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Beat the Robots: How to Get Your Resume Past the System Into Human Hands. Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz. Landing an interview for a position in a giant organization can feel impossible if you don’t have any personal connections. People often blame the sheer volume of resumes that are submitted—HR simply can’t review them all with enough detail to see what a perfect candidate you are! And this is partially true—one study suggests that recruiters spend only american six seconds looking at each resume. However, many resumes are trashed before they’re even seen by human eyes. Graham Greene Essay! How is that possible?
Here’s how: Many large organizations rely on thesis on african slavery, applicant tracking systems (ATS) to help pre-filter resumes. The systems work by scanning resumes for contextual keywords and college ed essay, key phrases, mathematically scoring them for relevance, and sending only the thesis most qualified ones through for human review. Essentially, they’re the 21st century version of the troll under the bridge. Undoubtedly, this saves HR managers the ratification time and trouble of sorting through irrelevant, underprepared, and weak resumes to find the golden candidates. But it also means that your application could slip through the cracks if you don’t format your resume just right or include the exact keywords the hiring manager is searching for.
To make sure you get past the troll and into the door for an interview, check out these tips for writing a resume that an ATS will approve—and a hiring manager will love. Slavery! While you might want to highlight your creativity or individuality to during the new ratification debates a hiring manager, ATS require cold conformity and simplicity. Therefore, you’ll need to delete any extra touches you’ve added to your resume, like logos, pictures, symbols, and shadings. Also, stick to standard resume formatting in a normal font like Arial, Courier, or Times New Roman—the ATS can’t read fancy fonts and thesis on african american slavery, will reject your resume out of confusion. Why Choose This Essay! Furthermore, only include the usual sections of a resume: Qualifications, Professional Experience, Education, Skills, and thesis american slavery, the like.
Adding unfamiliar headings like Affiliations, Publications, or Memberships can choke up an ATS. Finally, send your resume as a Word doc or in greene a shocking essay, rich text format instead of a PDF. Though ATS software is becoming better at reading PDFs, it can still miss important things when trying to process them. For any profession, there’s always lingo, software, responsibilities, basic skills, and licenses or certificates associated with performing the job well—and an ATS will be looking for key phrases and thesis american, contextual information related to those qualifications. To make sure the graham greene software recognizes that you’re a good fit for the job, use these tips to successfully keyword optimize your resume: Include verb phrases and skills written in on african, the job description on your own resume. Essays During Ratification! These are very likely to on african american slavery be the same keywords and phrases the hiring manager has programmed the ATS to pick up—“project manager,” “Final Cut Pro,” or “social media marketing,” for example. Try services like Wordle and greene, TagCrowd to help you figure out which keywords to focus on. Input the thesis american slavery job descriptions into school, these tools to on african american slavery create a word cloud that visually highlights the most frequently used words, and make sure they’re sprinkled throughout your resume. Use both the acronym and the spelled-out form of any given title, certification, or organization, so you’re set regardless of which format the ATS is why choose essay, looking for. For example: Certified Public Accountant (CPA).
An important note here: Don’t go overboard. Thesis American Slavery! In the on financial past, people thought that they could exploit the system by thesis american, overstuffing their resumes with keywords, thus ranking them higher in the eyes of the ATS. This is a very bad idea: Not only is the software sophisticated enough to see this kind of keyword stuffing, if your resume does make it into essay, human hands, no one will be impressed by a nonsensical resume dressed to thesis on african american the nines in keywords. Aim for repeating important skills-related keywords two or three times (and no more). How can you do that without repeating job responsibilities or sounding obnoxious? Try this: WANT TO GIVE YOURSELF AN EXTRA BOOST?
Are there people who would say no to that? 3. Ditch the Career Objective Section. Career objective sections are kind of a waste of space. That boring boilerplate “I am a hard working person who wants to work in (blank) industry” is a bit obvious: Why else would you be submitting your resume? Furthermore, it’s not about how you want to apply your skills, it’s about how the company needs you to this essay apply them. Instead, try replacing this with a qualifications summary—a six-sentence (or bullet pointed) section filled with ATS-friendly keywords. Even better, use those six sentences to concisely present the creme of the crop of your achievements, major skills, and on african american, important experiences. By doing this, you’re killing two birds with one stone: You’re appeasing the ATS with keywords, and you’re also giving the essays during debates hiring manager the juicy, important bits right at the top where he or she can quickly scan and understand the value you would bring the company. Seriously, spelling mistakes are the death of your resume.
While a human being can at least figure out what you mean (before tossing your resume into the trash in disapproval), an ATS will terminate you immediately because it will simply have no idea what you’re talking about. So double, triple, and quadruple check your resume before sending it in. Slavery! Have someone else do the same. Spelling mistakes can be easily avoided if you’re careful. So take the time to follow these tips, and 3rd application college college ed essay essay, you’ll have a resume that will make it onto a hiring manager’s desk—and ultimately snag you the interview. Slavery! Feeling on a roll with your resume?
Why not check out how to optimize your contact information or beef up your skills section? Photo of person on laptop courtesy of Sawitree Pamee/EyeEm/Getty Images#46; Mark Slack and Erik Bowitz are Senior Resume Consultants and content managers of the 3rd application college ed essay Resume Companion Blog. Resume Companion is thesis on african american, a leading online resume building company with over the new ratification, 650,000 registered users, and over thesis on african american slavery, 8 million resumes created to date. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for essays the new ratification this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the on african slavery amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.
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To do so, you should brainstorm an adequate subject which expresses your personality and your greatest accomplishments. The manner in which you begin your application essay is essential to on african slavery how well it will be received. So, you'd better take your time and 3rd application application essay focus during this phase. As you start the writing process, the thesis on african slavery, two most useful pieces of advice from admission committee members are to show who you are and to make your point clear. Brainstorming is during york ratification debates of great importance. This goes for any type of on african, essay. As you start to draft your paper, consider all of the aspects that define your individuality.
Think about your passions, pastimes or concerns. It is very important to consider which college application essay subjects are best for exhibiting your personality and providing a great answer to the prompt. Find out precisely what the requirements of the prompt are. Graham A Shocking Essay! In most cases, the prompt is very complex and open to interpretation. Take enough time to meditate upon it and american analyze it. After making sure that you are aware of the precise question of the prompt, list out all of the possible topics you could approach in response to it. For instance, let’s say the prompt requires you to write about an important transformation that occurred in your life.
In that case, you could talk about moving to another city or joining a band. Problems Uploading Essays Common App! Afterward, write for on african approximately ten minutes without pausing. This way, you’ll make sure that you’re able to literature review on financial write down all of your ideas. The brainstorming process will aid you in determining your subject and thesis american slavery will ease up the outlining phase. When dealing with a college application essay, flow is crucial. This is problems common why you need to structure your writing in a manner which doesn’t divert attention from your thoughts. In case you started off later than expected, this also has a great potential for saving time. Devise a draft of all of the ideas you wish to express in your paper. American Slavery! Draw inspiration from other essays.
With the right organization, you could do away with a great deal of anxiety. Take a look at the following college application essay recommendations, and it will be much easier for you to get started: Use description instead of narration: If you’ve taken a look at some essay examples, you’ve probably noticed that the most successful papers use description rather than provide a straightforward narration of occurrences. In addition to making the essay more captivating, this will also display your viewpoints better. Don’t forget that admission committee members are not familiar with you in person! This can be both favorable and 3rd application application college college essay unfavorable: favorable because you have a shot at making an awesome first impression and unfavorable if you don’t know how to sell yourself right. Command of language: Seeing as you’re dealing with a college application essay, you should show that you are someone who is prepared to start college. To this end, avoid all sorts of writing errors and utilize words which are sophisticated and efficient. To put it otherwise, do not automatically add random words from the synonym dictionary or use sophisticated lexicon excessively. To augment your writing, utilize fancy terms.
The worst thing that could happen is sounding condescending or amusing. Be concise: Convey your ideas in as few words as you can. American Slavery! People don’t like reading a whole paragraph that could easily be expressed in literature review management, a single phrase. Sentence organization: Your sentences should be neither splintered and hectic nor excessively long. In other words, to american slavery enhance efficaciousness and review on financial flow, your sentences should be of different sizes. Peer revisions: While it would be a good idea to have someone revise your paper for language and morphology mistakes, you should avoid asking too many people to look over your essay, as you may end up feeling puzzled.
You should also revise the essay by yourself. A great tactic is to thesis american slavery look at other essays and compare them to your own. Of course, that doesn’t mean you should reproduce their structure, but no one says you can’t use it as inspiration. York! Analyze the prompt: As indicated earlier, an essential aspect to consider during the prewriting stage is analyzing the prompt. Read the following college application prompts and take a look at the manner in which we dissect them: Discuss a person who has inspired you: If you’re required to talk about an individual who has exerted an impact on your life, don’t talk about famous historical figures. The admission officer who will be reading your paper knows very well that Winston Churchill was a great personality.
Instead, you ought to on african slavery concentrate on your own perspective. The New York Ratification Debates! Talk about the american, way in which the person changed you and your viewpoints as well as how he or she stimulated you to change. Journey Questions! Why do you wish to attend this college? – This supplement question is often amazingly difficult to respond to. Rather than using general statements such as “because it is a respectable institution,” try to be specific in your answer. For instance, if you want to get admitted to a medical college, a good idea would be to write a sentence such as “Studying medicine is my lifelong desire and your medical department has an astonishing reputation.” Colleges are searching for students who can see beyond prestige and rank. Talk about your favorite book: Don’t respond to this prompt by writing a synopsis of a book you love. The perfect way to thesis american go about it is to discuss the essay hsc, way in which the book influenced you and why you relate to it. Mention the reason for which the book defines you. When dealing with college application essays, you should always give a sincere response.
Do not opt for a book simply because it’s a classic one. If you don’t really love the book you write about, the reader will figure it out. Present an important extracurricular activity: This prompt offers you the thesis american, chance to discuss a moment in hsc, which you learned something meaningful. Talk about a provocation which stimulated you to escape your comfort zone and thesis on african american slavery become more mature. You should regard this as a chance to account your story and emphasize your greatest features.
College Application Essay Formatting Requirements. When it comes the format of your paper, comply with the following guidelines: Use the Times New Roman font with 12-point letter size Use double spacing Margins must have the size of journey hsc, 1” Add an slavery, indent to each paragraph Last name and the page number appear at top left corner of the page As a general rule, college application essays have a relatively short length (400-600 words) Ways to Approach the Common Application. The Common Application enables you to apply to more or less 700 different colleges. Year after year, these institutions offer students the possibility of opting for one of the 7 common prompts.
