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Castan human rights essay

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Russia and castan, World Trade Organization (WTO) Essay Sample. The world became a smaller place because of technological development. Global trade is becoming the trend in business. In a global economy, the movement of goods and transitional, materials is very crucial for the success of a company. When one wants to be known globally, it will market its products around the world, thus the right timing of shipment is necessary for profit. There are different organizations that exist to control the global trade to make it more smooth sailing.

On of this organization is the WTO or World Trade Organization. Today, this is the only global trade organization that handles guidelines on castan human rights essay, trade between nations. WTO was established to oversee the business of thesis export and import of goods and services as well as to help producers and companies in conducting their job. The last country that was included in the member’s list of WTO is Saudi Arabia in 2005. Currently there are one hundred forty-nine members of WTO and there is still a lot of human country that is still aspiring to join the group. Among those that are long aspiring to be a part of the organization is Russia. World Trade Organization (WTO) was created only in 1995 as the transitional words for research, replacement of GATT or General Agreement on Tariffs and human, Trade.

WTO took over the regulations that GATT has taken into account of. It is also embodied by the same principle that is to establish an environment for world trade that is to encourage multilateral trade and aims to dissertations, lower trade barriers. Castan Human Rights! Currently there are 149 countries included in temple law school, the organization and others are still in human rights essay, the process of about technology meeting the criteria set for a would-be member. Members of the rights essay, World Trade Organization include industrialized countries like the essays & an english, United States, China, Switzerland and the latest which is Saudi Arabia. Every year, the organization hold its ministerial conference to debate on current issues about the economy and to improve regulations as to what is the current need of the international trade economy.

There are some who view WTO as a deficiency to the global economy instead of being a help to it. Castan Human Rights! Nevertheless, many countries are still vying to be part of the organization because of the belief that this organization will help them in elevating their economic status. Members of the World Trade Organization have to go through a process of words acessation before they could be called one. A country wanting to be a member of WTO still needs to be an observer for five years before the process of negotiation for castan rights essay, its membership start. Generally, there are four steps that need to be fulfilled to essays, be granted the right. First, a memorandum is submitted to the organization giving details of their economic status and is to be look upon by a working party designated. Second, the country wanting the grant must go through a series of negotiations with the organization members regarding trading interests. This negotiation is done the applicant and individual countries. Third, if the negotiation went well and parallel bilateral market access negotiations are complete, the working party will release its draft membership treaty and list of the member-to-be’s commitments. And lastly, the WTO General Council or the Ministerial Conference will conduct a voting process. If the applicant country will get at least two thirds of the castan rights, WTO members to well-defined thesis, vote in favor of them, then the protocol will be signed and make them a bonafide member of the organization.

Each and every country has an equal right to be a member of the World Trade Organization if they can meet up the expectations set. Castan Essay! The duration before a country could be granted the right to be member differs. The shortest was with the Kyrgyz Republic that only needed two years to make it through and the longest was China because it took fifteen years and five months to be exact before it was granted the right to be a member of the World Trade Organization. Even before World Trade Organization came into effect, Russia has applied to join GATT in 1993. However since WTO took over GATT in well-defined statement, 1995, the application was transferred to WTO. Up to this date, Russia is still in negotiations for its membership. Among the countries with the largest economy, it is castan human sad to note that one of those that is not yet part of the global trade is Russia. Russia has been trying to participate into World Trade Organization for thirteen years, only two years short of the years China before China was granted the right. As to date, Among the countries vying for temple law school, membership in the WTO, Russia has the largest economy but is still outside the WTO system. In 2005, there are a total of twenty-nine countries that have given an affirmation for Russia.

This is already fifty percent of the working party assigned to its accession (http://www.wto.int/english/news_e/news05_e/acc_russia_apr05_e.htm). Among the countries that are in the working party of Russia is the castan, United States of America, its co-member in the G8 or the Group of Eight. Besides United States and Russia, other members of G8 are Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom. Leaders of law school dissertations this country meet yearly to talk about castan essay international issues that concern them and the world. However, the cultural, United States is still one of those that have not signed an agreement with Russia. Castan Human Rights Essay! There are still many issues that are being worked in regarding trading system and an added plus is the opinion of a group of U.S. business leaders. A letter from the some investor and businessman group in the United States has given President Bush a letter before the G8 summit that concerns their view about the trade between America and Russia. Temple! Their concern is they want that before United States sign the castan rights, accession of Russia, Russia needs to modify the temple, regulations on US agricultural export and to improve protection of intellectual property.

Reports said that this letter was because of a threat that was made by Russian President Vladimir Putin that it will backtrack on castan, trade rules the country is already implementing if the United States will not reach an agreement for WTO (MosNews, 2006). American businessman wanted a standard that is refined and implementable. In the G8 summit, both countries have again failed to reach an agreement. The US is only one country with which Russia has still to conclude a bilateral deal on entry into the 149-nation trade organization. In the current trend that is happening in the negotiation process, America has a clear influence in Russia’s accession to the WTO. Russia’s importance would be in being a strategic partner in the war on terrorism and the continuous growth in its economy. Russia has an official name of Russian Federation. Transitional For Research Papers! It is the castan human essay, country in the eastern part of Europe and northern stretch of Asia. This country was first known as Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic or the USSR. The capital city is papers Moscow and the recorded population of the country to date is castan 143 million, sixth country with the biggest population.

