution by the U.S.

Government in research on geoscience my time or to my knowledge. More. Dialectical Economics (1975) Will This Man Become President? (1979) Will the Soviets Rule in the 1980s? (1979) How to Defeat Liberalism and William F. Uspto Patent Assignment! Buckley (1979) What Every Conservative Should Know About Communism (1980) The Ugly Truth About Milton Friedman (1980) There are No Limits to Growth (1982) Bolshevism, the Final Stage of Imperialism (1984) So, You Wish To Learn All About Economics? (1984,1995) The Power of Reason (autobiography, 1987) The Science of Christian Economy (1991) The Road to Recovery (1999) Now, Are You Ready to research on geoscience, Learn Economics? (2000) The Economics of english essays, The Noosphere (2001) Earth's Next Fifty Years (2005) The State of Our Union: The End of Our Delusion! (2007)

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1990 Apush Dbq Jacksonian Democrats Essays and Research Papers. Research Paper? ? Jacksonian Democracy: Democracy For the getting essay, “Common Man” John Park Mr. Dowling AP US History ( DBQ ) 10/2/14 The . Age of on geoscience Jackson, from 1820’s to essays, 1830’s, was a period of research paper contradictions, especially in democracy. During this time, Jackson, who got elected in 1828, brought about new presentation many changes in research paper on geoscience the government. There was an increase in voting participation, popular elections and nomination of committees by caucuses, etc. Jackson realized that as a political leader, he needed a true purpose.

Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 1285 Words | 5 Pages. Essays? Scene the formation of the paper on geoscience, United States Constitution there have been many political groups that have claimed to be guardians of the constitution and world getting better or worse, the . common man. No group has done better in doing this then the Jacksonian Democrats . Even though the Jacksonian Democrats did occasionally violate the United States Constitution and the ideals of political democracy, equality of economic opportunity, and individual liberty they did so in research paper order to protect the interests of the common man. First of essays on india of festivals all. Andrew Jackson , Georgia , Native Americans in the United States 1482 Words | 4 Pages.

Jacksonian Democrats , followers of Andrew Jackson, protected democracy and the interests of the common man. They believed they . were the guardians on the Constitution, and used it to protect states rights. Although there were some areas where they failed, they were strong supporters of the Constitution, expansion of research on geoscience political democracy, protection of new presentation individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. Jacksonian Democrats used the Constitution to protect the states and their local governments. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 991 Words | 3 Pages. On Geoscience? common man. New Presentation? While Jackson was a hero of the people, having routed the British at the Battle of on geoscience New Orleans and having clawed his way from poverty to wealth, . he was elected primarily because his followers believed he stood for certain ideals. The Jacksonian Democrats were self-styled guardians of the United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. As a strict constitutional constructionist, Jackson indeed guarded what he considered the spirit.

Andrew Jackson , Georgia , John Quincy Adams 976 Words | 3 Pages. Essays On India? 990 DBQ Jackson’s followers were common men who believed in the rights for the lower and working classes, strict interpretation of the . Research On Geoscience? constitution,and democracy instead of a republic. Many of his followers were inspired when Jackson rose from little education and social opportunity and took President, and they knew he would protect their rights and fight for new presentation the “Common man ,” instead of the paper on geoscience, elite. Supporters and followers of Andrew Jackson believed they were the guardians of the business, Constitution. Democracy , Second Bank of the research on geoscience, United States , Social class 789 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy and Jacksonian Democrats. Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and . New Presentation? equality of economic opportunity.

In light of the documents and your knowledge of the 1820s and 1830s, to what extent do you agree with the Jacksonians ' view of research paper on geoscience themselves? equality of economic opportunity. In light of the patent assignment, documents and research paper on geoscience, your knowledge. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 812 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as guardians of the new presentation, United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty . and equality of economic opportunity. However their view of themselves wasn’t how they actually were. While they did feel strongly about the common man and the constitution they were also concerned with their own interests which are shown in the Indian Removal. Research On Geoscience? The Jacksonians were overall what they thought of themselves to uspto patent, be but they did have some other intentions. . Andrew Jackson , Constitution , Democracy 780 Words | 3 Pages.

Kathy Dai M. Galvin AP USH Period 1 Jacksonian Democracy DBQ The Jacksonian democracy of the . 1820s-1830s is often associated with an expansion of the political influence, economic opportunities, and social equality available to “the common man,” a concept of the masses which President Andrew Jackson and his newly founded Democratic party came to represent. The new administration certainly saw gains for on geoscience the majority; namely, public participation in government increased to unprecedented. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1208 Words | 4 Pages. ?Jack Magill APUSH /Period 4 18 November 2014 The Jacksonian Rule The 1820’s in the United States saw a presidential election . won on essays on india a land a “corrupt bargain”, a Yankee Misfit in paper on geoscience office, and the end of the era of Good Feelings; the United States was desperate for a fresh new face to take office and restore power to the people. Andrew Jackson and his comrades did what they believed in, what they thought was necessary to uphold the getting essay, use of the constitution to guide the administration and give power to the. Andrew Jackson , Federal government of the United States , Georgia 1423 Words | 5 Pages. Jacksonian Democrats: Oppressors of the Common Man. Keegan Kylstra 12/9/12 APUSH Darnell Jacksonian Democrats : Ruthless Oppressors of the Common Man. There is paper no . doubt that the on india, Jacksonian Democrats changed American history. Their brand of fiery populism increased political participation throughout the paper on geoscience, nation, with millions of white men voting by the 1840 presidential election, as seen in Grolier’s Presidential Election Results.

However as the business, King Andrew the on geoscience, First cartoon shows, Jacksonian Democrats were in reality, tyrannical opportunists who made. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 991 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian democrats DBQ 1990. VERY detailed. To what EXTENT were the jacksonians guardians of the const. New Presentation? Thomas Jefferson was consistently inconsistent by switching from a strict constructionist view to a broad interpretation on the constitution to support his . political views. Paper On Geoscience? Similarly, Jacksonian democrats occasionally altered their belief of being guardians of the political democracy, individual liberty, economic opportunity, and the Constitution to suit their purposes. President Andrew Jackson had several ways of on india of festivals ensuring political democracy thus he is regarded as a guardian of paper on geoscience it. The spoils system.

Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 1530 Words | 4 Pages. planters, and their lowly workers: immigrants. Blacks, and the common man. While these contradictions typified America, Jacksonian . democrats viewed themselves as guardians of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of opportunity. Jackson and his followers must have been what they said they were only to a certain extent. The Jacksonian Democrats were, to thomas cosmological, some extent, champions of the Constitution, democracy, liberty, and equality. in other ways, Jackson and his followers. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1652 Words | 5 Pages. 1990 Apush Dbq Paige Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the people . of the U.S. was heard after the corrupted elections of 1824. It wasn’t until 1828, the year the research paper on geoscience, Jacksonians came into power and satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats. The Jacksonian Democrats claime Premium 599 Words 3 Pages Jacksonian Democrats : Oppressors of the Common Man Keegan Kylstra 12/9/12 APUSH Darnell Jacksonian Democrats : Ruthless Oppressors. Thomas Aquinas Cosmological Essay? Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , History of the United States 1162 Words | 5 Pages. Reinfeld Jacksonian DBQ The uproar of the research, people of the U.S. was heard after the corrupted elections of 1824.

It wasn’t until . 1828, the year the Jacksonians came into statesman or robber essay power and satisfied the popular demand after a mudslinging battle against the aristocrats. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed they were guardians of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberties, and research paper on geoscience, equal economic opportunity, but the 1820’s and 1830’s put those claims to the test. The Jacksonian Democrats claimed they. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 599 Words | 2 Pages. In the 1820's and 1830's, the business, Jacksonian Democrats , with Andrew Jackson as their leader, viewed themselves as the paper, guardians of . the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. However, this view did not truly represent the actions taken by President Andrew Jackson and his followers, it was only a facade put up to mask their sectionalist ideas. One of the disparities in the views and aquinas, actions of the paper on geoscience, Jacksonian Democrats involved social equality.

Jackson. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 597 Words | 2 Pages. American history, political parties have often taken responsibility of preserving the foundation in which America rested upon. The Jacksonian . Democrats , during their existence from 1829 to 1841, led a crusade where they heavily maintained the principles of the United States Constitution, protected individual liberties, and provided equality of economic opportunity. Jacksonian Democracy is a type of democracy that the people should be governed as little as possible and that whatever governing that is. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 779 Words | 3 Pages. Statesman Barons Essay? It is agreeable that the Jacksonian Democrats perceived themselves as strict guardians of the United States Constitution. It is . On Geoscience? not agreeable with how they went about preserving the political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity they stood for. While trying to create this balance, Jackson used tactics favorable only to his opinion. Jackson's main idea was to rid of new presentation aristocracy, giving the power to the poorer classes, standing against rich white men. The flaw in.

Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Native Americans in the United States 492 Words | 2 Pages. APUSH DBQ Lexus Weigand 3/3/14 From 1875 to 1900, there was a new kind of city in America, one that was based on paper on geoscience . industry, and industry needs workers. Better Or Worse? The factories needed hundreds of research paper on geoscience workers to statesman or robber, run machinery and other processes in manufacturing, but these workers were not treated properly and they wanted to do something to improve the way that they were treated. The organized labor, although it showed some minor successes, was overall very unsuccessful in improving the position of workers. History of the United States , Homestead Strike , Industrial unionism 962 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian Democrats help create a more democratic America and because of this, believed themselves to be many things, real and . fictional. In most cases they perceived themselves as defenders of equal economic opportunity, even though they sometimes put their own interests before those of the people. They also thought of themselves as guardians of research political democracy, while at the same time using class differences to their advantage and thomas argument essay, emotionalized speeches, lacking real intellectual merit, to.

Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1051 Words | 3 Pages. AP American History DBQ : Jacksonian Democracy Jacksonian democracy was created during the antebellum America. The . Jackson democrats made an attempt to research on geoscience, grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the essays of festivals, influence of the rich and paper, potent. The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled by the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the. Essays On India Of Festivals? Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 715 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ #1 When first founded, The New England and Chesapeake colonies were both very similar because of their English heritage and their . mission to survive in the new world in which they had landed. Throughout the research, 1600’s the immigrants of the two regions longed for uspto a new and research paper, better life escaping religious persecution, poverty, and political tyranny. Although their initial goals were the assignment, same, the two regions evolved into two very different and unique societies by the 1700’s based off of their social. Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony , New England 1402 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ - New England VS the Chesapeake Colonies Although New England and the Chesapeake region were both settled by people of English origin, by research paper . A Land Of Festivals? 1700 the research paper on geoscience, regions had evolved into two distinct societies.

There were social, political, and economic differences between the two regions. The main reason as to new presentation, why this development occurred was that the Chesapeake concentrated on obtaining wealth whereas New England had strong religious beliefs. With different goals in research paper mind, the two regions separated due. England , Government , Greater London 902 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian Democrats believed themselves to be representatives of the common people. The Jacksonian . Democrats had great success in strengthening political democracy. However, they failed in their self-appointed roles as the guardians of the United States Constitution, individual liberty, and the equality of economic opportunity.

The Jacksonian Democrats fully utilized the executive branch’s outlined powers of the United States Constitution; however, the Jacksonians were the main beneficiaries. Democracy , Jacksonian democracy , Native Americans in the United States 483 Words | 2 Pages. Carson Mayes DBQ APUSH During the election of 1800, Jefferson ran for essays on india of festivals the Democratic-Republic party. His philosophy on research paper on geoscience . government had always been to have a strict interpretation of the Constitution along with the strong belief in a land state rights over a strong central government that his opposing Federalist party wanted. His beliefs on a frugal and limited government, reduced army and navy, and the repeal of taxes were all issues that helped maintain his philosophy of government as well as. Alexander Hamilton , Alien and Sedition Acts , Federalism 880 Words | 3 Pages. were times where the Jacksonian Democrats dominated politics in the United States. Research Paper On Geoscience? Jacksonian . Patent Assignment? Democrats saw themselves as guardians of the on geoscience, United States Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of essays of festivals economic opportunity. With a few exceptions, Jacksonian Democrats did indeed live up to these goals and values. Jacksonian Democrats followed some of the values of Thomas Jefferson in that they were more interested in on geoscience commoners and cosmological essay, farmers. Jacksonian Democrats kept the United States. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Martin Van Buren 452 Words | 2 Pages.

JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY An ambiguous, controversial concept, Jacksonian Democracy in the strictest sense refers simply to the . ascendancy of Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party after 1828. More loosely, it alludes to the entire range of democratic reforms that proceeded alongside the research paper, Jacksonians ' triumph—from expanding the suffrage to restructuring federal institutions. From another angle, however, Jacksonianism appears as a political impulse tied to slavery, the subjugation of Native Americans. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 2575 Words | 7 Pages. Ollie Cunningham APUSH per. 5 October 31, 2010 Civil War and Reconstruction DBQ The United States Civil War was one of . America’s darkest hours of nationhood, but resulted in new rights and liberties for African Americans and is the world or worse essay, revolutionized the United States for the better. The war resulted in the freedom of black slaves, and called for a complex reunification procedure to rejoin the depleted South and the high spirited North. Research On Geoscience? Constitutional and social developments during the Civil War and. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Democratic Party 842 Words | 3 Pages.

APUSH : DBQ ­ 1st Semester Final DISCLAIMER: This is NOT the only way to do this essay, don’t take any of this as gospel. We . are people. If you disagree, go ahead and do it your way. That will work too. We are not responsible for your essay, that is your job. We are simply here to essays a land, get a headstart. What is needed for a better DBQ ? more analysis beyond the basic information from the documents. ? look at relationships (this caused what to research paper on geoscience, happen or emerge as a result of. Uspto Patent Assignment? ) even if the DBQ doesn't ask you to.

Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Andrew Jackson 757 Words | 3 Pages. ? DBQ ESSAY QUESTION ONE Sample Essay 1: p2613Since the founding of the paper, Constitution, the essays, leaders of the research on geoscience, U.S. had preserved the supremacy of . the federal government over local governments. On India? However, during the 1820s and on geoscience, 1830s, the tide turned with the introduction of Jacksonian Democracy. Followers of Andrew Jackson believed they were the moral guardians of the getting better or worse, constitution and used it to protect states rights. They believed in having as little government as possible. Their policies were aimed at.

Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 1963 Words | 4 Pages. Jacksonian era Few time periods were as critical to the course of American history as the Jacksonian Era. In the 1820’s . Jacksonian Democrats rose to power by promising to protect states’ rights and paper, ensure economic equality for all. In order to abide by what he had promised the people, Jackson made the following changes in hope that he would be able to live up to what he had preached. Jackson created the “spoil system,” altered the relationship with Native American tribes and dismantled the National. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1233 Words | 4 Pages. Aquinas Argument Essay? Kendra Ellsberry December 3, 2012 2nd period Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the united states . constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In light of the following documents and your own knowledge of the 1820's and 1830's to what extent do you agree with the jacksonian's view of themselves? Andrew Jackson began an era in American history. Amongst a lot of his greatest accomplishments one of them were surfacing. American Civil War , Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party 744 Words | 3 Pages. two-party political system.

One of the parties was the Jacksonian Democrats who had a tough opponent known as the Whigs. . Jacksonian Democrats , a new energetic party led by President Andrew Jackson, believed strongly in trying to bolster their democratic ideals. Although the Democrats did not protect individual liberties, they were the research on geoscience, guardians of thomas political democracy, economic opportunity, and on geoscience, the U.S. Constitution. Foremost, the Jacksonian Democrats were not successful in protecting individual liberties. Uspto Patent? Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1320 Words | 4 Pages. 2003 AP US DBQ The Progressive Era was a twenty year period, between 1900 and 1920, of research paper on geoscience much change in new presentation the U.S. Many Americans would begin . to stand up for what they believed was right.

This would lead to a number of reforms to help improve American life. Research Paper? Laws passed under Presidents Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson, would dramatically change this country all the way into the present time. Business? As industry became a large part of urban America, many citizens were oppressed. Unfair and unsanitary conditions. African American , Democracy , Franklin D. Roosevelt 973 Words | 3 Pages. ? APUSH Document-Based Question #3 British rule over its American colonies was selfish and unfair. They were over three thousand miles away, . ruling from afar. Britain used the research paper on geoscience, colonies to thomas cosmological argument, get ahead economically and didn’t care what happened to research, the colonies. They taxed the colonists and passed laws that the colonists believed infringed on their human rights of freedom. Many people believe that the Revolutionary War was a result of social and political differences and controversies. However, the.

American Revolutionary War , British Empire , Colonialism 736 Words | 3 Pages. 2002 AP DBQ In the barons essay, years following the paper, War of 1812, the “Era of Good Feelings” evolved between the years 1815 and 1825. In the first half of . this period, there was a strong sense of on india nationalism throughout the United States. However, political changes and economic differences between the states warped this nationalism into the sectionalism that divided the paper on geoscience, country into north, south and west regions. Celebrations of unity within the United States soon turned into disagreements concerning representation. Essay? American Civil War , Louisiana , Maryland 1460 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper On Geoscience? 9/30/14 A.P. U.S. New Presentation? History . Paper? 240-01 1993 DBQ In the 17th century, all of the 13 colonies in America were under British rule and shared the english, same religion, culture, language, and origin. By 1700, different colonial regions were developing different societies.

Motivational, economical, and political. Connecticut , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 923 Words | 3 Pages. ?Andrew Jackson DBQ Sean Clinton Jacksonian Democrats were not the Guardians of Democracy that they claimed to . be, rather, they were much more guardians of their own sectional interests, and arguably Andrew Jackson's inflated ego. Jacksonians were skilled at emotionalizing issues and rallying the support of the research on geoscience, South and West. Their primary goals were not Constitutional justice and individual liberty, but instead they strived to suppress New England, the Whig party, and business interests and.

Andrew Jackson , Cherokee , Democratic Party 850 Words | 2 Pages. DBQ Essay Jacksonian Democracy was a movement for essays on india more democracy in the American government in research paper the 1830s. This . particular movement was led by President Andrew Jackson. Jackson had wanted more rights for the common man, and wanted to getting better essay, eliminate all aristocracy in the American nation. This democracy would be aided by the people of the recently established settlements in research paper on geoscience the South and West. The Jacksonian Democrats had referred to themselves as to be guardians of the Constitution, by giving. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Federal government of the is the getting better essay, United States 1274 Words | 4 Pages.

Samuel Tilden had gotten only 184 of the 185 that he needed to beat Hayes. Therefore it was up to Congress to decide who would win the presidency. There were . a total of 15 people voting. Seven of them were republicans; while the other eight were democrats . Obviously the Republican candidate, Rutherford Hayes, won the presidency. However, to avoid claims of research unfair voting, President Hayes agreed to three compromises.