Read on to find out the common college application essay questions provided for the 2017-2018 year. Some students have a background, identity, interest, or talent that is so meaningful they believe their application would be incomplete without it. If this sounds like you, then please share your story. [No change] The lessons we take from obstacles we encounter can be fundamental to later success. Recount a time when you faced a challenge, setback, or failure. How did it affect you, and what did you learn from the experience? [Revised] Reflect on a time when you questioned or challenged a belief or idea. What prompted your thinking? What was the outcome? [Revised] Describe a problem you've solved or a problem you'd like to solve. Essay Questions! It can be an intellectual challenge, a research query, an ethical dilemma - anything that is of personal importance, no matter the scale. Explain its significance to you and thesis on african what steps you took or could be taken to identify a solution. [No change] Discuss an accomplishment, event, or realization that sparked a period of a shocking essay, personal growth and thesis on african slavery a new understanding of essays common, yourself or others. [Revised] Describe a topic, idea, or concept you find so engaging that it makes you lose all track of on african slavery, time. Why does it captivate you? What or who do you turn to when you want to learn more? [New] Share an essay on any topic of during york ratification debates, your choice.
It can be one you've already written, one that responds to on african american a different prompt, or one of your own design. [New] While all of this essay, these prompts may seem like a piece of cake, at thesis on african american slavery, first sight, responding to them in a compelling and meaningful way is not so easy. Why Choose School! Take a look at our ideas on how to approach each prompt: Prompt 1: Write about yourself and on african your story. Seeing as the this school essay, prompt requires you to talk about your personality, you should mention things that are special about you. Don’t talk about on african matters like high school achievements. Admission committee members already know about those things from your application.
Talk about your family history or specific hobbies that define your individuality. Greene! Make sure you are imaginative and truthful. Prompt 2: Facing obstacles. In some cases, displaying your best self can be accomplished by thesis on african american slavery, presenting your flaws. Write about a difficult period in your life and explain how you managed to prevail over the circumstances. This way, you’ll demonstrate your bravery and the fact that you can keep going when you are confronted with challenges. Regardless of the amplitude of the challenge you discuss, you should concentrate on common app, the impact it exerted on thesis american, your life. Prompt 3: Ideas and why choose essay convictions. A modification of thesis, viewpoint could represent a very intense account.
In case you’ve experienced a specific event you can describe and application arco college ed essay meditate on, this is the prompt you should opt for. An ambiguous paper regarding an actual political matter would show next to nothing about your personality; therefore it would be a failure. Prompt 4: An answer to an issue. This prompt gives you the american, opportunity of talking about something you truly care about. Describe the way in which you encountered the problem and explain why you believe it should be solved urgently. Prompt 5: Maturity and insight.
This might be one of the arco ed essay, hardest prompts on the list. You can either talk about a crucial situation in slavery, your life or describe a more trivial time of awareness that modified your viewpoints. Explain the way in which that event stimulated your personal growth and changed you as a person. You should also mention what you learned from that moment. Prompt 6: Keen interest. This prompt represents a completely new addition to the common applications. It offers you the possibility of talking about things that are important to you. Colleges are on the lookout for application arco college essay students who are concerned about the environment and like to engage in specific activities. Prove your thoughtfulness and thesis american slavery talk about who or what stimulates you to arco essay follow your passion. Prompt 7: Full liberty of answer! For this alternative, there aren’t any specific guidelines.
You should choose this topic if you’ve been influenced by one of the papers you’ve written as part of other assignments, or if you have a specific question that you wish to find answers to. Keep in mind that you need to highlight your significance! Your essay should include responses to thesis on african how and why questions. A Successful Scholarship Application Essay. Scholarship essays are somewhat different from typical college application essays. Nevertheless, you should stick to problems the same guidelines. Your target is to prove your originality, enthusiasm, and individuality. When writing a scholarship application, it is essential to on african slavery accentuate how you can contribute to the college you’re aiming for. Don’t think twice to put yourself out there and present your best features first. Typical Varieties of College Application Essays.
The Common Application doesn’t constitute the sole platform for this type of essays the new york, essays. American Slavery! A lot of institutions demand their own style. Next, we’ll describe some standard platforms which also require college application essays, and we’ll tell you how to approach them. While the Florida State University doesn’t ask for an application essay, it’s advisable to why choose this send them one. On African! Your paper should feature less than 650 words. You ought to opt for one of the subjects listed below: Talk about a personal experience that either displays your personality or helped model it. Talk about a time in essays the new york, which you substantially contributed to other people, with the greater good in mind.
Describe the provocations and recompenses of making that contribution. Talk about a moment in which one of your most precious or well-established convictions was challenged. Mention the way in which you answered. Discuss the way in which the on african american slavery, challenge modified your beliefs. Now take a look at the prompts for the FSU Application Essay:
Prompt 1: Here you should discuss your hobbies, positive features, and greene essay previous experiences. Talk about all aspects that define your personality. Concentrate on a particular quality you wish to underline. Prompt 2: Generosity represents a great personality feature. Concentrate on the way in which you’ve made a contribution to society and on african describe how you felt. Prompt 3: This is why choose this school virtually the same as the third prompt on the Common Application. The University of California institution requires you to opt for thesis on african slavery 4 out of journey essay questions hsc, 8 essay questions. This is definitely not easy, seeing as you’ll need to on african american write much more content than for other colleges. To figure out what needs to be done, you should take a look at a great deal of greene essay, other essay examples. Talk about an instance of your management experience where you’ve exerted a positive impact on thesis american slavery, other people, aided them in settling conflicts or played a part in journey hsc, group endeavors in the course of time. Each individual has a significant part.
Creativity manifests itself in a lot of ways, like problem-solving, unique and pioneering thinking or art. Talk about the way in which you demonstrate your creativity. Talk about thesis on african american slavery your best talent or ability and the way in which you’ve cultivated and proven that talent in the course of graham greene accident, time. On African! Talk about how you’ve profited from an important learning opportunity or struggled to prevail over a learning impediment you’ve confronted with. Talk about the most important provocation you’ve been confronted with and greene a shocking accident what you did to prevail over this provocation. How has this provocation influenced your educational accomplishments? Present your preferred school subject and describe the way in which it has impacted you. Talk about what you’ve done to change your school or society for the better? Describe the feature that makes you stand out from the american, other applicants who wish to get accepted into the University of California.
Now let’s have a look at the prompts: Prompts 1, 4 and essays during 7 – You need to talk about thesis on african your commitment to your surroundings. Discuss the influence the literature, external world exerts on you and your decisions. Describe the way in which you dealt with obstacles. Prompts 2 and 6 – Talk about yourself and your individuality. Present the aspects that define your personality. Reflect on your convictions and thesis features and describe the way in which they shape your character. Prompts 3, 4 and 8 – Discuss your accomplishments. Why Choose School Essay! Mention your best achievements so far and talk about what makes you proud. You could also talk about the way in which you’d like to advance and mature. The National Honor Society is an thesis on african american slavery, establishment that places a high value on management skills, service, personality, and education. It grants you the possibility of applying for several scholarships, provided that you stand out from the other students.
After your nomination, you are required to forward an essay. Essays During The New York! To be successful, you need to thesis slavery consider several aspects. Problems Uploading App! Sell yourself right! Your target is to on african be perceived as an exemplary applicant who appreciates knowledge and orderliness. Problems Essays Common App! Discuss your enthusiasm for service, your educational achievements as well as your leadership roles. Thesis! Mention the aspects for which you are a powerful applicant.
Provided that you give the right responses, you’re bound to get accepted into during the new york, the NHS. To apply for RU, you need to hand in an essay. Thesis American! You can opt for one of the five prompts. Present an essay questions, instance of your management experience in which you exerted a good impact on other people, aided in settling conflicts or made a valuable contribution to group endeavors. On African American Slavery! In general, the essay prompts are similar to those of the Common Application. Prompt 1 – You need to use narrative to graham greene accident essay present an occurrence which shaped you and emphasizes your top features. On African American Slavery! Focus on the impact it exerts on you.
The magnitude of the event is not of importance. Journey Questions! Prompt 2 – Talk about the way in which you influence the world around you and the people in it. American! This prompt is literature on financial a great choice for service individuals. Prompt 3 – This one is pretty original, as it requires you to think of what you’d tell your younger self if you had the opportunity. You shouldn’t talk about remorse here. Mentions some aspects that you value nowadays but you didn’t regard as important when you were younger. Thesis Slavery! This prompt is an excellent way to highlight personal development. Prompt 4 – Here you have a complete liberty of response. Make sure you are creative enough!
While the University of Central Florida doesn’t see the questions, essay part as mandatory, it’s advisable to turn in a paper. Your essay must include between 500 and thesis on african slavery 7000 words. You can choose to answer to any of the three questions listed below: In what way have you been influenced by journey essay questions hsc, your family history, society or surroundings? What is the reason for which you decided to thesis slavery apply to UCF? What features or original traits will enable you to make a valuable contribution to the UCF community? Now let’s talk about the UCF prompts. Prompt 1: Discuss your family history as well as the elements that express your individuality. Talk about the way in which you’ve been influenced by your environment and your upbringing. Prompt 2: Give a sincere response.
Talk about why you want to attend UFC and how you can contribute to it. Review On Financial Management! Mention your aptitudes, passions and unique talents and the way in which they mirror your personality. Highlight your top features. Still Have Trouble with Your Application? We know very well that writing a college application essay is far from being an on african slavery, easy task.
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Our Product and services. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP proposes to offer a variety of thesis on african, services within the scope of the law industry in the United States of America. Our intention of starting our law firm is to 3rd application application arco college ed essay make profits from the industry and we will do all that is permitted by the law in the US to achieve our aim and ambition. Thesis Slavery? Our business offering are listed below; Arbitration Mediation Business Formation Business and Commercial Transaction Collections and 3rd application arco college, Credit Matters Commercial Real Estate Construction Corporate Governance and thesis american, Compliance Creditor’s Rights Employment General Counsel Services Immigration Insurance Real Estate Consultancy and Advisory Services. Our vision is to provide our clients with skilled legal advice in a timely and efficient manner.
We strive to handle each matter with accountability and responsiveness, as if we were representing ourselves. We focus our attention on the legal aspects of review management, our client’s business so that our clients can focus their attention on the success of their business. Our vision reflects our values: integrity, service, excellence and teamwork. Our mission is to provide professional and trusted legal services that assist businesses and non-profit organizations in thesis american slavery, operating sustainably. We provide expert legal counsel in combination with our own business backgrounds, and deliver valuable services in a timely and cost-effective way.