Russia is also the largest country as per the land area covered. During the Soviet Era, General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev attempt to modernize communism. He did this by presenting the idea of glasnost (openness) and perestroika (restructuring). However, this move of Gorbachev has paved the way for essays & explorations an english anthology, disintegration of the USSR into human essay 15 independent republics (The World Factbook 2005). Russia has undergone a lot of social and political change before it reached the status that it has now. It was in 1917 after the statement, Russian Revolution they have first elected officials for their first parliament. Vladimir Ilich Ulyanov or better known as Lenin was considered to be one of the advocates of a revolution in rights, Russia and is the first premier of the parliament form of government. During his term (1917-1924) his goal was to modernize the industry and agriculture status. He wanted to raise the level of culture in the countryside and to overcome backwardness, ignorance, poverty, disease, and barbarism. He believes that communism and bringing electricity to Russia is the answer makes these goals a reality. In 1921, New Economic Policy was adopted by the Russian government because the for research, Communism policy that was first adopted showed that it was not apt for the Russian economy to rights, grow.

The New Economic Policy was also formulated by Lenin. The New Economic Policy employed the well-defined statement, use of an economic and commercial accounting basis on its operation of trades. Payment of wages was also change in this policy; from kinds to cash. The New Economic Policy became strict in dealing with the workers; they have set a specific numbers of workers that are needed in one enterprise and castan, those that excess are dismissed form their job. One positive aspect of & an english anthology New Economic Policy was on castan, the agricultural side. During the words, Communism system, surplus foods were acquired by the police but by the new policy, it was not. Farmers and businessman can sell their extra crops and obtain profit from it. This policy paved the way for the export of grain and coal that has helped elevate the economy. It was recorded that Russia’s import economy in 1925 has go up nine times that of 1922 level (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/new_economic_policy1.htm).

Since the new economy take into place, Russia has decided to castan essay, hand it over to the State Bank to make a new currency to meet the demands. It was not all good because the good transformation in beach essays, the economy was only castan seen in the cities and is not felt in the rural areas. Because of this dilemma, another major economic crisis emerged, the Scissors Crisis (http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/new_economic_policy1.htm). The Scissors crisis was characterized by having industrial prices were three times higher than agricultural prices. This economic imbalance has started in 1923 which is partly due to the incentives given for production piloted higher production of foods. Technology! Compared to castan rights, the countryside, costs in industry were high. In the law school dissertations, field of agriculture, there was never a shortage of workers in the country side and equipments were still traditional and cheap. Since making profit was the driving force, most farmers have opted for the production of foods like grains because this has greater potential for human essay, a established market. The problem was that more and more planted grains and the Cotton Industry was starving of its basic raw materials because of this.

Government did something about it by intervening and buying some of the cognition, food crops to rights, force the prices down. This was their way to make the farmers plant other kinds of crops to beach descriptive, sustain the industry. Castan Human! The Russian government intervenes in the best possible way that they can. There are still problems regarding Russia’s economic status that needs to be solve and enhance and the succeeding government after Lenin also drafted policies that they have made their economy what it is well-defined thesis statement today. Stalin attempted to do this with collectivization. Another crisis that Russia has undergone was the high inflation rate in 1992. This was almost the same year that Russia has become a federation and a change in the form of castan rights essay government was done. Some economists have attributed this inflation and the downfall of the economy with issues regarding the monetary and cultural cognition, banking systems. Castan Rights! It was said that from 1991-1995, Russia has non-system of monetary control and about technology, regulation and a non-banking system, or a system of ersatz bank (OECD Economic Surveys).

The inflation rate has caused rapid growth in castan human, nonperforming debt. They struggle with stabilization. And on August 1998, The Russian Economy has collapse investors has doubted the economic reform process that was going on then. This has started when financier George Soros commented that “the turmoil in Russia’s financial markets had reached a terminal phase.” This comment has scared investors and Russia has lost more than 80% of its value for that year on just one day (BBC News). Purchases of government short-term bonds, or GKOs, ground to a halt, The Russian central bank had the inter-bank market crippled by acute liquidity problems.

Russia’s answer to this crisis was to stick to the economic strategies that they have in line and not easily give up to what others are pressing them to do. Russia lacks the legal and institutional changes and this is what hinders them from achieving much of their goals. As Bruce Bean, head of the American chamber of Commerce in Moscow, summed up the situation: “Change the essays & an english anthology, name of the country, change the flag, and change the border. Castan Rights Essay! Yes, this was done overnight. But build a market economy, introduce a meaningful tax system, create new accounting rules, accept the concept that companies which cannot compete should go bankrupt and the workers there lose their jobs? These things take time. “ Current political, economic and legal obstacles for Russia to an argumentative about technology, enter WTO. B.1 political aspect. Political aspects of WTO membership play an human rights, important role for Russia. This is one of the problems why Russia is still not a member of the World Trade Organization because of beach essays descriptive a number of disagreements with other countries especially America on views about political moves and economic policy.

When the United States declared against war on Iraq, Russia was one of those who oppose this moved. Russian foreign Minster Igor Ivanov was one of those who blocked its way through the human rights essay, United Nations Security Council for the war to well-defined thesis statement, be a legal one (Bryan, 2003). The Russians believe that what America had done will not help the situation but instead create a catastrophe in the Persian Gulf. The United States on castan, the other hand accuses Russia of supplying Iraq with military equipment to Iraq that means the country has by beach descriptive, pass the sanction given by United Nations against Iraq. Russia denied this allegation and asked the United States to act more responsibly. Another disagreement between Russia and the United States of America was regarding the sanction that is to be given to North Korea for testing nuclear bombs within their grounds. The United Nations wanted to castan essay, punish North Korea for beach essays descriptive, what it has done by banning the travel of people who are involved in the testing program and to freeze all assets related to North Korea’s weapons and missile programs. The United States wanted to give a severe punishment to rights essay, North Korea for the threat that the testing has inflicted on explorations an english anthology, many. Castan Human Essay! However, Russia and China is not in favor of putting on well-defined statement, a harsh punishment for North Korea.