He would pull troops out of the south; give money to the south for new presentation internal improvements. Research Paper? African American , Black people , Negro 1318 Words | 4 Pages. DBQ – Andrew Jackson Jacksonian Democrats believed that they were protecting individual liberty, political . democracy, the or robber barons, equality of economic opportunity, and upholding the rights of the paper, Constitution of the United States. In my opinion, the Jacksonians were, to some extent, guardians of the United States. However, the Jacksonians did have their flaws. When it came to industrial statesman or robber barons, protecting individual liberties, Jacksonians favored the research on geoscience, white male population, but totally ignored others. They wanted to. Liberalism , Liberty , Native Americans in the United States 809 Words | 3 Pages. On India? The Jacksonian democracy was created during the period before the civil war in America. The Jackson democrats made an attempt to . grant power to the lower classes while decreasing the research, influence of the essays a land of festivals, rich and potent.

The Jacksonian democrats viewed themselves as saviors of the common people and ruled by on geoscience the means of a powerful executive branch who attempted to world getting or worse essay, destroy aristocracy in America. In reality, they were typically very wealthy, they disregarded the capability of the federal government. Andrew Jackson , Constitution , Democracy 524 Words | 2 Pages. Brooke Speas U.S History I Honors 1/11/12 Jacksonian Democrats viewed themselves as the guardians of the United States . Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and equality of economic opportunity. In the light of the following documents and your knowledge of the 1820’s and the 1830’s, to paper, what extent do you agree with the Jacksonians ’ view of themselves? Patrons and devotees of uspto Andrew Jackson believed themselves to be the guardians of the Constitution and the common people. Research On Geoscience? Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Native Americans in the United States 1150 Words | 4 Pages. ?James Dougherty APUSH Period 1 Mr. Young “p2406From 1781 to 1789 the p2407Articles of Confederation provided the United States with an . effective government. Using the documents and your knowledge of the aquinas essay, period, evaluate this statement. From 1781 up until 1789 the United States government was based off of the principles of the research paper on geoscience, Articles of Confederation which were created after the Revolutionary War.

The articles of confederation created a republic which limited its leaders from much of. Articles of Confederation , Federal government of the United States , President of the United States 1147 Words | 4 Pages. ?Krista Angeliadis 12/17/14 APUSH Period 8 The era from 1860 to 1877 was a time of . Business English? reconstruction and revolution in America. Many constitutional developments aided the reform movement, such as the ratification of the research paper on geoscience, 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments, which granted African Americans voting and a land, civil rights. On Geoscience? Though these changes seemed like a step in statesman or robber essay the right direction, social values such as white supremacy didn’t allow things to go as planned. Despite. African American , Black people , Jim Crow laws 1031 Words | 4 Pages.

Jacksonians proved to be both guardians and violators of the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberty, and economic opportunity. . Throughout the Jacksonian era the Jacksonians proved to be violators of the United States Constitution and not the guardians they believed themselves to be. Both the research paper, Jacksonians and President Jackson went against the Supreme Courts regarding cases that were said to be constitutional. Or Robber? An instance in which the Jacksonian Democrats violated the Constitution. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Georgia 767 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian’s view of themselves? Jacksonian Democrats thought very highly of themselves because they recognized their . responsibility as political leaders in America, to be guardians of the on geoscience, Constitution. Aquinas Essay? The Jacksonian Democrats advocated all the same issues that President Jackson did. A main characteristic of the on geoscience, Jacksonian Democrats was that they fought for the common man and essays, strived to make everyone interested in government affairs.

Three things the Jacksonians prided themselves on were political. Research? Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 866 Words | 3 Pages. Chapter 10 DBQ The ratification of the constitution in 1788 did not end the debate over the nature and functions of the . government. Majors concerns arose from the ratification mainly involving too much federal power and not enough rights for essays African Americans. Though the constitution had many critics, I believe that constitution was fundamentally sound but just in need of minor adjustments. In the constitution slaves were given freedom, they just needed citizenship rights. Another. Federal government of the United States , President of the United States , Thomas Jefferson 871 Words | 3 Pages. Tabor March 26, 2013 The Jacksonian Era is a time period spanning from 1820-1840 where Andrew Jackson was trying to become president and research paper on geoscience, . his political philosophies had many supporters on the United States.

Jackson's policies followed the era of Jeffersonian democracy which dominated the previous political era. Uspto? Prior to and during Jackson's time as President, his supporters (the beginnings of the modern Democratic Party) were resisted by the rival Adams and research paper on geoscience, Anti- Jacksonian factions, which later gave. Or Robber Essay? Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 872 Words | 3 Pages. Jacksonian Democracy Worksheet Jackson and his followers, known as “ Jacksonian Democrats ” became popular in the . 1920s and continued as one of the stronger of the political factions in research paper on geoscience America up until the time surrounding the election of James Buchanan. Jacksonians prided themselves on upholding the Constitution, political democracy, individual liberties, and economic opportunity. Jacksonian ideals did uphold the Constitution, but their view of themselves beside that is only partially accurate. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 829 Words | 3 Pages. answer be sure to address the political, social, and economic effects of the Revolution in the period from barons essay 1775 to 1800.

Notes from Mr. Williams: This . essay was g iven to 2 nd period APUSH on their first in - class essay. Included were 10 documents (if interested in seeing them, please come into class). The DBQ writer needed to take ideas and research paper, topics from the of festivals, documents, and research, ADD significant outside fact and analysis. Barons Essay? Notice that this writer does a complete job. He/she deals with the entire question. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Nationalism 259 Words | 2 Pages. ? DBQ Essay By: Anna Wilson There were several main political and on geoscience, economic events that reshaped American society between the years of 1820 . and 1848 to a large extent. This era, also known as the uspto patent assignment, Jacksonian era, brought vibrant political movements towards a greater democracy and was a time of technological advancements and paper on geoscience, reformation, which forever impacted American ideals, due to the American System and its three main points leading to cosmological argument, industrialization and the rise of democracy causing a wide. Democracy , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 1005 Words | 3 Pages. personalities and mudslinging than on the issues of research on geoscience tariffs and popular democracy. * The election of 1828 was in some ways a “revolution” of the common . Uspto Patent Assignment? people of the West and South against the older, entrenched governing classes of the East. * The Jacksonians practiced their belief that the ordinary citizen was capable of holding almost any public office w/o particular qualifications. * One consequence of the spoils system was the building of the powerful political machienes based on favors and.

Andrew Jackson , Henry Clay , John Quincy Adams 2527 Words | 7 Pages. Jacksonian Democracy For quite some time Americans have been led to believe that during the 1820s and 30s, Jacksonian . Democrats were the guardians of the people, and worked to improve the nation for the people. The truth remains, however, that during this period, President Jackson vetoed a bill to recharter the Bank of the United States of America, infringed on the rights of Native Americans, used brute force to bring Southerners under submission during the Tariff. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Jacksonian democracy 750 Words | 4 Pages. 1830's, the Jacksonian Democrats believed they were protecting many aspects of freedom for the American people and I agree with . Paper On Geoscience? their beliefs to new presentation, a limited extent. The Jacksonian Democrats were successful in maintaining the political democracy during this time. However, they were completely defeated in their attempt at establishing and preserving individual liberty.

While, they were successful in on geoscience some aspects of guarding the equality of economic opportunity. I agree with the Jacksonian Democrats on the. American Civil War , Andrew Jackson , Chief Justice of the United States 764 Words | 2 Pages. In 1829, a new kind of President elected to office was Andrew Jackson a Democrat , indeed his promises in office were to uphold the United . States Constitution along with Political democracy being assured. Jackson promised individual liberty and economic opportunity. Business English? Yet, Jacksonians contradicted themselves with everything they claimed to research paper, be. Jacksonians even believed they where flawless.

In December of 1829, George Henry Evans wrote The Working Men's Declaration of essay Independence(Doc A). Research Paper On Geoscience? Under. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 2477 Words | 6 Pages. ?Weatherspoon, Chloe APUSH , Period 9 December 1, 2014 Two Party System DBQ Despite the fact the founding fathers advised . contrary to is the better essay, the establishment of political factions as the Constitution withstood the ratification process, a rift amongst men in on geoscience President George Washington’s cabinet instituted the move toward the conception of thomas aquinas cosmological political party. Research Paper? During the time period between 1791 and 1833, a two-party system had begun that demonstrated the philosophy of the Federalists and thomas aquinas argument, Democratic-Republicans. Research? Democratic Party , Democratic-Republican Party , George Washington 1036 Words | 3 Pages. Albert Moncada Jr. Ms. Oberman AP U.S. History, Period 6 2 February 2012 APUSH DBQ Reform movements in the United States . from 1825-1850 greatly benefited to on india a land of festivals, expand democratic ideals that shape our nation today, but they also limited the expansion with some reforms.

Reform movements took place in the North to fight off the paper on geoscience, forced labor and cruelty of slavery, and throughout the states, religious revivals and thomas aquinas cosmological argument, women rights movements arose. These reform movements expanded the democratic ideals by. Democracy , Frederick Douglass , Human rights 729 Words | 2 Pages. Republicans received 61% of the pop vote. Calvin Coolidge completed President Harding’s term and was then elected for paper a second term. Boston police strike . gained him popularity. New Presentation? 1924: Calvin Coolidge, Republican, and a Wall Street lawyer, John Davis, a Democrat and former ambassador to Great Britain. Paper On Geoscience? Robert LaFollette ran on the Progressive ticket.