Jefferson and literature on financial management, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will build a solid business structure that can support the growth of thesis on african american slavery, our business. We will ensure that we hire competent hands to help us build the business of our dream. Below is the business structure that we will build Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP on; Founder and President Attorney Patent Attorney Legal Secretary Paralegal Legal Assistant Admin and HR Manager Business Developer Accountant Front Desk Officer. Roles and Responsibilities. Responsible for providing direction for problems uploading common the firm Creates, communicates, and thesis, implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the journey essay questions hsc development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for handling high profile clients and deals Responsible for slavery fixing prices and signing business deals Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the company Evaluates the success of the review on financial organization Reports to american the board. This School? Represents clients in criminal and american, civil litigation and other legal proceedings Draws up legal documents, or manage or advise clients on essay, legal transactions. Attends court hearings (and doing the preparation beforehand) Responsible for negotiating (not all cases will end up in court) Explains the law and gives general legal advice Responsible for settling disputes and thesis, supervising any agreements Researching and gathering evidence Responsible for analyzing legal documents Supervises legal assistants.
Discusses inventions and processes with inventors or manufacturers and ascertaining whether they are likely to succeed in being granted patents Studies and analyzes scientific or technical documents, including previously granted patents, to assess whether an invention is new and innovative Writes detailed descriptions of inventions in precise legal terms (patent drafts) Suggests modifications or extensions to essays york ratification the definition of the invention Applies for patents from the Intellectual Property Office (IPO) and the European Patent Office (EPO) , often presenting complicated technical arguments Prepares responses to reports from patent examiners Ensures application and renewal deadlines are met Works with solicitors and barristers to defend or enforce UK patents Conducts litigation in proceedings at the EPO or in the Intellectual Property Enterprise Court (IPEC), formerly the Patents County Court Advises overseas agents on on african american slavery, applications for foreign patent applications Instructs on whether business activities will infringe someone else#8217;s patent rights Deals with assignments of why choose this school, patent when a patent is on african american slavery sold or transferred Keeps up-to-date with legal developments in the intellectual property field Advises on other intellectual property rights, e.g. designs or trademarks Tutors and mentors trainee patent agents. Responsible for drawing up contracts and app, other legal documents for the company Welcomes guests and clients by greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Thesis Slavery? Produces information by transcribing, formatting, inputting, editing, retrieving, copying, and transmitting text, data, and graphics; coordinating case preparation. Conserves attorneys time by reading, researching, reviewing, verifying, and routing correspondence, reports and legal documents; drafting letters and documents; collecting and literature review, analyzing information; initiating telecommunications; organizing client conferences, and attorney meetings; scheduling couriers, court reporters, expert witnesses, and other special functions; coordinating preparation of charts, graphs, and other courtroom visuals; preparing expense reports. Maintains attorney calendar by planning and thesis slavery, scheduling conferences, teleconferences, dispositions, and travel; recording and graham greene a shocking accident, monitoring court appearance dates, pleadings, and filing requirements; monitoring evidence-gathering; anticipating changes in litigation or transaction preparation requirements. Represents attorney by communicating and obtaining information; following-up on delegated assignments; knowing when to act and when to slavery refer matters to attorney. Generates revenues by documenting and inputting attorney billable time and application college, reimbursable expenses; preparing invoices; tracking payments. Maintains client confidence by keeping client/attorney information confidential. Provides historical reference by developing and thesis american, utilizing filing and retrieval systems; recording meeting discussions; maintaining transcripts; documenting and maintaining evidence. Hsc? Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products.
Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by thesis american participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for 3rd application college college accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to thesis on african slavery add value to job accomplishments. Assists attorneys in preparing for problems app trials and court proceedings. Supports attorneys in a legal office. On African American? Investigates the facts of cases and ensure that all relevant information is considered. Identify appropriate laws, judicial decisions, legal articles, and other materials for assigned cases.
Compiles, analyzes, and organizes information. Gathers exhibits. Why Choose This School? Prepares written reports. Prepares legal arguments for lawsuits. Drafts pleadings and motions filed in court. Secures affidavits. Assists attorneys during trials.
Organizes and tracks files from case documents and make them available and thesis american, easily accessible to attorneys. Drafts contracts, mortgages, and why choose this school essay, separation agreements. American Slavery? Prepares tax returns. Establishes trust funds. Plans estates. Supervises other law office employees. Delegates responsibilities. Maintains financial records. Searches legal literature stored in computer databases and on CD-ROM.
Tracks hours and bill to clients. Works under the uploading app direction of lawyers and american, help them prepare for meetings, hearings and trials. Undertake research projects for multiple cases to determine precedent, drafts or completes legal documents and ensure the correct paperwork is filed with the courts within a specific time period. Works directly with clients in a non-advising capacity, such as answering questions, scheduling appointments and making sure all court requirements are met. Handles other routine tasks, such as processing and transcribing documents, entering data, scheduling and taking dictation are common duties of why choose this, a legal office assistant. Responsible for handling typical office duties, such as answering phones, managing inventory or performing accounting tasks.
Responsible for thesis on african slavery overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Defines job positions for recruitment and managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of uploading common app, employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the smooth running of the daily office activities. Identifies, prioritizes, and on african american, reaches out to new partners, and business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for graham a shocking accident essay the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for on african american expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps increase sales and growth for the company. Responsible for essays york preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and on african slavery, financial reporting for one or more properties. Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for journey the company Serves as internal auditor for thesis on african slavery the company.
Receives Visitors / clients on behalf of the organization Receives parcels / documents for uploading app the company Handles enquiries via e-mail and phone calls for the organization Distributes mails in the organization Handles any other duties as assigned my the line manager. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template SWOT Analysis. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP hired the services of a core professional in the area of business consulting and structuring to thesis american assist the firm in building a solid law firm that can favorably compete in the highly competitive law industry. Part of what the business consultant did was to work with the management of the firm in conducting a SWOT analysis and preparing a law firm marketing plan for Jefferson and the new, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP. Here is a summary from the result of the thesis on african american SWOT analysis that was conducted on behalf of Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP; Our core strength lies in the power of our team; our workforce.
We have a team that can go all the literature on financial management way to give our clients value for their money. We are well positioned and we know we will attract loads of clients from the on african first day we open our doors for business. As a new law firm, it might take some time for our firm to break into the market; that is perhaps our major weakness. The opportunities in the law industry is essays the new massive and we are ready to take advantage of any opportunity that comes our way. Some of the threats that we are likely going to face as a law firm operating in the United States are unfavorable government policies, and global economic downturn. There are hardly anything we could do as regards these threats other than to be optimistic that things will continue to work for our good. Sample Law Firm Business Plan Template MARKET ANALYSIS. Quite a number of distinct trends have emerged in recent times in the legal industry, which is why law firms are positioning their organizations to survive the peaks and troughs of an ailing economy. As a matter of fact, most of these trends aid law firms and thesis, organizations to become more creative, competitive, efficient, and productive in a global market.
Some other trends in the legal industry could be attributed to changing demographics, attitudes and work styles. Another trend that is gaining momentum in accident essay, the legal industry is that clients have the options of seeking legal assistance from a growing number of non-lawyer professionals such as; paralegal technicians, legal document preparers, legal self-help sites, virtual assistants and offshore legal vendors. As a result of thesis on african, this trend, the decisions about the new how legal services are delivered which include staffing, scheduling, strategies and thesis, most importantly how firms charge for their services – are increasingly being influenced by the clients, and not by the law firms as it used to be in time past. No doubt, as the cost of legal services continues to increase and as corporate spending falls, new legal delivery methods will continue to emerge and gain momentum going forward. In addition, the market for legal services has shifted from a sellers#8217; market to a buyers#8217; market. Lastly, it is now becoming trendy in the legal industry for smaller law firms to merge with bigger law firms and for bigger law firms to acquire smaller law firms; mergers and acquisitions. Many law firms all over the United States are coming to the conclusion that the bigger the better for them. Ed Essay Essay? Although Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will initially serve small to medium sized businesses, from new ventures to well established businesses, but that does not in any way stop us from growing to be able to compete with the leading law firms in the United States. We hope to someday merge or acquire other law firms and expand our legal services beyond the shores of the United States of America.
As a full service business law firm, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP have a variety of practice areas to help startups grow. While we works with a variety of organizations and industries, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will also specialize in working with startups, real estate investors, and contractors, manufacturers and distributors, banks, lending and financial institutions. Our target market cuts across people of different classes and people from all walks of life, local and international organizations as well. We are coming into the industry with a business concept that will enable us work with the highly placed people and companies in the country and at the same with the lowly placed people and smaller businesses. Thesis American? In other words, our target market is the whole of the United States of America and subsequently other parts of the world. Below is a list of the people and organizations that we have specifically design our products and services for; Banks Businesses and Entrepreneurs Blue Chips Companies Corporate Counsel Manufacturers and Distributors Real Estate Owners, Developers, and Contractors Research and Development Companies Employees Migrants. A close study of the problems uploading common legal industry reveals that the law firm market has become much more intensely competitive over the past seven years. Thesis On African? As a matter of literature review on financial, fact, the supply of legal services has significantly exceeded demand. In other to position to take on the market, most law firms have begun to merger or acquire other law firms. On African? Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP might be a new entrant into the law industry in the United States of America, but the management staffs and board members are considered gurus. They are people who are core professionals and licensed legal practitioners in the US.
These are part of essays the new ratification, what will count as a competitive advantage for us. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be amongst the slavery best within our category (startups law firm) in the industry meaning that they will be more than willing to build the business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our objectives. During Ratification Debates? Law Firm Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. We are mindful of the thesis on african american fact that there is stiffer competition in the legal market in the United States of graham greene accident essay, America; hence we have been able to hire some of the best business developer to handle our sales and marketing. Our sales and american slavery, marketing team will be recruited based on their vast experience in the industry and they will be trained on a regular basis so as to be well equipped to meet their targets and the overall goal of the organization. We will also ensure that our excellent job deliveries speaks for us in the market place; we want to build a legal business that will leverage on word of mouth advertisement from satisfied clients (both individuals and organizations). Our goal is to grow our firm to become one of the top 20 law firms in California, which is why we have mapped out strategy that will help us take advantage of the available market and grow to become a major force in the.
Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is uploading common set to make use of the following marketing and sales strategies to attract clients; Introduce our business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations and key individuals in California and other parts of the U.S. Promptness in bidding for legal contracts List our business on on african, yellow pages Attend expos, seminars, and business fairs et al Create different packages for different category of clients in order to work with their budgets and still deliver quality services to essay hsc them Leverage on the internet to promote our business Direct marketing Encourage word of mouth marketing. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is established with the aim of maximizing the profits in on african slavery, the law industry and we are going to the new york ratification go all the way to on african american ensure that we do all it takes to attract clients on a regular basis. Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP we generate income by offering the following legal services for individuals and for organizations; Arbitration Mediation Business Formation Business and graham greene a shocking, Commercial Transaction Collections and Credit Matters Commercial Real Estate Construction Corporate Governance and Compliance Creditor’s Rights Employment General Counsel Services Immigration Insurance Real Estate Consultancy and Advisory Services. As long as there are people living in the United States of America and business starting and growing in the U.S., the on african american services of law firms will always be needed. We are well positioned to take on the available market in the U.S, and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first month or operations and grow the business and clientele beyond Oakland, CA to other states in the U.S. and even the global market.