They wanted that the sanction that will be given be limited only to the nuclear program (Lederer, 2006). Russia and China has a close political ties but this has not proven to be a big help regarding economic issues between the castan, two countries. Russians still doubt the intention of China in trying to invest heavily in their country. Though Russia would want China to invest and increased trade, they do not want China to get involved in highly profitable or strategically valuable areas. Russia is still on guard regarding opening their country to foreign political invasion (Bai Hua, 2004).

B.2 economical aspect. In an law school, economy, it is important that business risk be handled well to make sure that income is generated. Risk in business can be caused by some factors like volatility of input costs, inflation, economic periods, and sensitivity of sales to economic factors. (Brackers, 2004) Firms that have greater degrees of leverage have greater levels of fixed costs. The advantage of having greater degrees of leverage is that as a firm’s sales volume increases beyond the break-even point, its margins improve. (Maneval, 2006) One disadvantage though of having a high level of leverage is that the specific company needs a high gross of sale to reach the break even point set. When sales are high, a high degree of leverage works for them in away that profit is castan rights also being maximized. When sales are not good, a lower degree of leverage is technology needed to make sure that losses are diminished. (Maneval, 2006) High levels of Business risk determine the degree of the volatile of sales and rights essay, the changes in EBIT as dictated by the change in essay about technology, sales.

The degree of business risk a company or industry takes is directly proportional to the volatility of the EBIT that they could get. (Brackers, 2004) Eighty percent of Russia’s export product is consists of castan Oil, natural gas, metals, and timber. Essay! In the world trade market, Russia has one of the castan human, lowest trade barriers. Their nominal tariff rates vary between 7 percent and 15 percent, this rate is low under WTO standard. Transitional Words! Tariff and non-tariff barriers are most often used by countries to control the ins and outs of international trade in castan human essay, their country. Russian tariffs have decline but they still proved to be significant in the economy if the country. The general import tariffs of the country ranges from five to fifty percent. They tried to fuse tariffs into major product groups like semi-finished goods, foodstuffs, finished products and raw materials. This unification has contributed to the lowering of the tariffs. Russia has made this move to combat customs fraud and improve collections (Foreign Trade Barriers). Regarding non-tariff barriers, Russia still has a tight control regarding alcohol production, export duties, and temple law school dissertations, increased excise taxes.

These controls were seen one move to increase their revenue. For other goods, an import license is necessary to make it through. Castan! Among these are encryption software, radioactive materials, and raw or processed sugar. United States see this move of Russia as a barrier in for research papers, doing business with the castan human essay, country because of the restrictions imposed (Foreign Trade Barriers). The United States and Russia also has a concern regarding pharmaceutical products since the government focuses more on price concerns than on the quality and safety of the products. This means that higher-priced imports are often discouraged from essay, appearing on reimbursement lists and state purchases (Foreign Trade Barriers). US also demands for Moscow to allow foreign banks to open direct branches, not just Russian subsidiary companies as now.

B.3 Legal Obstacles. Another serous concern of Russia is intellectual property violations. United States has recorded an annual lost of $1 billion annually because of copyright piracy. The sales of estimate piracy in Russia is castan human eighty percent in the film industry which accounts for beach descriptive, the production of human pirated DVD’s, sixty-six percent in music and an english, eighty-eight percent in software (Foreign Trade Barriers). Rights! Because of an argumentative essay about this serious problem, the Russian Government has reconstituted the Interministerial IPR Commission to address the issue regarding intellectual property right. Also, this is part of what Russia should fix in order to gain accession to the WTO. Other countries are still in doubt regarding the castan human essay, capacity of Russia to implement this rule against intellectual property rights. Intellectual property rights also pose a big problem in the field of pharmaceuticals, consumer goods, and distilled spirits products. When a corporation acts “responsibly,” this means that business is conducted by the company in a credible, reliable and trustworthy manner. Beach Descriptive! “Accountability,” on the other hand, is about how corporations should continue to follow regulatory or legal requirements or otherwise be held liable or face sanctions.

The difference between these two concepts is that accountability, compliance needs independent oversight and enforcement of placed mechanisms. Responsibility on the other, means relying on voluntary following set self-regulation (2002). Part of corporate governance includes coders of conduct that is on how a corporation operationalizes these values. In a global setting of the market, companies adhered to this governance to compete effectively and ethically. These codes of conducts should also be are made culturally coherent to all of their employees. (Wozniak) In Europe, the promotion of CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) reflects the need to defend common values and increase the sense of solidarity and cohesion (2006). The Commission to the European Parliament, the castan, Council and essays & explorations, the European Economic and castan rights essay, Social Committee are helping one another to set a working CSR for their country. Trade Benefits for descriptive, Russia and its other trade partners. In an international trade scene, economies of scale will play a critical role in castan human essay, determining the cultural thesis, unit cost that will increase returns. Economies of scale give big companies access to a larger market by allowing them to operate with greater geographical reach.

Russia is an extremely important country to the United States of America, politically and economically. A stable and castan human rights, democratic Russia is statement crucial to the security of the United States because of the entire weapon for destructions that Russia keeps in its pocket. American poultry beef and pork’s largest market is Russia. This means that each country contemplates to the success of this industry since they depend on each other. ON the other hand, America contributes to Russia’s economy by the purchase of some of their primary products like precious metals such as palladium. US consumers also account for the purchase of 2 million gallons of human rights essay vodka and over 3.6 million arctic King crabs. Most investors that have invested in the field of consumer products and information technology have reported a double-digit growth in their profit.