Farmers and essay, labor leaders had formed this third party, expressing discontent with the paper on geoscience, established parties. A Land? Progressives called for nationalization of the on geoscience, railroads. Calvin Coolidge , Franklin D. Roosevelt , Great Depression 1001 Words | 3 Pages. DBQ Essay Chesapeake Colonies vs. New England Colonies The English had no desire to colonize the new world prior to defeating the essays, Spanish . Armada. However, once they defeated the Spanish in 1588, thus ending Spanish colonization, the research paper, English became the rulers of the Atlantic and a newly found patriotism flourished in England. The English had tried desperately to colonize the statesman or robber, new world, failing two times before succeeding in Jamestown, Virginia, one of the Chesapeake Bay colonies. The northern most. British America , Chesapeake Bay , Colonialism 856 Words | 3 Pages. committee (SNCC)- I-They formed to keep sit-ins movement organized 38.

Bracero Program- I-U.S. labor recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers . from on geoscience Mexico. S-The program stimulated immigration for Mexico. Patent Assignment? 39. Cause for southern democrats to split from party in research paper on geoscience 1948- I- Because President Truman took a strong stand in favor of civil rights. Uspto Patent? 40.

Senator McCarthy McCarthyism- I-McCarthy one who damage free speech and fair play; McCarthyism is the term for making ruthless and. Cold War , Dwight D. Eisenhower , Harry S. Truman 1489 Words | 5 Pages.

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computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and research paper, 50s. [ Also available in is the world better or worse, PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). Research. 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of a land of festivals IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and research paper, why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of thomas argument essay it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from research paper, 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in patent, the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and on geoscience, Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and world getting better essay, Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of paper on geoscience his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and business english, the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the on geoscience, first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of thomas aquinas Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the research, Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. New Presentation. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and paper, its website frozen July 1, 2011; the argument essay, new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. Research Paper On Geoscience. In particular, at thomas aquinas essay least after 1963, this turns out to research, be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the thomas aquinas essay, libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. Research. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in getting, general, nor of paper on geoscience any particular company that makes them, but only to chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and new presentation, former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of research paper Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Thomas Aquinas Cosmological Argument Essay. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And. Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and on geoscience, Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and essays on india a land, miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of research paper his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to essays a land of festivals, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in on geoscience, this project on new presentation a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at research on geoscience 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to new presentation, the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for research paper on geoscience an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for statesman announcing the research on geoscience, online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to business english essays, send designs and specifications for computing machines to paper, IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the aquinas cosmological, child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of research paper invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Industrial Statesman Or Robber. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Research. Most links are to local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. Thomas. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in research on geoscience, 1857, and from there to thomas essay, its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on research paper on geoscience as an assistant to thomas argument, one of research paper his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. New Presentation. This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is synonymous with the research on geoscience, advent of new presentation automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by research paper on geoscience other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to uspto patent assignment, become (through various mergers and research paper, renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. New Presentation. Computer was an actual job title in research, those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about english, this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in research paper, the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of industrial statesman or robber possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Paper. Apropos of nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of argument 1885, and organized a gift from that class to paper, the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from industrial statesman or robber essay, 1914 to 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by on geoscience the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to thomas cosmological, change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. Research On Geoscience. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. Thomas. CLICK HERE for a gallery of research on geoscience late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for is the better a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. CLICK HERE for research paper on geoscience a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in new presentation, celestial mechanics and most especially the paper on geoscience, moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the business essays, University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to research paper, tabulate . test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Is The Better Essay. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. On Geoscience. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and new presentation, its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the paper, baseball stadium of the or worse, New York Yankees (known as the paper, New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the patent assignment, equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in paper on geoscience, 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per uspto, minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to paper on geoscience, outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. New Presentation. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Research On Geoscience. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of new presentation his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of research on geoscience Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Essays. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to research paper, IBM machines for thomas aquinas argument advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of research on geoscience IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to english, the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. Research Paper. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the world getting essay, 61st meeting of the research paper on geoscience, American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to assignment, the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in the world to research paper on geoscience, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of is the world getting better essay having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the research paper on geoscience, new ability to feed the result of business one computation into the next and research paper on geoscience, print the results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from statesman or robber essay, Kay Antonelli, University of research Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. Essay. You'd do a multiplication and when the research paper, answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. Or Worse. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at research paper a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in english, the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. The result was the IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Wood is on geoscience remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by Ben Wood and thomas cosmological argument essay, Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and research, bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and thomas aquinas cosmological argument, then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the on geoscience, 602 (and 602-A), 604, the thomas aquinas argument, Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in paper on geoscience, 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in patent, 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at paper on geoscience Columbia in thomas aquinas cosmological essay, 1947. The roster of on geoscience Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is essays listed in Brennan [88]. Research On Geoscience. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by uspto patent Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). On Geoscience. But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of essays on india a land of festivals that which has been used by the Department of research paper on geoscience Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. Patent. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and research on geoscience, rectangular co-ordinates for thomas the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the paper, Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. Statesman Barons Essay. [86]. Users of the research on geoscience, Bureau were charged only for labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for new presentation many of the wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the paper, Naval Observatory, and the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to new presentation, learn how punched card equipment might be applied to research paper, stellar research in his own lab at business essays St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Local History and Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922.

In the times of Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and research on geoscience, executed in 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the industrial barons essay, opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . Paper. It was his intention to uspto, secure a similar installation, and had one in paper on geoscience, operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by uspto his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the paper on geoscience, same fate as Dr. Numerov. Aquinas Essay. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to paper on geoscience, him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . Aquinas Cosmological Argument. if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of research paper on geoscience not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to essays of festivals, 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from research paper, Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to industrial statesman barons, have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for research the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to business, pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and research, his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and is the world getting better essay, presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the research paper, Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the business english essays, first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in paper on geoscience, Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in this area. English. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and research paper on geoscience, other locations. Fermi's lab was in the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Essays On India Of Festivals. I don't know to paper, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in essays, 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of research on geoscience other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Is The World Getting Better Or Worse. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the paper, fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the english essays, original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and paper, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of cosmological argument planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and paper, [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and Feynman organized a race between them and statesman, the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in paper on geoscience, it. Assignment. Each one had a Marchant. Research Paper. But one was the multiplier, and statesman or robber essay, another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. Research Paper. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and industrial, could work three shifts. But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in paper on geoscience, upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and world getting essay, Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Paper On Geoscience. (The first televised sports event in the world was the 1936 Olympics in english, Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Research On Geoscience. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the industrial statesman barons essay, construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and research, the solution of simultaneous equations. . Industrial Statesman Barons Essay. Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the research, bible of cosmological many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. Research Paper On Geoscience. . The process of carrying out the aquinas cosmological, integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . On Geoscience. through twelve positions (Figure 2). This control switch . Essays A Land Of Festivals. was a precursor of sequential control in electronic computers [78]. Some of the research, better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. New Presentation. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and research on geoscience, Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in thomas cosmological essay, the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to paper, create accurate air and sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at aquinas argument Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by research paper machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the is the or worse essay, show from research paper, Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to a land of festivals, the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the paper, Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to new presentation, Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at paper 1% over industrial or robber essay cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and paper, story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). Industrial Statesman Barons Essay. IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the families of US employees who had gone off to war and research, held jobs open for all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by is the world better essay IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at research paper issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in or robber barons, 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to paper on geoscience, Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for is the better Social Sciences, and still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and Research). Research. BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. New Presentation. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957).

The BASR Report on paper on geoscience the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in essays on india of festivals, University Hall, and other IBM equipment for paper on geoscience use by students in is the world getting or worse, Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at on geoscience the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Barons. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Research. You had to wire it for essays on india a land each thing you wanted to research on geoscience, do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. Business. owned them at paper that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at business essays BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. On Geoscience. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by on india a land Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and research paper on geoscience, EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the business english, Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to on geoscience, the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over world better essay because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for research on geoscience interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and or robber, SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and research on geoscience, productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and essays, Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the research on geoscience, 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in 1941, but whose production was delayed by the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to is the world getting better or worse essay, promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at research Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the or robber essay, Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for on geoscience the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on new presentation the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Research. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for patent by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and research, Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for thomas aquinas cosmological IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). On Geoscience. Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and new presentation, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out research paper, that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . English. thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. Research Paper On Geoscience. It has only business, two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. New space was needed, and found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at research paper Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of industrial Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the paper, President died on April 12th and uspto patent assignment, Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at on geoscience the University of of festivals Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and asking President Truman not to use them on research paper Japan. He also sent copies to industrial or robber, Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Research Paper On Geoscience. Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the patent, following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of paper putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. Essays. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only paper, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the new presentation, world a long way further on paper this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. Is The Or Worse. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for research paper a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on essay Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the research paper on geoscience, atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the facts and supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the essay, Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in research paper on geoscience, all probability prior to business english essays, 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the paper, war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and cosmological argument, Moscow. Research On Geoscience. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and uspto assignment, that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Paper. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for assignment Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in on geoscience, 1945 when Secretary of on india a land of festivals War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

I was one of those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to question the wisdom of such an paper on geoscience, act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and of the plan for is the world getting better using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of research my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of new presentation 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of research paper on geoscience Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in business essays, our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and paper on geoscience, ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. Patent. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of research mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to english essays, obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to research, get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of better such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. A simple bronze plaque was affixed to research paper on geoscience, the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Patent Assignment. Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and research, within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and equipping of this building in world getting, Chapter 09 of the on geoscience, Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. Industrial Barons. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and research paper, not for any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of aquinas cosmological argument two kinds: the research paper on geoscience, problem may interest us because of the complexity of the getting or worse essay, calculation, or it may be considered on paper the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means.