We have been able to critically examine the law market and we have analyzed our chances in the industry. We have been able to come up with the following sales forecast. The sales projection are based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in California. Journey Questions Hsc? Below is the sales projection for on african Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, it is based on the location of our law firm and 3rd application application arco college, the wide range of legal services that we will be offering; N.B : This projection is american slavery done based on what is york debates obtainable in the industry, Hourly billing for legal services is long – time tradition in on african slavery, the industry. However, for some types of work, flat fees make more sense because they allow clients to better predict legal costs. As a result of essay, this, Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP will charge our clients a flat fee for many basic services such as; business formation and thesis slavery, document drafting and review. At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP we will keep our fees below market rate for all of our clients by keeping our overhead low and by collecting payment in advance. In addition, we will also offer special discounted rates to disadvantaged individuals, nonprofits, cooperatives, and small social enterprises. We are aware that there are some clients that would need regular access to legal advice and assistance; we will offer flat rate general counsel services that will be tailored to take care of such clients’ needs. At Jefferson and essays during york, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP, our payment policy will be all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them.
Here are the payment options that we will make available to american slavery our clients; Payment by via bank transfer Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via bank draft Payment with cash. In view of the journey questions hsc above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our plans without any itches. Slavery? Law Firm Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. We have been able to work with our consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. Review Management? We are set to take the law industry by storm which is why we have made provisions for effective publicity and advertisement of our firm. Below are the platforms we intend to leverage on to promote and advertise our property development business; Place adverts our law firm on both print and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant TV shows Maximize our firm’s website to promote our business Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms (real estate online forums) to promote our business. Offer Pro Bono services as part of our community social responsibility Brand all our official cars.
Law Firm Business Plan Financial Projections and Costing. The Total Fee for incorporating the Business in thesis american, California: $750. The budget for why choose this school Liability insurance, permits and license: $5,000 The Amount needed to acquire a suitable Office facility with enough space in on african slavery, Oakland, California for 6 months (Re Construction of the facility inclusive): $50,000. The Cost for management equipping the office (computers, printers, fax machines, furniture, telephones, filing cabins, safety gadgets and on african slavery, electronics et al): $15,000 Cost of accounting software, CRM software and Payroll Software $3,000 Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and Utilities (gas, sewer, water and electric) deposits ($3,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $40,000 The Cost of essays the new ratification, Launching our official Website: $600 Additional Expenditure (Business cards, Signage, Adverts and american, Promotions et al): $5,000. Going by the report from our research and feasibility studies, we will need about $200,000 to set up a law firm in Oakland, California. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for At Jefferson and MacArthur Law Firm, LLP. At Jefferson and this, MacArthur Law Firm, LLP is going to start as a private business that will be solely owned by Bar Jefferson Carson and slavery, family.
He will be the sole financial of the firm, but may likely welcome partners pretty much which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of his start – up capital to 3 major sources. Literature? These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from personal savings Source for soft loans from american slavery family members and problems essays app, friends Apply for loan from my Bank. On African Slavery? N.B: We have been able to generate about graham a shocking accident $60,000 (Personal savings $40,000 and soft loan from family members $20,000) and we are at the final stages of thesis on african american slavery, obtaining a loan facility of $100,000 from review our bank. All the papers and document has been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited. Thesis? LAW FIRM BUSINESS GROWTH: Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. It is easier for businesses to survive when they have steady flow of business deals / customers patronizing their products and services. Essays During The New York? We are aware of this which is why we have decided to offer a wide range of legal services. Thesis American Slavery? We know that if we continue to deliver excellent legal services, there will be steady from of income for the organization.
Our key sustainability and expansion strategy is to ensure that we only hire competent employees, create a conducive working environment and employee benefits for our staff members. In the nearest future, we will explore the options of either merging with other law firms or acquire law firms in order for us to increase our market share. We know that if we implement our business strategies, we will grow our law business beyond Oakland, California to other states in the U.S in college, record time. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Incorporation: Completed Opening of Corporate Bank Accounts various banks in the United States: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and thesis, Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and graham greene accident essay, permit: Completed Purchase of thesis, All form of Insurance for the Business: Completed Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating part of the start – up capital from the founder: Completed Applications for 3rd application college essay Loan from our Bankers: In Progress Writing of thesis, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents: In Progress Design of The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: Completed Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, office equipment, electronic appliances and questions hsc, facility facelift: In progress Creating Official Website for thesis on african american the Company: In Progress Creating Awareness for the business (Business PR): In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement: In Progress Establishing business relationship with key players in review on financial, the industry: In Progress.
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Remembering the Cultural Trauma Legacies of Slavery: African
Energy, ecology, and economics revisited. We must understand the concept of net energy in order to see the underlying energetic basis for american, society. Yet net energy is often misunderstood, typically through optimistic measures of valuation that do not address the hidden inputs. Perhaps HT Odum’s clearest, simplest, most understandable paper on graham greene accident the topic was written 40 years ago, in thesis on african slavery, a special issue of the uploading, Royal Swedish Academy of Science’s Energy in thesis american, Society issue of Ambio (1973). The article was republished in Mother Earth News, still available online through Minnesotans for Sustainability. The paper remains as relevant and fundamental to the arguments for net energy today as it did 40 years ago. College Essay! Each time I read the paper, I find new meaning from it.
Perhaps it is time to revisit the on african slavery, principles quoted below from the paper, to update the terms and give modern examples of the interrelationships between the 3Es of energy, ecology, and economics. Some of the terminology and accounting methods have been refined over time, but the general principles remain unchanged–principles that are essential to the energy dialogue. 1. Essay! “The true value of energy to society is the net energy, which is what’s left after the energy costs of thesis slavery, getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted.” All processes in review, the world involve energy, materials, and thesis on african information. Materials are transformed through energy, which drives the process of journey hsc, creating every good, service, and environmental process.
Information guides the process of transformation. Energy has different qualities, so a calorie of one form of energy is not the same in american, quality as a calorie of another form, as certain forms of energy are not substitutable, depending on the situation. A calorie of sunlight may not be substituted for problems uploading common, a calorie of oil or of food. In order to compare apples and oranges, we need to create a common denominator. So all processes can be assessed or valued on a common basis using a lowest-common-denominator unit of solar energy—the seJ (solar emjoules). Thesis On African! The science of Emergy accounting places values on york ratification debates the energy, information, and materials in the processes, allowing us to choose more efficient policies.
Emergy is defined as the available energy of one kind that is used up in thesis on african american, transformations directly and indirectly to make a product or service. Journey Questions! Real wealth, then, can be measured as the thesis, emergy memory that exists in human goods and services, and in non-human environmental goods and services. Odum’s updated term for net energy is net emergy or net empower. The true cost of a process to essays during york debates, society is the net emergy, which is the emergy delivered after the emergy costs of getting and concentrating that energy are subtracted. Net emergy contribution of any process within the economy including energy production can be calculated using an Emergy Yield Ratio, which is the net energy yield of on african slavery, a process expressed in emergy, divided by the purchased goods and services, which are also expressed in why choose essay, emergy. The EYR includes the contributions for renewable and non-renewable sources, and inputs such as human labor/services and on african environmental contributions, using a quality correction factor for energies of different qualities. Net emergy is an essential concept in the science of descent, during a period of waning energy availability. Brown, Cohen, Sweeney, 2009.
2. “Worldwide inflation is driven in part by the increasing fraction of our fossil fuels that have to be used in getting more fossil and other fuels.” An updated explanation of this phenomenon can be found in literature management, Energy Basis for Man and thesis on african american Nature (Odum Odum, 1976, pp. 49-59), as summarized by 3rd application application Hanson, “The buying power of money is the thesis on african american, amount of real goods and services that it can buy. If the york ratification, amount a dollar can buy diminishes, this is called inflation. Inflation can be caused by increasing the amount of money circulating without increasing the amount of energy flowing and doing work, for example, when more money is printed. It can also occur when the money supply is constant but less work is done, for example, because energy becomes scarce. As long as there is unused fuel energy to on african, be tapped, increasing the essays common, money supply can increase the flow of thesis, energy through the system, causing growth as well as some inflation.” And in the current era of declining energy availability and expanding money supply and debt, the degree of inflation relative to Emergy is problems uploading common particularly egregious. The graph below illustrates the calculated steady decline of Emergy per dollar value of gross world product since 1970, demonstrating a loss in on african american slavery, value of about 33%. Brown Ulgiati 2011 http://www.mendeley.com/research/understanding-global-economic-crisis-biophysical-perspective/
3. Graham Greene! “Many calculations of energy reserves which are supposed to offer years of supply are as gross energy rather than net energy and thus may be of much shorter duration than often stated.” Because the emergy valuation method is thesis on african slavery notable for including human labor and environmental goods and services in the valuation of the new ratification debates, a process, the net emergy yield for energy sources tends to be lower than other methods that do not include all inputs. Below is thesis on african a diagram from college ed essay, Chapter 3 of a pending book by Mark T. On African American Slavery! Brown and Sergio Ulgiati on york Emergy and environmental accounting, posted here with permission. An in depth discussion of the history and fundamentals of the various method will be included in on african slavery, the book. One can see the different inputs that are considered in various types of accounting methods for energy production and other processes. If one were to include a fifth diagram reflecting the traditional economic demand-based approach, which does not measure environmental contributions, then that diagram would be even simpler, with a single-arrow output that is viewed or measured by the purchaser’s subjective ideas about willingness to pay, with minimal consideration for the inputs and no regard for essays the new, limits of environmental contributions.
It would be helpful to this discussion if we examined the on african american, various energy accounting methods and the ranges of net energy estimated from each one, and college essay placed them on a continuum. That exercise would show how scattered the thesis on african, valuations are, with varying rates of optimism. Review On Financial! But that is not today’s goal in this post. From a pending book by thesis slavery Brown and Ulgiati, chapter 3, used with permission. The goal of this post is to re-examine Odum’s statements of 40 years ago in light of the current science. In the period after Odum wrote the Ambio paper, Emergy scientists developed emergy accounting and calculated the net emergy or EYR for a variety of this essay, renewable energy and nonrenewable energy reserves. The ranges in the table below show values of EYR for on african, a number of settings and processes over several decades. Net emergy is declining over time for these sources, so many of these values are now lower than what is published in the table. How many wrong policy guesses have occurred in various countries attempting to review on financial management, produce marginal sources?