This showed a considerable opportunity for the trade and investment of a wide range of technologically sophisticated American products. The 2002 World Economic Forecast of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) predicted that Russia will continue its growth in economy. Russia has the ability to essays & anthology, maintain viable markets for capital and consumer goods. Russia and Eastern Europe is castan human included on those foreseen to have a less severe global economic slowdown. Capital budgeting is when one company makes a long term investment regarding their product or their service. There are many methods that are being used when deciding about investments, these includes discounted cash flow techniques like net present value, internal rate of return and the modified internal rate of an argumentative about return and equivalent annuity method. These methods use an incremental cash flow from castan essay, each potential investment.(Wikipedia) The Russia Federation is already the world’s second largest oil-producing country. In the global market, the potential of Russia to be an important oil producer is essays explorations an english now considered. Human Essay! They help keep the price down and to be an important reserve oil supplier for Europe and japan since the dissertations, instability in the Middle East.

Russia is also the fifth-largest trading partner of human EU. Cultural Cognition Thesis! Half of Russia’s foreign trade is with EU. In a competitive market, companies do everything to human rights essay, have a positive net value profit, because having a positive one means that the company is able to gain from the investment that they have made. All other things being equal, the better investment is the one with the shorter payback period. Each component contributes to the behavior of the system. No component has an independent effect on the system. The behavior of the system is changed if any component is removed or changed. Essays! The system has an outside – an environment – which provides inputs into the system and receives outputs from the system. Russia still faces many challenges in achieving the castan essay, stability of the country. This is contributed by many factors regarding the past government and policies of the an argumentative essay about technology, country.

Politically, Russia is still not a fully-democratic country. Russia has been under a dictatorship form of government for a very long time and human rights, this contributes to them being alienated from cultural thesis, Western ideologies and experiences. Another factor that worries and undermines other countries like the United States is its characteristic bravado as it a recent superpower. Human Rights! Others worry if they are truly ready for the global market. Another concern that was raised against Russia was its massive numbers of stored weapons for destruction that other countries feared they might transact and eventually be used to start a war again. Though economist sees Russian economy as somewhat not yet prosperous, the forecast regarding its performance remains optimistic. The Russian economy grew 5.3 percent in 1999, 8.3 percent in 2000, and 5 percent in 2001. GDP growth rate is expected to rise at about 3 percent to 5 percent each year. Temple Law School Dissertations! Industrial output is expected to have similar increases. Russia is an important asset to the U.S. in the field of castan human politics and statement, economy.

Politically, the security of the United States is crucial and is somewhat dependent on Russia having a stable and democratic government. In addition, another importance of Russia is its vast natural resources, particularly petroleum. Despite all the challenges that Russia is facing, it is to be noted that they have showed great progress in the different areas of concern. Politically, they are becoming more stable and a true democratic country may not be far from realization. Castan Essay! Even with issues on essays & explorations anthology, the nature of Russian privatization abounds, investment in the country is still growing. In 2004, Russia has recorded it sixth year of steady growth with an annual average of 6.5% since the financial crisis of 1998. Investment and consumer-driven demand have played a significant role in the process of growth. In 2004, gains greater than 10% over the last five years on castan essay, real fixed capital investments have been recorded. Well-defined Thesis Statement! Strong oil export earnings have also contributed to the increase in castan, its foreign reserves; from only $12 billion to an argumentative essay about technology, some $120 billion.

Business and investor confidence in Russia’s economic prospects have risen because of these achievements, along with a renewed government effort to advance structural reforms. Not only the world market is strengthening but Russia is also showing steady growth on their internal market. The investment of international firms has also contributed to its economic growth. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), Russia had nearly $26 billion in cumulative foreign direct investment inflows during the 2001-2004 periods. Russia is working on joining the World Trade Organization because they know that if they succeeded in joining, economic reforms will follow that would make their economic status more developed. Castan Human Rights! Accession to the WTO is also seen by Russia as one way of well-defined thesis decreasing their debt of castan human rights essay about 137 billion dollars by increasing foreign competition and investment. It has a goal to well-defined thesis, transform from being one of the world’s largest debtors to an important economic partner of the United States and other developed countries. Regarding investment in Russia, firm has investment options with profits that are commonly moderate. An unusually attractive investment opportunity comes up with much higher return. The cash made out of this investment could be reinvested at the moderate rate of return rather than in another unusually high-return investment. It is important to recall that WTO Accession is above all an economic process and negotiation.

Russia had experience huge income inequalities hindering Russia’s opportunity to become a more diversified economy. It might still be a long way for Russia but they are definitely on human, the right track. Russia is aiming for a holistic change. Beach Descriptive! Any business needs an amount of human essay risk and determination to succeed. The capital is one important factor that determines the thesis, future of one industry that is castan rights why it is important that the amount invested in any given company or business is carefully monitored if it is being use to the fullest and if it will augment to all the needs needed to make it. Life is a continuous process of change and evolution. The only thing constant in this world is change. In order for essays explorations an english, an individual to grow, he needs to make a sound decision about the castan human, changes that he is going to adapt. The same thing goes for a business establishment or any country. Explorations! Business and companies exist within society and society prescribe behavior norm. Success is castan essay nothing if you can not measure it.

Sustainable development is words for research about balancing short term priorities with long term needs. Russia needs to keep an eye on this outstanding plan that they have. Implementation and essay, evaluation would play a crucial part in determining the outcome. Foreign Trade Barriers. (n.d) Russia. p517-531. Retrieved November 07, 2006 from. New Economic Policy. (2006). History Learning Site. Modern World History :The Russian. Revolution. Cognition Thesis! Retrieved November 07, 2006 from castan rights, http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/new_economic_policy1.htm. Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), OECD Economic Surveys.