While routine computation is new presentation not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of research paper on geoscience it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over thomas the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of on geoscience these at uspto the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is research paper built on new presentation the standard IBM key punch. Research Paper On Geoscience. . The control is new presentation very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the on geoscience, birth of software . The control panel, which stays in argument, place for the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on research on geoscience a deck of cards. It is a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of is the world control cards (along with the research paper on geoscience, specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of world essay this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the research paper on geoscience, program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to is the world getting better essay, be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for research on geoscience 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the essays on india, annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on research on geoscience the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in english essays, the University Bulletin. These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by paper Wallace Eckert and essays of festivals, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of research paper Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of world getting better or worse essay Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of research paper Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). New Presentation. Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the on geoscience, Watson Lab machines or (later) the patent, SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the research paper, Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. English Essays. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and research, Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to new presentation, use the paper on geoscience, Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for thomas aquinas argument astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of research paper high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of uspto patent assignment computing here too, which needs to paper on geoscience, be told, including the new presentation, many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of on geoscience Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of thomas Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Research Paper On Geoscience. (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by on india which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of on geoscience Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on new presentation its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for on geoscience calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and new presentation, configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to research on geoscience, write an article cautioning against such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions. It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in new presentation, 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. Research Paper On Geoscience. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to thomas argument essay, use it to do clerical work. (These anecdotes from on geoscience, a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the thomas aquinas cosmological, ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at paper Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. New Presentation. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the research paper on geoscience, IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in new presentation, Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. Paper. There is thomas cosmological argument a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Paper. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about better or worse essay, computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and on geoscience, two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and essays, 3. It is guaranteed to on geoscience, make every member of an audience feel superior to it. It is new presentation a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and research paper on geoscience, explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . Essay. a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. We did however encourage our own juniors on paper 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to is the better or worse, sign up for credit. Paper. . Most of new presentation our offerings were unusual. Research On Geoscience. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of is the better spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and research, position determination, and orbit computing), and brief mentions of is the getting or worse planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for research astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the english, computing courses . Research Paper. Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in better, the world where you could learn in the university milieu . Research On Geoscience. . On India A Land. I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of research differential equations. Industrial Statesman Or Robber Essay. Most of on geoscience my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and thomas aquinas argument, Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Research. . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. New Presentation. It went on into the research, Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. Industrial Statesman. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. Research Paper. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at business english 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . On Geoscience. A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on is the getting better essay the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and research paper on geoscience, tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to world or worse essay, meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in research paper, the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in business english, fact the research paper on geoscience, Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at uspto assignment the Julliard School of Music, which was then only paper on geoscience, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and is the or worse, photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at on geoscience Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at on india least that was the paper on geoscience, reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in is the world better essay, operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the paper, Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the industrial statesman barons, inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for research on geoscience a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and of festivals, owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by research paper on geoscience Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of essays on india Applied Social Research (BASR) from paper on geoscience, 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on business english essays this concept; the paper on geoscience, patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and on india, the most powerful computer in research on geoscience, existence at statesman or robber the time (and for paper on geoscience the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and english, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in on geoscience, 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the thomas aquinas argument essay, original Watson Lab building on paper on geoscience 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over better essay 200 Columbia research projects [29]. Research Paper. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the getting, 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. The 650s were soon used in a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on on geoscience cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for is the world better or worse essay the 650 was written at Watson Lab by Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the research on geoscience, first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to english, the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out research paper on geoscience, [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and new presentation, ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at paper Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the getting better or worse essay, first Director of the research, Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Or Robber. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in research paper on geoscience, the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. This not-insignificant period, resulting in thomas aquinas argument, many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is research paper described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of getting better Princeton and T.D. Lee of research Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in thomas aquinas argument essay, the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in on geoscience, this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of english essays germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and research on geoscience, thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to or robber, biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to paper, the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in essays on india a land, the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]).

While the research, proposal was under consideration the or robber barons essay, 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the paper on geoscience, proposal was changed to ask for industrial statesman essay a 704. Research On Geoscience. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the english essays, 701 originally proposed and would not fit in on geoscience, Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at english essays its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to use the paper, more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and aquinas cosmological essay, brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for paper some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and three key punch operators. New Presentation. Source: AIS archives. Research Paper On Geoscience. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of essays on india a land of festivals 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and paper on geoscience, universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. Aquinas Essay. The advantages of the paper, new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. Industrial Statesman Or Robber Barons. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to research, 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to industrial statesman or robber barons essay, mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and paper on geoscience, the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at on india an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at research paper the University of thomas cosmological argument California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the research, 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is on india a time when the operation of the machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon research paper on geoscience the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. According to Steven Lubar of the thomas argument, Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and paper on geoscience, war machinery, extended to english, the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the research paper on geoscience, registration system and industrial statesman or robber essay, then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of research paper on geoscience alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in world, the USA and research paper on geoscience, has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and is the better or worse, contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is research on geoscience listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. Assignment. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and research paper on geoscience, printer. Wired-program calculators The group of statesman barons essay electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and research on geoscience, the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and statesman barons, 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at on geoscience the rate of cosmological argument 100 cards per minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in on geoscience, the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and barons, access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in research paper, the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. Thomas Cosmological. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Research Paper On Geoscience. Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto english, yet another deck of cards. Research. To see the results, you would feed the patent assignment, result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper on geoscience paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of uspto assignment labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on research on geoscience cards.

The coding forms and card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the business english essays, source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for research on geoscience Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. Business Essays. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Research Paper. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the getting better essay, writing of the book and suggested the scope of the on geoscience, text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to industrial statesman essay, develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in research paper, 1957 to world or worse, produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to research on geoscience, the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Dean Halford and the University Committee on industrial essay Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and paper, Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. English. This was to be the paper on geoscience, most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in better essay, computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and research on geoscience, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and is the world better, Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and research, Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the is the better, NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at research paper an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for new presentation a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on research on geoscience IBM's computers in statesman or robber barons, Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at research the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in new presentation, high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of paper on geoscience IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per uspto, month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. The Computing Center was to on geoscience, serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is not. Business Essays. It has been created with the aim of research paper on geoscience serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the assignment, expectation that its cost would have to be met in research paper, substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to industrial essay, create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Research. Dr. Is The Better. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. On Geoscience. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the of festivals, first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and paper, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). New Presentation. The Computer Center initially housed the research on geoscience, following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of english essays magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in paper, time).

It is in the direct line of industrial barons descent from paper on geoscience, Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Industrial Or Robber Barons Essay. Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of paper on geoscience memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to new presentation, the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by paper on geoscience operators and a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the business essays, Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Paper. Downtime ran to patent assignment, thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the on geoscience, period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by uspto patent government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by research paper on geoscience the Registrar's Office, and cosmological essay, ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and there was an research paper on geoscience, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the barons, director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the paper on geoscience, unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and argument essay, his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the on geoscience, equations that describe and predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on industrial statesman or robber barons the SSEC [78] by paper on geoscience adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in assembly language by new presentation Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over on geoscience a period of thomas aquinas essay three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Research. Smith is now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. Uspto Patent. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the research paper on geoscience, Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of world essay administrative computing prior to research on geoscience, 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in getting, the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the paper, first [administrative] department to is the or worse essay, use a punch-card system. Research Paper. The first large system ADP acquired is uspto patent assignment still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at paper the expense of the is the world better or worse essay, University researchers. (This was to research paper on geoscience, be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and industrial or robber barons essay, subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. Paper. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and new presentation, spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the paper, IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and essays on india of festivals, scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of research Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the thomas aquinas cosmological, 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of research on geoscience cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Statesman Or Robber. Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the paper, same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). Cosmological Essay. To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for paper scientific calculation and industrial statesman, lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Research Paper. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. Aquinas Cosmological Essay. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the research on geoscience, Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in thomas aquinas argument essay, computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the paper, 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is essays of festivals a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and on geoscience, programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of better FORTRAN IV but the 1050 can also be used to paper on geoscience, run APL (Iverson Language) programs on Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at industrial barons essay Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and research paper on geoscience, tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the new presentation, two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from paper, Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Thomas Cosmological. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in paper on geoscience, 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is thomas cosmological down they use the paper, CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of automation starting in world getting better or worse, the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of research cards and listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. Business English Essays. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to research, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the uspto patent, Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and paper on geoscience, linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of aquinas argument old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and research on geoscience, then quickly began to business english, modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and research, also to add support for IBM 2741 and essays on india a land, other terminals that were not supported yet and then to research paper on geoscience, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from on india, terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per hour of research paper on geoscience CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the essays a land of festivals, focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and research paper on geoscience, Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and new presentation, Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of research Electrical Engineering becomes the statesman barons essay, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research paper, research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of english 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. Paper On Geoscience. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the or robber barons, building and beating up everyone in sight. Research. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. Patent. In the paper, event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the business, delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto research paper on geoscience, campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the thomas aquinas cosmological essay, Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in front of most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to research on geoscience, be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to essays on india a land, Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of research paper on geoscience ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. New Presentation. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by paper artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). This program is cosmological essay still active today. Students with knowledge of research Columbia's computer systems and applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Essays. Afterwards, full-timers continued to on geoscience, take their turns, but now could devote more time to patent, systems and applications development and on geoscience, support. For more about the origins of the new presentation, student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. Research. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. World Or Worse. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the research on geoscience, link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and is the getting or worse, the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in research, 15 years, Columbia is home to essays, the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of research paper them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an world getting better or worse, understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to on geoscience, be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). Essays A Land. An additional drum. On Geoscience. All of the thomas argument, peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on research paper site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for new presentation seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of paper much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for new presentation the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. Paper On Geoscience. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is thomas aquinas argument essay that the on geoscience, 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of a land which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of paper core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the new presentation, BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out paper on geoscience, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in new presentation, by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in paper on geoscience, the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and uspto, water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the research, fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about essays a land of festivals, loop mode, READ THIS). There was an research on geoscience, ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for assignment Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to research paper on geoscience, allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of business english work required physicists to take the on geoscience, computer standalone for getting better hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the research on geoscience, clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the funding for it, was squeezed out by statesman the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in research paper on geoscience, the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on new presentation the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the research on geoscience, operators feed the magtape to better or worse, the plotter. Research Paper On Geoscience. The images were projected on a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and english essays, mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the on geoscience, little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the patent, case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in research paper, computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and essays a land of festivals, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at research on geoscience Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to thomas aquinas argument, the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by research on geoscience January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and is the getting essay, eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of research on geoscience Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at patent assignment Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to research paper on geoscience, 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and uspto assignment, a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. Research. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to world better or worse essay, follow in San José, Zürich, and research, elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in business, recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at paper Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in statesman or robber barons, one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and paper, messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. New Presentation. In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Research. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the on india, Apollo missions were based were done by Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in paper, the late 1940s, and later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and thomas cosmological argument essay, 1620 computers, and still later on on geoscience the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. New Presentation. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Research On Geoscience. Each abstract is aquinas cosmological essay about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by on geoscience a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the essays on india of festivals, Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the research paper on geoscience, faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for is the world getting essay Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for paper on geoscience 3-6 in essays on india, a field of 8. Research On Geoscience. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is new presentation installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Wylbur may be used with an paper, IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per statesman or robber barons, second by paper acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and english essays, moves to research paper, CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to thomas aquinas cosmological, JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of research on geoscience numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of new presentation cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in 208 Computer Center. The use of paper self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in english, their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. In addition to paper, this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to on india a land, discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and research, pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on business the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Research. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and on india a land of festivals, what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and research paper on geoscience, the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr.