What are the thesis on african, environmental impacts of trying to produce marginal sources such as fracked natural gas, tar sands, shale oil, aquaculture, ethanol, and palm oil? How many wrong guesses on net energy policies are we allowed? Odum, 2007, p. 201. 4. “Societies compete for economic survival by Lotka’s principle (1922), which says that systems win and ratification debates dominate that maximize their useful total power from all sources and flexibly distribute this power toward needs affecting survival.” Odum refined the idea of Maximum Power from on african american, Lotka (1922) as a proposed 4th energy law, and its corollary, Maximum Empower. Individuals and systems that maximize energy flow and power flow (empower) through systems have an advantage in competing with other systems for available energy. Systems develop mechanisms of why choose this, feedbacks, high quality storages, and systems of exchange to maximize energy flow (see diagram above). For examples of this in modern economies, look at slavery, the United States.
After World War II, our intact infrastructure and rich natural resources allowed us to maximize power through rapid expansion of energy production, development of a high quality education system, and domination in world trade. These means allowed us to application, overtake other countries in the development of technology, information, and military might. All of those adaptations served to improve feedback loops in our competition for thesis american slavery, even more resource acquisition. Power begets more power. 5. 3rd Application College Ed Essay! “During times when there are opportunities to expand one’s power inflows, the thesis on african slavery, survival premium by Lotka’s principle is on rapid growth even though there may be waste.” Using this same example, America’s empire development in the 1950s and 1960s resulted in rapid expansion of why choose this, energy production, industrialization, highway systems, suburbanization, industrial agriculture, and finally a high-tech information society.
Competitive and on african american slavery predatory capitalism, an expansive, debt-based financial system, and a large construction industry promoted rapid growth which gave the United States a great advantage in global trade, creating inequities and power imbalances. 6. Literature Management! “During times when energy flows have been tapped and there are no new sources, Lotka’s principle requires that those systems win that do not attempt fruitless growth but instead use all available energies in long-staying, high-diversity, steady-state works.” from Mark T. Brown’s Democracy Lecture. When Odum wrote this paper 40 years ago, he was hopeful that global opinion and national policies could be changed through central planning so that societies could avert catastrophe by slowing growth and achieving a climax society in relative steady state. But that did not happen. We are now in overshoot, and over the past 40 years, signs that the United States and slavery the world at large are slowly losing emergy flow per capita can be seen in indirect proxies such as failing wages, failing middle class, and essays the new york ratification debates collapsing empires. While some countries are doing better than others, the global trend in emergy flow is thesis on african american slavery downwards. Application Arco College College Essay! Maximum Power dictates that countries with less energy will adapt through increased efficiency. We can see this happening in the United States, for example, in thesis slavery, slowing growth of various industries, including transportation and construction. 7. “High quality of graham greene a shocking essay, life for humans and equitable economic distribution are more closely approximated in steady-state than in thesis, growth periods.” For points #7 and graham greene a shocking #8, I will let Odum’s words speak for themselves: “During growth, emphasis is on competition, and on african slavery large differences in economic and energetic welfare develop; competitive exclusion, instability, poverty, and unequal wealth are characteristic.
During steady state, competition is application arco college ed essay essay controlled and thesis on african american slavery eliminated, being replaced with regulatory systems, high division and diversity of labor, uniform energy distributions, little change, and growth only for replacement purposes. Love of stable-system quality replaces love of net gain. Religious ethics adopt something closer to that of those primitive peoples that were formerly dominant in zones of the world with cultures based on the steady energy flows from the sun. Socialistic ideals about distribution are more consistent with steady state than growth” (Odum, 1973, p. 222). 8. “The successfully competing economy must use its net output of richer-quality energy flows to subsidize the poorer-quality energy flow so that the total power is problems essays maximized.” “In ecosystems, diversity of species develop that allow more of the energies to be tapped.
Many of the species that are specialists in getting lesser and residual energies receive subsidies from the thesis on african american, richer components. For example, the sun leaves on top of trees transport fuels that help the shaded leaves so they can get some additional energy from the last rays of dim light reaching the forest floor. The system that uses its excess energies in getting a little more energy, even from sources that would not be net yielding alone, develops more total work and more resources for total survival. Review! In similar ways, we now use our rich fossil fuels to keep all kinds of goods and services of our economy cheap so that the marginal kinds of energies may receive the subsidy benefit that makes them yielders, whereas they would not be able to thesis on african american, generate much without the journey questions, subsidy” (Odum, 1973, p. 223). 9. “Energy sources which are now marginal, being supported by hidden subsidies based on slavery fossil fuel, become less economic when the hidden subsidy is removed.” Stephanie McMillan Code Green. There are many examples of marginal or net-negative energy sources that are only being produced because of hidden or overt subsidies. Review On Financial Management! Hidden subsidies may consist of unfair trade, such as inputs to thesis american slavery, processes via expansion of problems uploading essays common app, empire, cheap goods from China such as solar photovoltaic panels, or rare earth minerals from slavery, Afghanistan. In an empire, many resources are subsidized through military actions or unfair trade that do not get calculated into costs of this school essay, goods–yet these costs impact societal power.
Externalization of environmental damage is another large covert subsidy. Costs of goods do not include environmental costs of damage and pollution which get absorbed by the broader society over time. Overt subsidies include tax credits, production subsidies, or agricultural subsidies. How many overt or covert subsidies are involved in the creation of corn and american slavery marginal ethanol fuel in the diagrams below? Which components are not reflected in the economic price? If you want to uploading app, learn more about this specific topic or what inputs contribute to on african slavery, an emergy analysis, the folio by Brandt-Williams (2002) analyzes the emergy basis including the inputs for 25 Florida agricultural commodities. Cambell 2008 Emergy Brief Comparative Corn Production 4 states. 10. “Increasing energy efficiency with new technology is not an energy solution, since most technological innovations are really diversions of cheap energy into questions, hidden subsidies in thesis, the form of school, fancy, energy-expensive structures.” One of the ways that systems maximize empower is to develop high quality storages of information, materials, and energy that increase power inflows. New technology is thesis american slavery highly transformed, energy-intensive machinery and processes that add to the transformity and emergy basis of processes.
Technology acts as a driver to problems uploading essays, promote faster use of energy. Technology in and of itself cannot power a system. For example, high-tech GMO-modified seeds, pesticides, fertilizers, feed lots, aquaculture, and other technologies expand rates of power flow through the system, technology by itself is thesis on african american useless without energy. Technologies add to the emergy basis of produced foods. While the required other fuels, chemicals, and services allow larger yields in the short run, the literature review management, system creates more wastes and is not sustainable when the american, fossil fuel subsidies are withdrawn.
We are told that energy sources that are marginal at graham greene a shocking essay, present will become producible in the future, through technological innovations. We tell ourselves that smart grids and net metering will make solar photovoltaics the renewable resource of the thesis, 21st century. Or electric vehicles are touted as energy solutions, even though the solar emergy required for an electric car is even higher than that of an internal combustion engine car, due to hidden costs of electricity, batteries, and new infrastructure. It is time for us to look beyond the hoods of our cars at the real cost to society, beyond the sticker price. Ortega Miller-Soybean Comparison Odum, 1987, Crafoord Lecture, modified from A. Brown. So, forty years after the original article, what is Odum’s track record on accuracy? Except for his hopeful stance on uploading a climax steady state, Odum and colleagues’ estimates of which sources measure net benefits to society seem to be on track. Thesis On African American Slavery! This is problems essays app part 1–that’s enough for now. There are ten more important principles from that article to be covered in Part 2 at a later date. I’ve avoided discussing nuclear and solar photovoltaic in this first part of the series, as Odum covered those specifically in thesis slavery, the ideas in the next section of his paper.
I am continually amazed, both at what your father understood 40 years ago, but also at how profoundly he’s been ignored over those 40 years. Why isn’t this part of basic high school curriculum? Why are so few people exposed to these concepts? Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, he’d have been imprisoned, but in a capitalist “democratic” system, he’s simply out-shouted. Pity. Yes, heads can roll when paradigms shift. Net energy is so important, IMO it was HT’s most important contribution.
Yet we don’t even understand that one, relatively simple construct. Instead we get unicorns–magic technology: Every year I reread the graham, Ambio paper and ask myself, is the world ready to get it yet? See the on african, above reply. Ah, that’s a really good one, Mary. Really good. I’m always trying to essay, figure out how we get to an “Emergy for Everyone” exegesis of these critical concepts. On African! This post is a real step in that. Jan said: “Because HTO was a dangerous man. In a totalitarian system, he’d have.
been imprisoned, but in during york ratification debates, a capitalist ‘democratic’ system, he’s simply. Exactly. But HT and his brilliant work is dangerous to the bosses and. what we now call the one-percenters. And it is they and their systems, incompatible with a world of reduced energy flows, that threaten us all. as a society and a species. But the much greater danger, of. course, is that we will, collectively, continue to fail to absorb and.
act on on african the insights that HT’s work has afforded us. If we do fail, it. will be despite your fine efforts. Brava! And thanks. Hmmm. Don’t understand the weird line breaks. Accident Essay! Maybe need a techie consult. On African Slavery! ;^) Hi, Doug. If you cut and paste something into Disqus, it picks up odd line breaks? Emergy for everyone–working on it.
It’s complex enough that I can’t start at the final product, which is the quantitative science of valuation. We have to begin with the reasoning behind net energy and the dialogue that led to the science–what is the energy memory of things, explained in words? I don’t think we’re able to see hierarchy in systems anymore. Literature Review Management! We are trained so thoroughly in breaking things apart and looking at the smallest piece we can find. Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the somewhat “older” papers… In terms on ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I entered thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of slavery, Permaculture – thats, it his words, “Systems ecology for graham greene a shocking accident, the commons”… but still a bit difficult to grasp for people with difficulties in abstract conceptual thinking… Another Great Post. I especially appreciate those links to the “older” papers… ?how to transmit Odum?s science in a readable way, personally I leared about Odums Energy Principles thanks to David Holmgrens conceptualization of slavery, Permaculture – it his words, PC was originally conceived as “Systems ecology for the commons”… but his book on journey essay questions that (Principles Pathways beyond Sustainability) is thesis american slavery still a bit difficult to grasp for the more practical people. Thanks, Holger.
I haven’t read the book, but I suppose it goes on my list now. Here’s the cliff notes, apparently: “Essence of review, permaculture” is american a very condensed version of the book…gives you a good idea of Davids writing style. The book is this school essay important, actually its even dedicated to H.T.Odum, and gave me a good idea of emergy concepts even before reading “A prosperous way down” and “Environment, Power Society” (the original version of 1971 and the update from 2008) – “Environmental Accounting” I have at home, but its a bit too difficult for thesis slavery, me at the moment…needs time and concentration, and people to discuss the school essay, ideas (i do not have them around here on the mexican countryside…) – a good synopsis of Davids book is here: http://permanentpublications.co.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/PR-Perm-Principles-Pathways-EMILY.pdf. Though still quite “cerebral” and (at least for many PC-folks) very theoretical conceptual, the 12 PC principles developed in the book (by themselves they represent a major renovation actualization of the PC Concept) translate the thesis slavery, sometimes complex language of systems ecology into 3rd application application arco ed essay, easy to remember and practical principles… definitely an important read. Here you get the book: and of thesis, course amazon. I’ve studied under Holmgren, and he is brilliant and has a wealth of information, but it’s too bad he didn’t hire a good editor, because his writing is all passive voice and rather academic. But it is a rigorous and well-crafted description of Permaculture. Chapter Three of arco college ed essay essay, Holmgren’s Principles and Pathways is Odum 101.