1997–1998: Russian Federation (Paris: OECD, 1997), p. 91. BBC News. August 13, 1998. “Russia faces meltdown.” Business: The Economy. Retrieved. November 07, 2006 from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/business/the_economy/150197.stm. Bryan, Rebecca. March 26, 2003. Ivanov Warns US Against Unleashing ‘Information War’ Russia Journal Daily. Lederer, Edith M. Oct.

12, 2006.Travel ban added to N. Korea resolution. The Charlotte. Observer. Retrieved November 07, 2006 from http://www.charlotte.com/mld/charlotte/news/world/15736919.htm. Bai Hua . Sep 25, 2004. The Sino-Russian Political Relationship Has Failed to Produce. Economic Benefits.Voice of America Translated by the Epoch Times.

Retrieved November 07, 2006 from http://www.theepochtimes.com/news/4-9-25/23427.html. Russia. (n.d.). The American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/russia. Russia. Transitional Words For Research Papers! (n.d.). The World Factbook 2005. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from Answers.com.

Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/russia. Russia. (n.d.). The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/russia. World Trade Organization. (n.d.). Dictionary of castan essay Finance and Investment Terms. Retrieved. November 07, 2006, from Answers.com Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/world-trade-organization. World Trade Organization. (n.d.). Cultural! Wikipedia.

Retrieved November 07, 2006, from Answers.com. Web site: http://www.answers.com/topic/world-trade-organization. G8. (n.d.). Wikipedia. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from human essay, Answers.com Web site: RFE/RL Newsline.

October 30, 2006. U.S. Close To Deal with Russia on WTO. Retrieved. November 07, 2006, from http://www.rferl.org/featuresarticle/2006/10/8A43B1F1-8632-4F60-A90F-2C727E8B316E.html. WTO: 2005 News Items.

20 April 2005. Accessions: Russia concludes goods negotiations with. 29 members. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from http://www.wto.int/english/news_e/news05_e/acc_russia_apr05_e.htm. MosNews . October 07, 2006. US Business Groups Ask Bush to Delay Russia’s WTO. Accession. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from.

McAdams, Lisa. July 17, 2003. Essays Explorations An English Anthology! Privatization Process to Remain Unchanged, says Russian PM. CDI Russia Weekly. #2 – RW 265, Voice of America. Human Essay! Retrieved November 07, 2006, from http://www.cdi.org/russia/265-2.cfm. Kim, Ken and Anna Yelkina. (n.d). An English! Privatization in Russia: its past, present, and future.

Retrieved November 07, 2006, from http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=od=5001930573er=deny. Ivanov. Alexander and Tamara Chistyakova. Castan! 25 July 1998. Privatization in Russia. A Report on. Activities by essay, Ecograd, St. Petersburg, Russia. Retrieved November 07, 2006, from. Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Russia and World Trade Organization (WTO) essay editing for only $13.9 per page.

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clue words essay Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals. In the castan human essay, following essay, Jib Fowles looks at how advertisements work by examining the emotional, subrational appeals that they employ. We are confronted daily by hundreds of fads, only a few of which actually attract our attention. Temple Law School Dissertations! These few do so, according to Fowles, through something primary and castan rights prim itive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin edge of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. Drawing on research done by the psychologist Henry A. Cognition! Murray, Fowles describes fifteen emotional appeals or wedges that advertisements exploit. Underlying Fowles's psychological analysis of advertising is the assumption that advertisers try to circumvent the logical, cautious, skeptical powers we develop as consumers, to reach, instead, the unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of [our] minds. Castan Human Rights Essay! In Fowles's view, consumers are well advised to pay attention to these underlying appeals in order to avoid responding unthinkingly. The nature of effective advertisements was recognized full well by essay about technology the late media Philosopher Marshall McLuhan. In his Understanding Media, the first Sentence of the section on advertising reads, The con- tinuous pressure is to create ads more and more in the image of audience motives and castan human rights essay desires. By giving form to people's deep-lying desires and picturing states of being that individuals privately yearns for, advertisers have the best chance of arresting attention and affecting communication.

And that is the immediate goal of advertising: to tug at our psychological shirts sleeves amd slow us down long enough for a word or two about whatever is being sold. Cultural Thesis! We glance at a picture of a solitary rancher at work, and castan human rights Marlboro slips into our minds. Advertisers (I'm using the thesis, term as shorthand for human rights, both the product's manufacturers, who bring the ambition and money to the process, and the advertising agencies, who supply the know-how) are ever more compelled to invoke consumers' drives and longings; this is the continuous pressure McLuhan refers to. Over the transitional words for research papers, past century, the American marketplace has grown increasingly congested as more and more products have entered into the frenzied competition after the public's dollars. The economies of other nations are quieter than ours since the volume of castan goods being hawked does not so greatly exceed demand. In some economies, consumer wares are scarce enough that no advertising at descriptive all is necessary. But in the United States we go to the extreme. In order to stay in business, an castan rights advertiser must strive to cut through the considerable commercial by any means available--including the emotional appeals that some observers have held to be abhorrent and underhanded. Fowles I Advertising's Fifteen Basic Appeals.

The use of subconscious appeals is a comment not only on conditions among sellers. As time has gone by, buyers have become stoutly resistant to advertisements. We live in a blizzard of these messages and essays explorations an english anthology have learned to turn up our collars and castan essay ward off most of them. A study done a few years ago at Harvard University's Graduate School of essay technology Business Administration ventured that the human essay, average American is exposed to some 500 ads daily from television, newspapers, magazines, radio, billboards, direct mail, and thesis so on. If for no other reason than to preserve one's sanity, a filter must be developed in every mind to lower the human rights, number of ads a person is statement actually aware of-a number this particular study estimate at about seventy-five ads per day. (Of these, only twelve typically produced a reaction-nine positive and three negative, on the average.) To be among the few messages that do manage to gain access to minds, advertisers must be strategic, perhaps even a little underhanded at castan essay times.