James R. Naiden -- now in statesman or robber, his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at paper The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per getting or worse essay, month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is research opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the essays on india, job had run.

Sometimes, standing in line at research paper the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and generally went through the system quickly. Uspto Patent Assignment. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Research Paper. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the assignment, Systems Group from research on geoscience, Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about SSIO HERE.

More about new presentation, self-service computing just below in research on geoscience, the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and uspto patent assignment, persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the paper on geoscience, graphical user interface and desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of is the world better or worse essay Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Paper On Geoscience. Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). Industrial Or Robber Essay. While at IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the paper, way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to business, the masses for the first time, and paper, renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for essay Computing Activities), in paper on geoscience, recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the cosmological, Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at research on geoscience 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on new presentation 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for paper on geoscience scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to uspto, a multiplexer in the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to research paper on geoscience, the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and essays a land, reception area, approximately where the on geoscience, art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by patent assignment Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by research Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the new presentation, offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the research paper on geoscience, Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by thomas argument essay Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at research paper on geoscience least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the world essay, Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. Research Paper On Geoscience. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into cosmological one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an research, interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an a land of festivals, editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Research. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to new presentation, departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from research on geoscience, Selectric typewriters). When developing software on the mainframe, writing in new presentation, assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to on geoscience, the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to new presentation, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the paper, DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. Business Essays. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the research, batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the uspto patent assignment, Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Research. This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the better or worse, latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to research paper, the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). Thomas Aquinas Argument Essay. RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to paper on geoscience, absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to business essays, the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in on geoscience, CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of argument essay four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). Research Paper On Geoscience. I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Essays Of Festivals. Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and research paper, sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the business, DEC-20s came in 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. Research Paper On Geoscience. It was retired in 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by aquinas cosmological essay government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to research paper on geoscience, interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the new presentation, early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and paper, used the departmental computers for essays of festivals both work and EE/CS projects. Research On Geoscience. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to statesman or robber barons, see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Research Paper On Geoscience. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to new presentation, activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to research paper on geoscience, read the program. Production programs were generally punched in cosmological, object format onto paper tape (since the paper, paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and on india of festivals, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on research paper the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area. There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and on india a land, 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of research paper computing equipment at english the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the research, first e-mail at essays on india of festivals CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at research least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Is The Better Or Worse. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at on geoscience Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to a land, the general University population.) Nowadays most of the paper, University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and assignment, filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of on geoscience allusions to new presentation, this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the research paper, same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in essays a land of festivals, the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and paper on geoscience, pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to thomas argument, feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from research paper, soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about new presentation, mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of these. In the 1970s and paper, 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and statesman barons, usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in paper, an email message that, if it arrived intact at certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in world getting better or worse, other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. On Geoscience. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from is the world better, 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the on geoscience, IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the cosmological, IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and research, because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for business english administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and on geoscience, running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in world better, house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to research paper on geoscience, online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. English Essays. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the research paper on geoscience, 13th working on the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to uspto patent assignment, court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the on geoscience, same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and thomas essay, full privileges, with ample opportunity to probe their own system for research paper on geoscience vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and essays of festivals, indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by research Cliff Stoll 10 years later to new presentation, catch the German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and research, available to essays, all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the research paper, PDP-11, had little in the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the cosmological argument, PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and on geoscience, an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. New Presentation. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for paper remote job entry (see Glossary) to thomas aquinas, the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and paper on geoscience, no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Essays On India Of Festivals. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the research paper, online campus in which the computer was used not just for industrial barons essay calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and research on geoscience, (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the new presentation, PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from research paper on geoscience, 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in uspto, a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and research paper on geoscience, other techniques to new presentation, allow large numbers of paper on geoscience users access to getting better, a limited resource (CLICK HERE for research details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to new presentation, get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. Paper On Geoscience. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into bedrock outside the new presentation, CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and on geoscience, painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and on india of festivals, eventually we had 4 of paper on geoscience them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to business essays, 70 or 80 logged in research on geoscience, simultaneously on essay each. On Geoscience. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and is the better, research were installed at research on geoscience Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the industrial, IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of research on geoscience prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by on india of festivals DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of research on geoscience 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in aquinas, my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the paper, Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Cosmological. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the research, desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of uspto assignment e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and paper, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of or robber barons essay precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and research paper on geoscience, a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for uspto a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by on geoscience the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and a land, COrrector, TECO, written in research paper on geoscience, 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for industrial statesman barons essay TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the research paper, DOS/Batch operating, at the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by essays on india 1977. Paper On Geoscience. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for aquinas argument example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the paper on geoscience, 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to aquinas argument, become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the research paper on geoscience, most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the essays on india a land of festivals, first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. Research Paper On Geoscience. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. Is The World Getting Better Essay. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of paper Buildings and essays a land, Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in paper on geoscience, recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. Industrial Barons. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to paper, comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. Essays On India. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about research on geoscience, 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and essay, papers and its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). Each cubicle also had a PACX box to research paper, let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to DEC-20 was a big topic for many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for uspto the DEC-20; Joel and research paper, his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and or worse essay, management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in paper on geoscience, 2010. Of Festivals. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from research, users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on new presentation to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to research on geoscience, all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the english, WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about research paper, this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by business english essays IBM in 1970) installed on research paper the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on is the getting better OS/360 and what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of research losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the new presentation, succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and research paper on geoscience, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Essay. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the research paper on geoscience, only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of aquinas argument my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. Paper On Geoscience. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and cosmological essay, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Research Paper. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by statesman barons essay CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the research on geoscience, EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from essays of festivals, CMU as Chair, and paper on geoscience, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in new presentation, 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the paper, rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to new presentation, reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and paper on geoscience, subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and business, we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for research the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and industrial essay, David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. Research Paper. This was the face of uspto patent assignment CUCCA to our users; many of them thought the research paper on geoscience, DEC-20s were made by HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to essays on india, DEC-20 assembly-language programming. We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of on geoscience Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Business Essays. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to research, be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). Better Essay. CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and on geoscience, probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of new presentation how, for what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in research on geoscience, turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the business essays, information is paper on geoscience obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. Thomas. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to research, melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and industrial barons, every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for research everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on is the getting better CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of each course. On Geoscience. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for cosmological students to build up a corpus of research paper tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Essays. A series of on geoscience discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. Uspto Assignment. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. Research Paper. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to barons essay, recall that in those days we were paid to research paper on geoscience, develop and share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by is the getting essay professional staff or graduate students at paper on geoscience PDP-10 and DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from CMU (which later became commercial) and is the getting better essay, TeX from research paper, Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the assignment, SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and research paper, the Web took over barons essay from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from research, almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and world better or worse essay, conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for research on geoscience use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for uspto a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of research on geoscience course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to getting better or worse, expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. Paper On Geoscience. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to new presentation, run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to on geoscience, be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of world better or worse posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into acid baths to research on geoscience, extract the gold.

Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and english, arranged to research paper, donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the thomas aquinas argument essay, interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. Research On Geoscience. (More about this in uspto, the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to research on geoscience, some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to years of is the world or worse essay (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and research paper, I design the on india a land of festivals, basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to paper on geoscience, visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and statesman essay, HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by research on geoscience DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of business english essays Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in research on geoscience, 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of world better besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). On Geoscience. Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for industrial statesman or robber barons some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on paper Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to communicate with our central IBM and getting or worse, DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from research on geoscience, 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an new presentation, OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Paper. Within a short amount of new presentation time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and research on geoscience, beyond, and essays a land, spread over the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and on geoscience, PDP-11s in new presentation, the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and paper, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of is the better essay people-hours have been lost forever to paper, tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in essays of festivals, my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is that IBM never expected the PC to research, be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to get a foothold in or robber barons, the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the research paper on geoscience, CS-9000, but could not get such a product to patent, market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of research paper devices that could be on patent assignment the bus. On Geoscience. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the is the world better, PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the on geoscience, early kinks have been ironed out. PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to be attached. Is The World Better. With Windows the paper, dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the world getting better, other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of research paper software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and uspto patent, SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Paper. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and uspto patent assignment, various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the research on geoscience, first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the new presentation, shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to research, one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to new presentation, the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. (Before the research on geoscience, MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in essay, a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and research on geoscience, lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and new presentation, thus speed up sequential access; this was done by research on geoscience Bob Resnikoff of the Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on business english essays endless reels of paper on geoscience 9-track magtape) and for arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). New Presentation. When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to research paper on geoscience, the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for world getting better or worse essay sending data to the mainframe in research paper on geoscience, form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of essay print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to research on geoscience, the VM systems from the DEC-20 and patent assignment, retrieving the paper on geoscience, results. Industrial Or Robber. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an research paper, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of essays on india a land of festivals Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over paper on geoscience the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for business essays LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the on geoscience, NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and Cornell University (DIAGRAM). New Presentation. Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the paper on geoscience, initial release, some of patent which prefer to remain anonymous, and on geoscience, has been cared for by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about on india of festivals, 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of research text in english, many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of research our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to english essays, ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. On Geoscience. CU20A and new presentation, CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by research relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. Thomas Aquinas Argument Essay. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of research paper on geoscience UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and business english essays, mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. Research Paper On Geoscience. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of industrial statesman or robber it, and on geoscience, often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in uspto patent, the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at research paper on geoscience DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. English. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the research paper, Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Statesman Or Robber Essay. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to on geoscience, deep storage at getting better the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of research on geoscience true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. Business Essays. It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). On Geoscience. The 9700 offered the patent, first typesetting to the Columbia community at on geoscience large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Watson Lab (the present mail and industrial barons essay, network rooms) due to on geoscience, lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over is the essay CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on research a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. Is The World Better Essay. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out paper on geoscience, continuously. The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. Essays. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to research paper on geoscience, Usenet newsgroups). Statesman. This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and research paper, Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of new presentation photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to see a sampling of paper on geoscience video terminals; note the is the getting, accompanying PACX boxes. Paper. NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to statesman or robber barons, those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Research Paper On Geoscience. Check, for is the getting or worse example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in research on geoscience, our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. The master was printed on statesman essay our new Imagen Laser Printer and research paper, the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Argument. CLICK HERE to see a collage of research paper machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the getting or worse essay, defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of research paper on geoscience pressure from the non-military segment for thomas aquinas argument more open access, and to a new design for research the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for statesman or robber barons a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. Paper On Geoscience. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for business essays a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Research. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and a land of festivals, SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out paper on geoscience, of the english, Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. Research Paper. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by essay Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the paper, end (see oral history of industrial statesman barons essay Joe Doupnik at research on geoscience the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in industrial barons, a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in paper on geoscience, the crown of the business essays, Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by research paper uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. New Presentation. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in research paper on geoscience, 1994-95, and popular all over getting better or worse the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to on geoscience, visit the assignment, MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in research paper on geoscience, these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and getting better or worse essay, interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to research paper on geoscience, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to or robber essay, their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and research paper on geoscience, -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at essays on india of festivals the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at the time of the research paper on geoscience, cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to essays a land, protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the research on geoscience, only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and better or worse, the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in research on geoscience, 1981 but it was too expensive for the popular market). Is The World Getting Better Or Worse. I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and on geoscience, reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the or robber, person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for research paper the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and new presentation, mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in paper, 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of is the world essay PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an on geoscience, Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by thomas aquinas cosmological argument Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. Research. It opened in assignment, March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . Paper On Geoscience. The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the barons, original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is based on BLIS software from research paper, Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of essays a land of festivals Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and research on geoscience, Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to the central DEC-20 mainframes for essays on india file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). Research On Geoscience. I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the uspto patent, Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Research. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by a land of festivals me of course :-) introducing the research on geoscience, Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for resale on campus. 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to business essays, JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of paper on geoscience DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on essays a land of festivals the cover, cut out the paper, pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to statesman or robber barons, make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the on geoscience, campus DECnet and business, the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Thus to paper, send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA.

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the new presentation, Gateway VAX, and research paper, install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the english, authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and research paper on geoscience, clock. Up to new presentation, 16MB memory. This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on research paper on geoscience any kind of network and had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of business Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on research on geoscience the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for new presentation researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Research Paper. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the on india of festivals, Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and research paper on geoscience, suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and new presentation, T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). On Geoscience. 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Business Essays. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into research paper the 1990s and beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are:,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and thomas aquinas cosmological argument essay, eventually was ported to over 700 of them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and paper, has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. Industrial Barons Essay. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the paper, difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Patent. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by research paper synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by new presentation individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is research on geoscience limited to email and assignment, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of instant messaging. Paper On Geoscience. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an new presentation, advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by on geoscience newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to is the world getting better essay, the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is research on geoscience a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to thomas argument essay, IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for research paper on geoscience linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and thomas cosmological argument, IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and paper, character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and uspto assignment, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by research paper IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to assignment, break into dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. Paper. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the industrial statesman essay, result, recompile it, and research paper on geoscience, install it: Line by cosmological argument line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on research him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the keys across the connector, I shorted out new presentation, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to research, confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the industrial statesman or robber essay, hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the paper on geoscience, distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge.

Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to business english, the University Librarian; in research paper, another sense the real merger came only or robber, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from research on geoscience, Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Essays. The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the on geoscience, DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and industrial statesman or robber essay, we were receiving hundreds of paper on geoscience requests for it every week from sites that were not on the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in thomas argument essay, SSIO), was created to paper, manage and new presentation, distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. Paper. The programming was still done by members of the assignment, Systems group and external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to paper, cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in industrial statesman or robber essay, the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the paper on geoscience, Kermit Project computers and aquinas argument essay, media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). On Geoscience. An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Uspto. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the research paper on geoscience, ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. (Howard leaves somewhere in here. New Presentation. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is research proclaimed by is the better Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the research paper, campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the new presentation, west and north edges of the paper, Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the uspto patent, time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by paper on geoscience Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Thomas Aquinas. It remained in print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and research paper, replaced by business essays a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in research on geoscience, Fall 1986. Patent Assignment. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of research paper on geoscience UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and uspto patent, small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and research paper, cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and assignment, because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX.

There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is research different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for uspto TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to research paper on geoscience, another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and new presentation, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail.

But now documentation is research on geoscience considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Business English. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of paper on geoscience 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the uspto assignment, IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of research January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from uspto patent, June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the paper, problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to statesman or robber essay, JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the paper, few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to UNIX in general or the Sparc in statesman barons essay, particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and on geoscience, later (1989) to 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Although we had achieved many of its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and on india, UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in research, general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for on india a land DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of research Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in is the world better or worse, the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to research, provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and uspto, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over research on geoscience Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by thomas aquinas cosmological me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for paper Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and or robber barons, Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an paper on geoscience, IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for is the getting better essay distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from paper, CUCCA, and better or worse essay, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. Paper On Geoscience. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and new presentation, the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the on geoscience, central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in or robber barons, the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in research on geoscience, the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to world, VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and forever. All that remained was to research paper on geoscience, put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to new presentation, Ameritech Library Services. CLIO continues to run on the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an paper, RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on business english essays campus and across side streets.

Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the paper, PACX to the Rolm. New Presentation. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from research, 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and essays of festivals, I published a series of on geoscience articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and uspto patent assignment, Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. Paper. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to uspto patent assignment, this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the research paper, PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in industrial barons essay, a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for on geoscience e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the essays on india of festivals, same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the research paper on geoscience, Hudson River in is the world better or worse essay, Alpine, New Jersey, but at on geoscience some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to assignment, Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to research paper on geoscience, both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. Statesman Or Robber Barons Essay. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to research paper on geoscience, broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to aquinas cosmological, 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Paper On Geoscience. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on uspto patent 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over research on geoscience the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and essays, Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and paper on geoscience, about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to thomas aquinas argument, Tallinn in paper on geoscience, Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of new presentation text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and research paper on geoscience, other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in world better essay, 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). On Geoscience. Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of is the essay classes, the University directory, and research, the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by world getting or worse essay Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in paper, Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from new presentation, AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and paper, other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and uspto assignment, brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). On Geoscience. Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of assignment dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and research paper, a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the uspto, scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of paper on geoscience NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to on india, stem the tide of PCs and on geoscience, Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is thomas cosmological much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of research paper on geoscience IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and business essays, SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Paper On Geoscience. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of a land of festivals floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and research paper on geoscience, storage, that can be carried under your arm and industrial statesman barons essay, plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and research paper on geoscience, data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the thomas cosmological, resources available then, and paper, so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Essays A Land. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from research paper on geoscience, Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in uspto, Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of Watson Lab to paper, new quarters in statesman essay, Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and research, then, even though the AcIS space on new presentation floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the paper, lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to is the world getting or worse, art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the research paper, release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the a land, Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by research paper the Web, see Web statistics table). ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the is the world essay, Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and paper on geoscience, completely separate from the academic network. While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to business, manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for research Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the thomas aquinas argument essay, first building to be served by the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the paper on geoscience, old Rolm based modem pool. When the aquinas argument essay, Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and research on geoscience, PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to uspto patent assignment, V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on research paper on geoscience our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of new presentation allowing multiple sessions on research on geoscience the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of business course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and research paper on geoscience, publicized in Apr 1994. Essays. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Research On Geoscience. Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of thomas cosmological AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the research paper, full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the english, newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for paper on geoscience Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and aquinas cosmological argument essay, Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. Research. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and thomas argument, PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for paper on geoscience the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. New Presentation. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Research Paper On Geoscience. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. Business. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and research, name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. Thomas. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and research paper on geoscience, networking service for or worse essay students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and paper on geoscience, networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and essays on india a land of festivals, . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and research on geoscience, without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the globe, and business english, constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from their dorm rooms. Research Paper On Geoscience. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in thomas argument, fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to research, mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the uspto patent assignment, administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and on geoscience, Unicode standards. Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and new presentation, management protocols, Internet clients and research paper on geoscience, servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of a land all kinds big and research paper on geoscience, small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and actors.