I recall being shocked and puzzled when I read that efficiency is not all it’s cracked up to be. I had to read that chapter over and over before I “got it.” Thanks again for the links and book recc. I’ve got the book, and it looks really good–I’ll get to thesis slavery, it soon. Lots of hits on the website this morning, Jan. I went to see what the fuss was about. 3rd Application Application College College Ed Essay! Manchurian Candidate? LOL.
Thanks for the props. And I really liked this explanation of yours: “There exists a “maximum power point” on the effort/efficiency curve. Go beyond that, and you’re into net diminishing returns, no matter how good things look. That Prius that gets 60 MPG? It took way more resources than a first-cut look at materials reveals. With its heavy reliance on hi-tech semiconductors and on african american slavery software, it requires essentially all of modern civilization to manufacture and maintain. I think my non-computerized diesels from the arco ed essay, ’80s will be running long after the last electronic module for the Prius ceases to be available.
A skilled machinist in a large village or a small town can keep a mechanical diesel running on locally sourced fuels, but that Prius requires a global supply chain of exotic materials that require the long-distance transportation industry, semiconductors and software that requires much of the industrial education system, and billion-dollar semiconductor wafer fabrication plants that require the banking and finance industries. And we aren’t even to the point of discussing where the fuel comes from yet! (They are only rated “E85? — 15% ethanol, unlike the diesel that can run on 100% plant oil.)” It sounds like it’s time to take all of that frustration that you are venting in on african american slavery, comments, and greene a shocking write a post for me on the topic of efficiency, max power, emergy basis? Consider this sentence, from Odum’s May, 1974 paper. It is why your father was ignored (and rightly so). “14. Energy is measured by american calories, Btu’s, kilowatt hours, and other intraconvertible units, but energy has a scale of essays during the new debates, quality which is not indicated by these measures.” You cannot just arbitrarily differentiate energy flow, entropy, the Laws of Thermodynamics and on african the rest of the natural world by a new scale using a subjective category of “quality.” This is the theoretical flaw in “emergy.” Okay, so let’s give up on your new paradigm and look for an even newer paradigm – a metric that crosses all platforms. 3rd Application Application College! Joules will work; so will kilocalories. Slavery! Kilocalories have the advantage of being known by just about everyone who reads. [And just ignore the nerdboys who insist on a difference in kilocalorie measure from 14.5-15.5 C, versus 15.5-16.5 C.]
Using joules or kilocalories you can indeed compare the 3rd application college, work done by a human to the work done by a bullock to the work done by a tractor. You can also compare the on african american slavery, embedded energy in the tractor to the embedded energy in application arco essay, a tiller. [Embedded energy is still better than emergy because it is strictly quantitative.] Those who insist on thesis on african american slavery a difference in energy (like your father and yourself) just provide a way for the power brokers to keep everyone confused. If you just use joules or kilocalories you can devise your own methods of energy auditing – AND it is literature on financial management applicable across the board (i.e. crosses all platforms). There is no big conspiracy here. It is on african just hard science. Emergy does use joules as a measure, Ralphieo. The difference in the joules of brain energy that is typing this response is different than the equivalent joule used to drive my car, or to grow a cabbage in my garden. They cannot be transposed. And the joules of brain and finger energy used to type this Disqus response is not just a couple of neurotransmitter exchanges at the axonal synapses and finger muscles on computer keys.
This response is the result of my formal schooling, my upbringing, my cultural values that give me the essay, passion, the thesis on african slavery, knowledge of this school essay, navigating the web and creating this website, and some small component of both my Apple computer and the associated high tech company, and the overall internet that allows you and me to talk here, today, in this corner of the internet. Arguably, the joules of information energy being laid down in this response are of much higher quality, with much higher transformity, with potentially much greater impact through the wonders of copied information. People say that electrons are free on slavery the internet . 3rd Application Application Arco College! . . well, that is only the case if you don’t see what went into the making of them. This is heresy and a huge emotional threat for thesis on african american, engineers who see technology as the answer, through “free energy.” This business of not seeing the energy memory of things is the biggest blind spot in our energy sciences. The blind spot about the energy memory of things allows us to believe that we have created a free lunch, and that things are not as bad as they really are–that we can keep the current society and BAU. I just responded to Dwig’s excellent question about the graham greene, relationship of power and efficiency on the previous Transformity post, and thesis on african that explanation is useful here, so I will repost a paragraph of that response. Easy copying and sharing of information is a transformational use for the internet, even though we don’t see the application arco college ed essay, true costs of both the internet and the original knowledge generation. Originals are expensive.
Copies are cheaper. Efficiency from a thermodynamic standpoint is the ratio of outputs to ALL energy inputs. including the “ultimate energy value of bought goods and services” (Odum Odum, 1976, p. 4). But the contributing energies are of different qualities, and are not always readily visible from the perspective of the high tech engineer at thesis american, the top of the hierarchy, especially the environmental contributions. Odum states that “engineers should realize that most technological advances during the why choose, last century of growth have involved the hidden, indirect, additional forms of energy. As such forms of energy become less, many technological advantages will evaporate. What was an advance becomes wasteful and thesis american must be discarded” (OO, 1976, p. 4). No it is not different. It is measured the same. It cannot even be measured! It must be calculated!
I don’t believe you are talking about the same thing that the rest of the world is graham a shocking talking about when it comes to american, emergy. Hmm, it seems to me that ralpheio is talking and thinking in terms of a different scientific discipline (based on his quote from Wikipedia). There, heat is heat, no matter what its effects are. Odum, however, thought and worked as an ecologist; a given amount of energy expended can do very different things in an ecosystem; in this context, the difference is very important. Here’s a loose analogy from this essay, economics: GDP as a measure of the US economy has been criticized because it counts all economic activity as equal. The expense of thesis slavery, building a house and the expense of tearing down a house are measured equally, regardless of the value they add to the neighborhood (and yes, both can be valuable, but in school essay, different ways).
Another example: was Superstorm Sandy good for american slavery, the economy? Certainly, it caused a lot of economic activity to occur. A Shocking! So, various measures have been proposed to capture the value added or destroyed by a particular economic activity. Thanks, Dwig and Jan. Ralphie, I’m not sure if you are really open to ideas, or if you’re stuck on details and on african american slavery dogma, or just venting your spleen in an anonymous venue. Please be polite if you want to converse here. The figure below illustrates a generic energy chain which transforms energy of essay hsc, lower, dilute quality into higher, more concentrated forms. Sunlight becomes plants, plants are eaten by bigger and bigger animals and humans, and plants become peat, which eventually becomes coal, and thesis on african slavery is extracted to create electricity by humans. For a joule to get to the higher levels and exist there, as a joule of literature, electricity or a solar PV panel, or as DNA, or as information on the internet, it has been transformed many, many times, with associated very large losses in the form of heat entropy. Does a joule of bear exist without the thesis slavery, supporting plants?
Does a joule of tiny energies on the internet exist without the supporting contributions from essay, lower levels? No. Thesis On African Slavery! And if it takes 4 or 5 joules of coal to school essay, create a joule of slavery, electricity, then there may be relative differences in the ability to do work. This School! Complex work requires a lot of different kinds of high quality energy. Thesis On African Slavery! Could we run our current society based on coal, without the essays york ratification debates, electricity? No. Can electricity based on renewables run our society?
No, not so much. Can we drop too many middle layers or power flow from on african american, loss of nonrenewable energy and common app still have the higher levels function? Energy is transformed and on african american slavery upgraded through energy chains which store progressively higher quality energy as assets at each level, then feeding back at each level to promote pulling in literature review, more energy. Mary – You and Jan are being impolite, not me. If you are not willing to take criticism of your ideas without taking cheap shots, you are no scientist. The commentator, Dwig, gets it but still buys into the abstract concept of emergy. Here is thesis on african american slavery a tip for all of you. No matter how hard you try, you cannot alter the laws of physics. You can certainly define things differently, but it is merely a parlor game and your definition does not square with the real world. As the 3rd application application arco college essay, Wikipedia entry says so succinctly, “The idea that a kilocalorie of heat is different is american absurd.”
I’m not sure I understand you. Odum writes of “intraconvertable units” of energy, which you seem to say only applies to essay, joules or kilocalories. Certainly one could also use ergs or dyne-centimetres or “barrels of oil equivalent” if one wished, because all these units are “intraconvertable.” Odum then goes on to note that not all energy is created equal, and thus Odum originated the concept of “EMbedded enERGY.” I agree that the ambiguous term “quality” itself lacks quality and precision. “Quality” generally refers to an immediate aspect of something, rather than a historical aspect. In the vernacular, a closely regulated source of precision flow of electrons might be thought of as a “high quality” energy source, whereas the chaotic, random nature of a lightening bolt could be thought of as lower quality because even though it may provide vastly more power than a typical 200-amp household electrical service, it’s nature is slavery too unpredictable to be of much practical use to anyone except for some plants that get off on the nitrogen it fixes. On the other hand, the embedded energy that goes into the making of a photovoltaic solar panel means that electrons from such a source have a different cost to them than do, for example, electrons coming from a coal-fired power plant.
So either I misunderstand you, or I think you may misunderstand the why choose essay, subtle meaning that Odum ascribed to “quality” in this context. Not all electron flows are created equal! Thanks, Jan, you addressed Ralphie’s question better than I, with more clarity. My head was still resonating with the issue of american, energy memory, which is the application of the during the new ratification debates, idea of quality. I agree that the word quality has been loosely used and open to misconstruction. Yes you misunderstood me.
Odum’s concept of embodied energy, or “emergy” was a way to differentiate between human energy and that of slavery, fossil fuels. It is a false distinction. Energy can be low-quality because it is dissipated over school, a large area, like sunlight. It can be high-quality because it is concentrated in a coal seam. However, regardless of its quality, it is measured the same – in joules, kilocalories, BTU’s etc.
Arbitrarily assigning a new qualitative category and changing the measurement units to fit your arbitrary standard is on african american slavery not acceptable. Physics trumps politics. There is a very good reason for SI units (look it up). This is why Odum got no traction with his new units. I still think we’re talking past each other. Emergy units are not just another unit for expressing energy. No, emjoules are not at all the same thing as a statement of the energy they contain. You cannot burn a photovoltaic panel and obtain the amount of graham greene accident essay, heat implied by it’s emjoule content, any more than you can cool a cooked egg and get a raw egg back. This is thesis on african not politics.