There are assumptions about personality underlying advertisers' efforts to communicate via emotional appeals, and while these assumptions have stood the test of time, they still deserve to be aired. Human beings, it is presumed, walk around with a variety of unfulfilled urges and motives swirling in the bottom half of their minds. Lusts, ambitions, tendernesses, vulnerabilities-they are constantly bubbling up, seeking resolution. These mental forces energize people, but they are too crude and irregular to be given excessive play in the real world. They must be capped with the competent, sensible behavior that permits individuals to get along well in society. However, this upper layer of mental activity, shot through with caution and rationality, is not receptive to beach descriptive, advertising's pitches. Advertisers want to castan human rights, circumvent this shell of consciousness if they can, and latch on to one of the lurching, subconscious drives.In effect, advertisers over well-defined, the years have blindly felt their way around the underside of the American psyche, and by trial and error have discovered the softest points of entree, the places where their messages have the greatest likelihood of getting by consumers' defenses. As McLuhan says elsewhere, Gouging away at the surface of public sales resistance, the ad men are constantly breaking through into castan human essay the Alice in Wonderland territory behind the looking glass, which is the world of sub-rational impulses and appefltes. An advertisement communicates by making use of a specially selected image (of a Supine female, say, or a curly-haired child, or a celebrity) which is designed to words papers, stimulate subrational impulses and desires even when they are at ebb, even if they are unacknowledged by their possessor. Some few ads have their emotional appeal in the text but for the greater number by far the appeal is contained in the artwork. This makes sense, since visual communication better suits more primal levels of the brain.

If the castan rights, viewer of an advertisement actually has the thesis, importuned motive, and if the appeal is sufficiently well-fashioned to call it up, then the human rights essay, person can be hooked. The product in anthology, the ad may then appeal to take on the semblance of gratification for the summoned motive. Many ads seem to be Saying, If you have this need, then this product will help satisfy it. It is a primitive equation, but not an ineffective one for selling. Thus, most advertisements appearing in national media can be understood as having two orders of content.

The first is the appeal to deep-running drives in the minds of consumers. The second is information regarding the goods or service being sold: its name, its manufacturer its picture, its packaging, its objecfive attributes, its functions. For example, the reader of a brassiere advertisement sees a partially undraped but blandly unperturbed woman standing in castan rights, an otherwise commonplace public setting, and may experience certain Sensations; the reader also sees the name Maidenform, a particular brassiere style, and, in tiny print words about the material, colors, price. Or, the words papers, viewer of a television commercial sees a demonstration with four small boxes labelled 650, 650, 650, and essay 800; something in the viewer's mind catchers hold of well-defined this, as trivial as thoughtful consideration might reveal it to be. The viewer is also exposed to the name Anacin, its bottle, and its purpose. Sometimes there is an apparently logical llnk between an ad's emotional appeal and its product information. It does not violate common sense that Cadillac automobiles be photographed at castan human essay country clubs, or that Japan Air Lines be associated with Orientalia. But there is no real need for the linkage to papers, have a bit of reason behind it. Is there anything inherent to the connection between Salem cigarettes and mountains, Coke and castan rights a smile, Miller Beer and comradeship?

The link being forged in minds between product and descriptive appeal is castan essay a pre-logical one. People involved in the advertising industry do not necessarily talk in the terms being used here. They are stationed at the sending end of this communications channel, and may think they are up to any number of things-Unique Selling Propositions, explosive copywriting, the optimal use of demographics or psychographics, ideal media buys, high recall ratings, or whatever But when attention shifts to the receiving end of the channel, and focuses on the instant of reception, then commentary becomes much more elemental: an advertising message contains something primary and primitive, an emotional appeal, that in effect is the thin end of the wedge, trying to find its way into a mind. Should this occur, the product information comes along behind. When enough advertisements are examined in this light, it becomes clear that the emotional appeals fall into several distinguishable categories, and that every ad is a variation on one of a limited number of basic appeals. While there may be several ways of classifying these appeals, one particular list of fifteen has proven to transitional papers, be especially valuable. Advertisements can appeal to:

1 The need for sex. 2. The need for affiliation. The need to nurture. 4. The need for guidance. 5. The need to aggress. 6. The need to achieve. 7. The need to dominate. 8. The need for castan essay, prominence. 9. Dissertations! The need for attention. 10.

The need for autonomy. 11. The need to escape. 12. Castan! The need to feel safe. 13. Temple Law School Dissertations! The need for aesthetic sensations. 14. The need to satisfy curiosity. 15. Physiological needs: food, drink, sleep, etc.

1. Need for sex. Let's start with Sex, because this is the appeal which seems to castan essay, pop up first whenever the topic of advertising is essay about technology raised. Whole books have been written about this one alone, to find a large audience of mildly titillated readers. Lately, due to campaigns to sell blue jeans, concern with sex in ads has redoubled. The fascinating thing is not how much sex there is in advertising, but how little. Contrary to impressions, unambiguous sex is rare in these messages. Some of this surprising observation may be a matter of definition: the Jordache ads with the lithe, blouse-less female astride a similarly clad male is clearly an appeal to the audience's sexual drives, but the same cannot be said about Brooke Shields in the Calvin Klein commercials. Directed at young women and their credit-card carrying mothers, the image of castan human rights essay Miss Shields instead invokes the need to cultural cognition thesis, be looked at. Buy Calvins and you'll be the center of much attention, just as Brooke is, the ads imply; they do not primarily inveigle their target audience's need for sexual intercourse. In the content analysis reported in human rights essay, Mass Advertising as Social Forecast, only two percent of explorations an english ads were found to pander to this motive.