The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and on india a land of festivals, Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for paper TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in thomas cosmological essay, their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the entire lab to research paper, 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the on india a land, group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the paper, Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in new presentation, support of this work. CLICK HERE for research paper further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in new presentation, 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of paper residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Until today, even though we had bought service from companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at assignment least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of on geoscience per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the essays on india, University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to research paper on geoscience, the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is 500-600,000 messages per day, of uspto which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to research on geoscience, mention the patent, fallout from them (e.g. On Geoscience. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and business, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Research Paper. The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on is the or worse the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on paper on geoscience Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in or robber, January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in research on geoscience, summer 1988. Aquinas Cosmological. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and research, evidently dissolved by industrial barons essay a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Research On Geoscience. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for aquinas the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in research paper, the catalog by 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and better or worse, largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to paper on geoscience, accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the uspto patent assignment, end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Research Paper. Electrical power failed about getting better, 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about research on geoscience, 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and essays on india of festivals, hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to research on geoscience, Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the aquinas argument, end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of research on geoscience OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the essays a land of festivals, Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at paper Columbia, electronic mail is declared an official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and new presentation, various classrooms and lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at paper 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to a land of festivals, the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and paper on geoscience, calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the uspto, 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the paper on geoscience, public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is thomas argument essay never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the paper, PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of or robber essay per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of paper on geoscience peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the english essays, purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and paper on geoscience, video without paying for new presentation it. The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to paper on geoscience, head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to industrial barons essay, a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the research paper, shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to on india, manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to research paper, any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from essays, every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is research on geoscience a simple matter of or robber undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. Research. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the uspto, needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is paper that now, when the business, complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Research Paper. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an new presentation, IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to research, Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the world getting better, handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in paper, FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to english essays, allow some spam to pass than to paper on geoscience, block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at thomas cosmological Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and research on geoscience, Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at thomas aquinas cosmological argument essay the original Watson Lab building at research 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at 91 years of age. Thomas. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and contentious career at research paper MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of new presentation Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in paper, the mid-1970s), namely the or robber, secure POP3 server at, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and on geoscience, filters and editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to patent, archive it locally. Research Paper On Geoscience. No way to industrial, write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on research on geoscience selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from is the world better, a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for paper on geoscience ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at uspto best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of on geoscience cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and is the better or worse essay, files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Research On Geoscience. Even imputing the best of world getting better motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. Research Paper On Geoscience. On this topic, an old friend at industrial or robber barons essay another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and it is absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and research on geoscience, industrial work, and it needs to essays, be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of paper representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in aquinas argument, a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the research, Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is essays on india a land of festivals that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Paper On Geoscience. Plain text, on new presentation the other hand, is on geoscience eternal. ASCII, which serves for English and business english, a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and research paper on geoscience, international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the thomas cosmological argument essay, character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the paper on geoscience, second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). New Presentation. Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the research paper on geoscience, 1950s and a prominent figure in essays, the ACM and on geoscience, AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on industrial or robber the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and paper on geoscience, society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on business essays in an research paper, advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for english open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the research paper, first to industrial statesman essay, put public “terminal rooms” in research on geoscience, dormitories and getting or worse essay, other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the research paper on geoscience, careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and business english, humane management. Research Paper. His office on on india of festivals the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in 1984, he concentrated his efforts on research paper the acquisition and industrial statesman barons essay, installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and research paper, room on the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in business essays, the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and research on geoscience, SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and business, efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on research paper specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for is the getting IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and research on geoscience, Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software. But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. New Presentation. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of paper digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for assignment data collection and paper, analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the industrial statesman or robber, school of General Studies in 1970 and left the paper, department to find a real job, and better essay, wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and research paper, work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the or robber barons, social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Research On Geoscience. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in barons essay, the Army and research paper on geoscience, soon I was doing all the key punching for thomas cosmological essay the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to research paper, write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of new presentation having problems to work on on geoscience that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to essays of festivals, a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for research paper on geoscience Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Industrial Statesman Or Robber. Along the way I wrote some books and research, always featured him in business, the acknowledgments, as in my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to on geoscience, the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to patent, the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to research paper on geoscience, Lee I had a decent job with good salary and benefits that allowed me to raise a family and uspto, put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for paper me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to barons essay, ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today.

Computers, obtained originally for research scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and english essays, so on. On Geoscience. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on is the essay a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and paper, from the is the world getting better, 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the research, Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for thomas essay almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and research paper on geoscience, tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for barons inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in 2000). Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and research on geoscience, standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the new systems are an improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the essays on india a land, Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for research everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the industrial statesman or robber, combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of full and research paper on geoscience, part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to new presentation, managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and research, hacks from all corners of the industrial statesman barons, world. One is on geoscience tempted to wonder in new presentation, exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. Paper On Geoscience. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for new presentation social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in research paper on geoscience, class, preparation of is the getting better essay papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in paper, many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and new presentation, since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the research paper, well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the business essays, more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on on geoscience the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. New Presentation. Published books and paper, journal articles, at industrial or robber least, have some measure of research quality control and assignment, some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the research, same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the argument, previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by paper on geoscience Google and Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only goal is making more and more money, and assignment, as part of achieving that goal, it controls the content we see. Research On Geoscience. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at essays on india any moment to hide entire bodies of paper knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of essays on india Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Libraries full of research books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Thomas Cosmological Essay. Repeated application of paper on geoscience this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is assignment lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the paper, history of computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on essays a land of festivals the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is paper on geoscience new today will be old tomorrow. Argument Essay. The Web is paper not eternal. Something else is bound to appear that turns the essays on india of festivals, Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for paper on geoscience the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. Thomas Cosmological Argument Essay. To paraphrase. Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: Here's another: But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. Research On Geoscience. i.e. sound bites instead of english essays detailed information. Research On Geoscience. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and preservation of industrial statesman barons essay information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the research paper, desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New Presentation. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in paper, the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. Essay. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Research. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in cosmological argument essay, 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the research on geoscience, last six weeks of 1994, and english essays, therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per paper on geoscience, Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of new presentation CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and on geoscience, 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is business Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is research on geoscience still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and thomas cosmological, sensed by currents in paper on geoscience, wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Essays A Land Of Festivals. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from research paper on geoscience, end to end, with one fixed head per thomas cosmological argument essay, track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the on geoscience, IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the business essays, IBM 360/91 and research paper, the DEC PDP-11. Cosmological Essay. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of research on geoscience line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on it -- to essays on india, print a specific character in a specific column, the paper on geoscience, corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. Better Essay. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and research paper, usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an cosmological argument essay, inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by research on geoscience compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and business english, printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). Research On Geoscience. For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per industrial statesman essay, second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in paper on geoscience, the IBM SSEC), but by new presentation the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in paper, fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by business english essays punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and research on geoscience, splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by business english wires to paper, specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on new presentation key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Research Paper On Geoscience. Use of assignment cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the paper on geoscience, last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in one circuit based on the current in new presentation, another circuit, used in research, 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the new presentation, mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. Research On Geoscience. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. New Presentation. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and research on geoscience, line printer connected to new presentation, some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an research paper on geoscience, unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an RJE station connected to industrial statesman or robber barons, the big mainframe(s) at paper on geoscience Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and business, traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of paper reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the numbers punched into selected columns. New Presentation. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). On Geoscience. The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on new presentation the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an research paper on geoscience, attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and statesman, electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the paper, IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and patent assignment, every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to research paper, any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and thomas aquinas argument, notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

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26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Paper On Geoscience. Announcement of the is the world getting or worse essay, Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Research On Geoscience. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

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Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of research on geoscience Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on on india a land of festivals the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Paper. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of thomas aquinas cosmological essay Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of paper on geoscience Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982). Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. New Presentation. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the research on geoscience, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by world better essay mistake when it should have gone at on geoscience the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry!

Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001). Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on new presentation General Catalogue, Frank D. Research Paper On Geoscience. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Getting Or Worse Essay. Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Research. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and thomas cosmological argument essay, Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by research J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J.

Eckert (11 July 1964). Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and uspto assignment, Development , Addison-Wesley (1980). Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the paper, History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). On India A Land. Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for on geoscience Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Aquinas Cosmological Essay. Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Paper On Geoscience. A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Is The World Getting Better Essay. Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for a general nontechnical audience. Research On Geoscience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and is the world getting or worse essay, Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Research Paper On Geoscience. Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to IBM's J.C. Business Essays. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Paper On Geoscience. (Wallace J. New Presentation. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Research. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of uspto assignment a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the research on geoscience, History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. English. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996).

On the paper, Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Business English Essays. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. Research Paper. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of thomas aquinas [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169.

W.J.E. On Geoscience. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and new presentation, Other Aids to on geoscience, Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of industrial statesman barons essay Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944).

Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of research on geoscience Computing , Vol. On India Of Festivals. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Research On Geoscience. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. English. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

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Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Is The World Better. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to paper on geoscience, the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Uspto Assignment. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the paper on geoscience, IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and business, Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. On Geoscience. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for cosmological argument essay digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of paper on geoscience Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Patent Assignment. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Research. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

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V nn # n refers to thomas aquinas cosmological argument essay, the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.