It is not some “arbitrary standard.” It is measuring a different thing. Application Arco College College! One might just as well say a kilowatt-hour or a light-year is just an arbitrary, political way of measuring time, simply because they sound like something other than what they are. I understand Systeme International units quite well, and kilocalorie is not even one of them, as it’s been superseded by thesis on african the watt*second. Jan – I am not talking past you at all. You have bought into an absurd concept. Since you cannot seem to understand what I am saying (whether willfully or not I will leave to essays during the new, your conscience), here is a quote from a the Wikipedia entry on emergy. “The idea that a calorie of thesis on african slavery, sunlight is not equivalent to a calorie of fossil fuel or electricity strikes many as absurd, based on the 1st Law definition of energy units as measures of heat (i.e. Review On Financial Management! Joule’s mechanical equivalent of heat).” Sciubba, E., 2010. On the Second-Law inconsistency of Emergy Analysis. Energy.
I understand what you are saying. Thesis American Slavery! You do not understand what I am saying. Good day to you! Hello Walter (Ralphieo), Good discussion here. I appreciate the worthwhile contributions of all the participants. I agree with most everything said by Mary, Jan, and Dwig.
I also think the problems essays, points raised by Walter are significant – there are serious objections to on african american, Odum’s concept of emergy, and they need to be dealt with in 3rd application application arco college college ed essay essay, a rigorous and scientifically sound way. As Dwig indicated, emergy needs to be considered in the context of Odum’s work in systems ecology, and alongside the parallel concept of transformity. As Odum pioneered the field of systems ecology, he looked at american, how these systems processes energy – in flows, storages, transformations, feedbacks, and sinks. The concept of emergy helps to quantify the energy used in these processes. To me, the concept of emergy makes intuitive sense in a number of ways. Common! It does not make sense to me to american, look only at essays the new, energy quantity. Thesis Slavery! Energy itself is essays the new york ratification a nebulous thing – we know it only by its ability to do work, which immediately brings it into thesis american, the qualitative dimension. What kind of work, and what scale of results? And yes, heat energy is heat energy, but does the 3rd application application arco, burning of thesis on african american, a book tell us it’s true energetic value, or is there a way to take into account all of the energy that went into making the book possible? One can argue about and refine how the math is done to calculate it, but Odum’s efforts were an attempt to bring this closer to a common apples to apples standard, which continues to literature review, be refined (Giannantoni, 2003). I think it is an extremely helpful and important concept.
I’m currently reading Environment, Power Society in the Twenty First Century, and am continually amazed by Odum’s broad perspectives and american how the concepts interact and this school essay support one another across many systems, scales, and depths. I think it is a work of genius. OK, having said that…I also recognize that new concepts such as emergy, and fourth and fifth laws of thermodynamics need rigorous analysis from a wide body of experts…and that blog comments are not the greatest forum to undertake such an thesis on african slavery exploration. I did a quick Google search. One paper I found discussing the common, criticisms of emergy was “Promise and Problems of Emergy Analysis” by Hau and Bakshi. The paper above is sympathetic to Odum’s view, so I also looked up one of the papers they reference as critical of Odum’s view. I chose to look up Cutler Cleveland’s paper, because I have a respect for Cleveland’s work in thesis, ecological economics and the concept of application arco, EROI.
The paper is called “Aggregation and the Role of Energy in the Economy” This comment is too long already, so I won’t try to summarize the papers here. I did note to my surprise that Cleveland very early on extols the importance of energy quality. “Despite its widespread use, aggregating different energy types by their heat units embodies a serious flaw: it ignores qualitative differences among energy vectors.” Cleveland notes various researchers considering energy quality back to at least 1960. Secondly, Cleveland praises Odum for laying the foundation of thesis on african slavery, research into biophysical energy and material flows in systems that provided the intellectual backbone for the discipline of ecological economics. He does criticize emergy analysis as being one dimensional (he has the same criticism of exergy analysis). I would be interested in hearing about any other more academically oriented criticisms or defenses of arco college, emergy and the laws of american slavery, maximum em-power and the new york debates hierarchies of thesis, energy. Literature Review Management! I’m especially interested if anyone has a good quote from Charles Hall on these subjects…perhaps something from the on african american slavery, 1995 book he edited, “Maximum Power: The Ideas and Applications of H.T. Odum.” Hi, David.
No, this isn’t the place for rigorous analysis, thanks. I’ve heard these complaints so many times over the past 40 years–yet Odum’s explanations for how the world works have been borne out over time in what’s happening in the world today. Common! That is such rock solid evidence for me that I’m not much interested in these arguments. We stopped and saw Charlie and his wife in late July on my bike trip–it was good to see them. Here’s an email that has been sitting in my box for american slavery, 2 months now waiting for some opportunity to copy and paste. So here’s Charlie’s take, with his permission. I was trying to wheedle him into expanding it into a guest post, but I guess this will do: “Odum was my PhD adviser and I have written a book called “Maximum Power ” (Colorado Univ.
Press). The idea is not that entropy should be maximized but that there is selection for an optimal rate of doing each process where rate and greene a shocking accident efficiency are opposite thesis, and what is graham essay selected for on african, is maximum power at an intermediate efficiency. This concept would operate so that organisms do not operate at maximum efficiency or as fast as possible but at an intermediate rate of each. Odum thought that as resources change the location on the power curve change and successful (surviving) organisms would adjust their rates accordingly. There was nothing necessarily about over the cliff for other organisms or humans or civilizations in what he said. But it was still uncomfortable for us grad students who thought humans should restrict their appetites. I think he would say from this perspective “If the US does not use the middle East oil then the problems uploading essays app, Chinese will” but also “as the oil is thesis depleted successful nations will adjust their spending appropriately.
There is much more of this available on the website and elsewhere, and I have written “the continuing importance of maximum power” published in essays during the new york debates, Ecological Modelling in a special tribute to Odum. Do not despair quite yet, although H.T. and I both think the world is likely to be quite different” (email, CAS Hall, July 26, 2013). The PDF version of the 2004 Ecological Modelling article is linked below: I have thoroughly enjoyed the comments this time round. Funny how I send you an email asking this very question and it blows up in the comment section.
The world is a strange place and coincidence abounds. Brian, yes, I find myself wondering the same thing about the series of on african american, coincidences. Serendipity, but maybe mostly a number of connected people with two or 3 degrees of management, separation who are thinking about the same things. Mary, thank you! That paper by Hall is like gold to me, with its review and analysis of Odum’s career! I highly recommend everyone give it a read. “For most of us who have been exposed to thesis on african, it [Maximum power principle] in some detail, there is no doubt as to its veracity.” “I believe it to be extremely interesting, and enormously more important than most things with which we fill our students’ heads.” I keep a short list of articles to recommend for basic energy literacy, and essays ratification this 1973 paper by Odum is at the top of that list. I also love the introduction given by Mother Earth News when they reprinted it: “In early November of 1973—during a visit to MOTHER’s new home in the mountains of thesis on african american slavery, western North Carolina—New Alchemist John Todd gave the magazine’s editors about the 14th-generation Xerox copy of what can conservatively be described as a dynamite paper. “We had only to glance at this extraordinary document to realize that the paper (originally written at the request of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences) is one of the most concise—yet most sweeping—examinations yet made of the real problems of. the world.
Read it and see for essays york debates, yourself.” I’m also glad to on african american slavery, see another person here who recognizes the strong connection between Odum and hsc David Holmgren’s articulation of Permaculture. Holmgren wrote the first Permaculture book (Permaculture One), with Bill Mollison serving the role of editor and advisor. Thesis American! The very first reference in Permaculture One is to Odum’s Environment, Power and Society. And as Holger notices, Holmgren’s “Permaculture Principles and Pathways Beyond Sustainability” is full of constant references to Odum’s work. Holmgren should be read side by side with A Prosperous Way Down and Environment, Power and Society for the 21st Century. These works complement and reinforce one another so well. In terms of how to uploading common app, apply the information, Odum focused on suggesting appropriate governmental policy, whereas Holmgren focuses on on african grassroots, bottom-up actions from individuals and alternative community.
In fact, the other paper at the top of my list for energy literacy is Holmgren’s “Energy and Permaculture.” I see it as an early draft of his later book (the 12 permaculture principles had not yet been developed, but he does offer a nice list of ratification, suggested strategies). It is almost entirely a tribute to thesis, Odum. The third paper on my list is Energy Follows Its Bliss by questions hsc John Michael Greer. I think misconception of solar PV electricity is that you also have to thesis on african american, make do with less. The reality is that you can be more productive with more electricity at no cost. Well, there is the this essay, one time first cost. Which when divided out over the useful life, net to around 3 cents per kWH. Do you even know how much you pay? Simple math on your electric bill divide the Bill amount by the total kWH that month. I am an expert in these matters.
Here is the cost backup.
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African American literature: Slave narrative
essay on odyssey two ODYSSEY ESSAY SAMPLES. TWO MORE ESSAYS below:. ЂњThe Development of on african american slavery Penelope in HomerЂ™s Odyssey Ђќ. ЂњThe Significance of Religion in The Odyssey Ђќ. THE DEVELOPMENT OF PENELOPE IN HOMERЂ™S ODYSSEY. The time of ancient Greece seems like its own story in another world, one nothing like our own. Powerful gods and goddesses, brave warriors, mystical beings, and during the new ratification, the mistreatment of women rule the slavery, plot.
Except that women have been overlooked in graham greene accident, our world for centuries. The insignificance of women was a part of Greek life that is not majestic or ethereal. In the epic poem The Odyssey by Homer, Penelope develops into thesis on african her own character during a time where women are prized as possessions more than people. Homer makes Penelope into her own person and not just an greene a shocking essay, addition to her husband by thesis american his long absence and 3rd application application college college ed essay, the troubles she must face on her own through difficult times. Homer gives her qualities of loyalty, strength, and cunning to be able to survive without a husband when all others think she should just take another. Thesis On African Slavery? Penelope becomes like a character unlike many women in problems uploading app, Greek times such as AgamemnonЂ™s wife, but similar to Circe and Athena. She is turned into a woman of power by Homer.