Even Playboy ads shy away from sexual appeals: a recent issue contained eighty-three full-page ads, and just four of rights them (or less than five percent) could be said to have sex on their minds. The reason this appeal is so little used is that it is too blaring and tends to obliterate the product information. Words For Research Papers! Nudity in advertising has the effect of human reducing brand recall. The people who do remember the product may do so because they have been made indignant by the ad; this is not the response most advertisers seek. To the extent that sexual imagery is used, it conventionally works better on thesis men than women; typically a female figure is offered up to the male reader. A Black Velvet liquor advertisement displays an attractive woman wearing a tight black outfit, recumbent under the legend, Feel the Velvet. The figure does not have to be horizontal, however, for the appeal to be present, as National Airlines revealed in its Fly me campaign. Castan Human Rights Essay! Indeed, there does not even have to be a female in the ad; Flick my Bic was sufficient to convey the idea to many. As a rule, though, advertisers have found sex to be a tricky appeal, to be used sparingly. Less controversial and equally fetching are the appeals to our need for affectionate human contact. 2. Need for affiliation.

American mythology upholds autonomous individuals, and social statistics suggest that people are ever more going it alone in their lives, yet the high frequency of affiliative appeals in ads belies this. Or maybe it does not: maybe all the images of companionship are compensation for what Americans privately lack. In any case, the need to associate with others is beach essays widely invoked in advertising and is probably the most prevalent appeal. All sorts of goods and human rights services are sold by cognition linking them to essay, our unfulfilled desires to be in good company. According to cognition thesis, Henry Murray, the need for affiliation consists of 24 desires to draw near and enjoyably cooperate or reciprocate with another; to please and win affection of castan human rights essay another; to cultural cognition, adhere and remain loyal to a friend. The manifestations of this motive can be segmented into several different types of affiliation, beginning with romance. Courtship may be swifter nowadays, but the desire for pair-bonding is far from satiated. Ads reaching for this need commonly depict a youngish male and female engrossed in each other The head of the male is usually higher than the female's, even at this late date; she may be sitting or leaning while he is standing.

They are not touching in the Smirnoff vodka ads, but obviously there is an intimacy, sometimes frolicsome, between them. The couple does touch for Cognac when The moment was Martell. Castan! For Wind Song perfume they have touched, and Your Wind Song stays on his mind. Depending on the audience, the pair does not absolutely have to be young-just together. He gives her a DeBeers diamond, and there is a tear in her laugh lines. She takes Geritol and preserves herself for him.

And numbers of consumers, wanting affection too, follow suit. Warm family feelings are fanned in ads when another generation is added to well-defined thesis, the pair. Hallmark Cards brings grandparents into the picture, and Johnson and Johnson Baby Powder has Dad, Mom, and baby, all fresh from the bath, encircled in arms and castan rights emblazoned with Share the Feeling. Beach Essays! A talc has been fused to familial love. Friendship is yet another form of affiliation pursued by advertisers.

Two women confide and drink Maxwell House coffee together; two men walk through the woods smoking Salem cigarettes. Miller Beer promises that afternoon Miller Time will be staffed with three or four good buddies. Drink Dr Pepper, as Mickey Rooney is coaxed to do, and join in human rights, with all the other Peppers. Coca-Cola does not even need to portray the & explorations anthology, friendliness; it has reduced this appeal to a Coke and a smile. The warmth can be toned down and disguised, but it is the same affiliative need that is being fished for. The blonde has a direct gaze and her friends are firm businessmen in appearance, but with a glass of Old Bushmill you can sit down and fit right in. Or, for something more upbeat, sing along with the castan human rights, Pontiac choirboys. As well as presenting positive images, advertisers can play to essays, the need for affiliation in negative ways, by invoking the rights essay, fear of well-defined thesis rejection. If we don't use Scope, we'll have the Ugh! Morning Breath that causes the male and female models to essay, avert their faces. Unless we apply Ultra Brite or Close-Up to our teeth, it's good-bye romance.

Our family will be cursed with House-a-tosis if we don't take care. Without Dr. Scholl's antiperspirant foot spray, the bowling team will keel over. There go all the guests when the supply of Dorito's nacho cheese chips is exhausted. Still more rejection if our shirts have ring-around-the-collar, if our car needs to be Midasized. But make a few purchases, and we are back in the bosom of human contact. As self-directed as Americans pretend to be, in the last analysis we remain social animals, hungering for the positive, endorsing feelings that only those around us can supply. Advertisers respond, urging us to Reach out and touch someone, in the hopes our monthly bills will rise.

3. Need to nurture. Akin to affiliative needs is the need to take care of & explorations small, defenseless creatures, children and pets, largely. Reciprocity is of less consequence here, though; it is the giving that counts. Murray uses synonyms like to feed, help, support, console, protect, comfort, nurse, heal. A strong need it is, woven deep into our genetic fabric, for if it did not exist we could not successfully raise up our replacements.

When advertisers put forth the image of something diminutive and furry, something that elicits the human, word cute or precious, then they, are trying to trigger this motive. We listen to the childish voice singing the Oscar Mayer weiner song, and our next hot-dog purchase is prescribed. Aren't those darling kittens something, and how did this Meow Mix get into our shopping cart? This pitch is often directed at women, as Mother Nature's chief nurturers. Make me some Kraft macaroni and well-defined cheese, please, says the elfin preschooler just in from the snowstorm, and mothers' hearts go out, and Kraft's sales go up. We're cold, wet, and castan human hungry, whine the husband and kids, and well-defined thesis statement the little woman gets the Manwiches ready. A facsimile of this need can be hit without children or pets: the human rights essay, husband is ill and transitional for research papers sleepless in castan essay, the television commercial, and well-defined thesis the wife grudgingly fetches the NyQuil. But it is not women alone who can be touched by castan essay this appeal. Beach! The father nurses his son Eddie through adolescence while the John Deere lawn tractor survives the years. Castan Human Rights! Another father counts pennies with his young son as the subject of New York Life Insurance comes up.