Odysseus reluctantly departs to go fight in the Trojan War, leaving behind his wife and new son, and thesis on african, ends up staying away for twenty years. Throughout every minute of a shocking accident essay it, Penelope remains more faithful to on african slavery, her husband than he is to why choose this school, her. On African? She never submits to 3rd application college ed essay essay, the whims of the suitors begging for her hand in marriage and only finds ways to on african, make them leave her, while he enjoys the company of Circe and Calypso. In a time where women are not praised for accident, their minds but for their beauty, faithfulness for american, twenty years wins her a place as the problems uploading essays, highest form of women. Agamemnon compares her to his wife and on african american, praises her as being the Ђњmistress of her own heart,/ Penelope!Ђќ (XXIV.222-223) while his own wife Ђњthe adulteress,/ waited to stab her lord and kingЂќ (XXIV.225-226). Essay Hsc? From these statements, Agamemnon concludes that Ђњthe very gods themselves will sing her storyЂќ (XXIV.221), claiming that faithfulness is the best quality a woman could have. Penelope stays steadfast and alone through twenty years of american her life, without a man by problems uploading common app her side to on african american, see her through.
AgamemnonЂ™s wife finds herself another man to rely on while her own husband is gone, succumbing to the urges of society and the social status of graham greene a shocking accident essay women at slavery, the time. Penelope is able to stay loyal to essays york debates, her husband even after twenty years. The two wives of warriors are completely different, one fickle, and one faithful. Penelope is forced by the long absence of her husband to guide her to become strong and guarded so that she can live without Odysseus. Penelope is faced with challenges at home while Odysseus is away, challenges that without strength would be impossible to face every day.
She is left with a son, not even two, to raise on her own, without the guidance of a father figure in his life. Telemachus is father-less until he is twenty-one, an issue for Penelope because she cannot raise him as a man and king would, and the fate of her kingdom rests with him. In addition, once OdysseusЂ™ mother dies and thesis, Laertes goes to live alone, Penelope is left alone to essays the new york ratification debates, rule Ithaca, no small task for a queen by herself. There are also the suitors who claim Odysseus to thesis on african american, be dead and uploading essays, ask for her hand in marriage every day. They will not leave Penelope in peace and Ђњevery suitor swore to thesis american slavery, lie beside herЂќ (I.115) but ЂњSpurn them she dare notЂќ (I.295) in fear of evoking their wrath and therefore the destruction of her home and family. She must remain strong, never submitting to the demands of the suitors and never allowing her hatred of them to gain the upper hand. She must guard herself and her home from their anger and of their insistence of OdysseusЂ™ death.
If they begin to believe that he will never return, then there remains no reason to stay strong through such trying times. Penelope is similar to Circe in that they both can live and flourish without men in their lives. Circe disposes of essays ratification debates any men who come to her island, and has made herself a woman to fear. Penelope remains strong like Circe, but does not evoke fear in otherЂ™s hearts. She has no wish to kill even the men that plague her, only wishes that they would be gone. On African? She never allows them to gain the uploading common, upper hand over her life, but remains strong throughout.
When Odysseus returns, Penelope cannot simply accept the fact the he is who he says he after twenty years when so much is uncertain. Penelope feels that it would be best to test him to make sure that he tells the truth. Her cunning saves her from a possibility of on african american slavery being deeply wounded, which would have happened if she believed that the man before her was Odysseus, then finds out that he is not. As close as Penelope and literature review on financial management, Odysseus were before he left, the more painful it would have been to have him torn from her again. She tests him by having him Ђњtried to the breaking pointЂќ (XXIII.206) by suggesting that the bed he made with his own hands was no longer where he had left it. She also uses her wily wits to stall the suitors from forcing her into an unwanted marriage. Penelope claims that she must finish weaving a shroud for OdysseusЂ™ father before she can marry again, which the suitors readily agree to because of the piety of the work. What the suitors are unaware of is that Ђњevery day she wove on the great loom--/ but every night by torchlight she unwove itЂќ (II.112-113) so that she will never finish and have to marry one of the suitors.
Her trick works for three years, but when it fails, she finds a task for the suitors that none will be able to accomplish: the american, stringing of OdysseusЂ™ bow and firing an arrow through the holes in twelve axe heads. In the use of her cunning, Penelope is able to put off the efforts of the suitors for this essay, over three years, an impressive feat with men so persistent. Athena, the goddess of wisdom, appreciates Odysseus for his cunning because it is similar to her own. Thesis? PenelopeЂ™s cunning is literature, therefore also similar to AthenaЂ™s. Both are female figures in a time of male rulings that use their shrewd skills to retain power. PenelopeЂ™s ability to remain strong and faithful relies on her wits, which she realizes and takes advantage of. Penelope is seen at first as a wife of a hero, and nothing more. Thesis On African? She is known by her husband, whose valiant deeds are known throughout the lands. As the poem progresses, she begins to take shape of an important character with faith, strength, and wit, three valuable traits.
Penelope develops into essays during york a person from a faceless being in thesis slavery, a time where women are valued for their bodies. In the time of ancient Greece, women were insignificant. PenelopeЂ™s character proves that women can be important to a story and the development of a happy ending. The Odyssey is an epic poem and a story full of captivating tales of heroism and bravery. Without PenelopeЂ™s strength, wisdom, and loyalty, Odysseus would have had nothing to come home to and the story would have been a tragedy. With a happy ending readers think of the wonders of quests and other worldly beings that make the plot exciting, but if Penelope had not stayed true the stories would have seemed to tell only of death. The actions of a mere woman could change the whole story, a concept that in application college essay, ancient Greece would be hard to grasp. ------------------------------------------------------------ The Significance of Religion in american, The Odyssey. Religion has always been significant throughout history. Many peopleЂ™s lives or jobs are dedicated to religion, to god.
For some, most everything they do revolves around their religion; they constantly think about a shocking, how their god would judge their actions. HomerЂ™s Odyssey tells the story of thesis american slavery OdysseusЂ™s journey home, and the new york ratification, how the gods affect this voyage. Thesis On African American? The Greek gods and the religion itself are very significant to essays app, the story. Whether itЂ™s deterring Odysseus on his journey home, helping him along, causing one to harm another, or causing two countries to go to war, the gods are ever-present and a critical aspect to the story. One way the gods play an important role is by acting as a hindrance for Odysseus. Thesis American Slavery? He must overcome many obstacles on his journey home, which would not be nearly as difficult or as much of an issue if not for the interference of the gods. An example of this is when Circe entraps Odysseus and his men with her irresistible offers of review meat and bread, thus causing them to stay much longer then they intend to. While on CirceЂ™s island, Odysseus narrates, ЂњSo day by thesis slavery day we lingered, feasting long/ on roasts and wine, until a year grew fatЂќ (X.516, 517). CirceЂ™s offers are so enticing to Odysseus and questions hsc, his crew that they stay for too long, causing their trip to be delayed an thesis on african slavery, entire year. Graham Greene A Shocking Accident? She is one goddess that creates a hurdle Odysseus must leap over.
Another is Poseidon. Just as Odysseus is about to reach his homeland of Ithaca, Poseidon says, ЂњStill I can give him a rough ride, and I willЂќ (V.300). He Ђњgives him a rideЂќ by creating huge waves that destroy OdysseusЂ™s raft, thus deterring him even further. Thesis? These are both instances in the story where gods are significant in that they act as obstacles for Odysseus to overcome. Although these hindrances are both trying, they represent only a tiny portion of the problems the gods cause him. These predicaments and challenges are what make the story; they create a sense of tension and resolve. Without the gods, this cycle wouldnЂ™t be present. Essay? This is why the godsЂ™ role in the Odyssey as obstacles is so important. American Slavery? Interestingly enough, the gods are also significant in this school essay, the story for the exact opposite reason. Another way the gods play an important role in the story is by aiding Odysseus on thesis on african american slavery, his journey home.
Athena is especially helpful in journey questions, this way. When Odysseus is battling the suitors to regain control of his home, he is greatly outnumbered. Athena Ђњturns their shots, or all but twoЂќ (XXII.303). This action saves OdysseusЂ™s life, and helps him regain control of thesis on african american slavery his home and family. The fact that when in greene accident, need of assistance, he has a goddess looking after him is critical to the story; it enables him to fight battles, both literal and figurative, that he couldnЂ™t win on his own. Knowing that Athena and other gods care about Odysseus and want to help him significantly changes the story. Thesis On African? At times such as the aforementioned battle where Odysseus is so greatly outnumbered, he might be inclined to lose hope if not for the knowledge that Athena will be there for him.
The help of the gods is essays app, also important just to thesis slavery, counteract the actions of the gods who dislike Odysseus. If he was only being hurt and not aided by the gods, his story would most likely end much sooner. The godsЂ™ aid is significant because frankly needs it. He would not be able to accomplish such great feats without their help, and would likely be finished off by the gods who do not wish him to return home. The Greek religion, particularly the belief that the gods control all aspects of life, is also very important. After thinking the essays app, gods werenЂ™t on his side because the thesis on african, winds are blowing his ship the wrong direction, Agamemnon believes that he must kill his own daughter as a sacrifice so that the gods will blow his ship towards Troy. 3rd Application Arco College Ed Essay Essay? Even though killing his child has no scientific relation or effect on the wind in any way, Agamemnon feels he must do so to please the gods so that his ship can sail. The author describes AgamemnonЂ™s decision: Ђњthis was terrible to all, but to her father (Agamemnon) it was hardly bearableЂќ (Hamilton 261).
Despite the pain it causes him, pleasing the gods comes first. Thesis American Slavery? Hamilton continues, ЂњNevertheless he yieldedЂќ (Hamilton 261). Management? The idea that his own daughterЂ™s life isnЂ™t as important as appealing to the gods seems awful when looked at through contemporary lenses. However, the gods and the idea of religion causes people to value them higher than anything else in their life; including their loved ones. People, like Agamemnon, feel that they have to on african slavery, do something so that the uploading common app, gods will give them what they want in on african slavery, return. The gods are significant in this way because their approval and satisfaction influences peopleЂ™s actions throughout the graham accident, story. Their religion is critical to their lives because it influences most everything they do. The gods are also significant because they can start or stop a fight on a whim, cause people to battle at will, and start an all-out war.
At the end of the story, a fight between the mourning parents of the suitors and Odysseus and Laertes is about to break out. Before it can really begin, Athena says, ЂњЂ™Odysseus, master of land ways and sea ways,/command yourself. Call off this battle now,/or Zeus who views the wide world may be angryЂ™Ђќ (XXIV.607-609). Throughout The Odyssey, fights break out frequently, during which many lose their lives. The fact that Athena can stop a fight this easily makes one wonder why, if she and other gods posses this power, fighting is thesis on african, not ceased more often. Journey Essay Hsc? So many people die during war that whomever has the american, power to begin or end a war has the power to save or take away many, many lives.
The gods play an important role in this way by choosing to literature on financial management, participate in war, or by choosing, as Athena did, to on african american slavery, stop the fighting from happening. It is journey hsc, apparent how the gods are significant to the Odyssey. They make it the thesis on african american slavery, exciting, epic story that it is. Although the york ratification debates, gods play a very different role in society today than they did during this time period, they are still just as significant. Many people will still say that god is the single most important part of life today, an idea that was prominent throughout the Odyssey.