And all over America are businessmen who don't know why they dial Qantas Airlines when they have to take a trans-Pacific trip; the koala bear knows. 4. For Research! Need for guidance. The opposite of the need to nurture is the need to human rights essay, be nurtured: to transitional papers, be protected, shielded, guided. We may be loath to admit it, but the child lingers on inside every adult-and a good thing it does, or we would not be instructable in our advancing years. Castan Essay! Who wants a nation of nothing but flinty personalities?

Parentlike figures can successfully call up this need. Robert Young recommends Sanka coffee, and since we have experienced him for twenty-five years as television father and well-defined statement doctor, we take his word for it. Florence Henderson as the expert mom knows a lot about the advantages of Wesson oil. The parentliness of the castan human rights, Spokespersons need not be so salient; sometimes pure authoritativeness is law school dissertations better. When Orson Welles scowls and intones, Paul Masson will sell no wine before its time, we may not know exactly what he means, but we still take direction from him. There is little maternal about human rights Brenda Vaccaro when she speaks up for Tampax, but there is a certainty to her that many accept. A celebrity is not a necessity in making a pitch to the need for beach essays descriptive, guidance, since a fantasy figure can serve just as well. People accede to the Green Giant, or Betty Crocker, or Mr Goodwrench. Some advertisers can get by rights with no figure at all: When E.F Hutton talks, people listen. Often it is tradition or custom that advertisers point to and consumers take guidance from.

Bits and pieces of American history are used to sell whiskeys like Old Crow, Southern Comfort, Jack Daniel's. We conform to traditional male/female roles and age-old social norms when we purchase Barclay cigarettes, which informs us The pleasure is essay technology back. The product itself, if it has been around for a long time, can constitute a tradition. All those old labels in the ad for Morton salt convince us that we should continue to buy it. Essay! KooI-Aid says You loved it as a kid. You trust it as a mother hoping to get yet more consumers to go along. Even when the product has no history at all, our need to conform to tradition and to be guided are strong enough that they can be invoked through bogus nostalgia and essays & explorations an english older actors. Country-Time lemonade sells because consumers wnat to believe it has a past they can defer to.

So far the needs and the ways they can be invoked which have been looked at are largely warm and affiliative; they stand in contrast to the next set of needs, which are much more egoistic and castan human assertive. 5. Need to aggress. Temple Law School! The pressures of the real world create strong retaliatory feelings in every functioning human being. Since these impulses can come forth as bursts of anger and violence, their display is normally tabooed. Existing as harbored energy, aggressive drives present a large, tempting target for advertisers.

It is not a target to be aimed at rights essay thoughtlessly, though, for an argumentative essay, few manufacturers want their products associated with destructive motives. There is always the danger that as in the case of essay sex, if the appeal is beach too blatant public opinion will turn against what is being sold. Jack-in-the-Box sought to abruptly alter its marketing by going after older customers and forgetting the younger ones. Their television commercials had a seventyish lady command, Waste him, and the Jack- In-the-Box clown exploded before our eyes. So did public reaction until the commercials were toned down. Print ads for Club cocktails carried the faces of castan human rights essay Octogenarians under the headline, Hit me with a Club'; response was contrary enough to beach essays, bring the campaign to a stop.

Better disguised aggressive appeals are less likely to backfire: Tnumph cigarette has models making a lewd gesture with their uplifted cigarettes, but the individuals are often laughing and usually in close company of others. When Exxon said, There's a Tiger in your tank, the implausibility of it concealed the invocation of castan rights essay aggressive feelings. Depicted arguments are a common way for cultural, advertisers to castan, tap the audience's needs to aggress. Don Rickles and Lynda Carter trade gibes, and consumers take sides as the cognition thesis, name of Seven-Up is stitched on minds. The Parkay tub has a difference of opinlon with the user; who can forget it, or who (or what) got the last word in? 6. Need to human rights essay, achieve. This is the drive that energizes people, causing them to strive in their lives and careers. According to Murray, the need for achievement is signalled by the desires to essays descriptive, accomplish something difficult. To overcome obstacles and attain a high standard. To excel one's self.

To rival and surpass others. A prominent American trait, it is one that advertisers like to hook on castan essay to because it identifies their product with winning and success. The Cutty Sark ad does not disclose that Ted Turner failed at his latest attempt at yachting's America Cup; here he is represented as a champion on the water as well as off in his television enterprises.If we drink this whiskey, we will be victorious alongside Turner. We can also succeed with O.J. Temple Law School Dissertations! Simpson by renting Hertz cars, or with Reggie Jackson by castan bringing home some Panasonic equipment.

Cathy Rigby and about Stayfree Maxipads will put people out front. Sports heroes are the most convenient means to snare consumers' needs to castan, achieve, but they are not the only one. Temple Law School Dissertations! Role models can be established, ones which invite emulation, as with the castan rights, profiles put forth by Dewar scotch. Successful, tweedy individuals relate they have graduated to the flavor of Myer's rum. Or the well-defined, advertiser can establish a prize: two neighbors play one-on-one basketball for a Michelob beer in a television commercial, while in a print ad a bottle of human Johnie Walker Black Label has been gilded like a trophy. Any product that advertises itself in superlatives-the best the first the finest-is trying to make contact with our needs to succeed. For many consumers, sales and an argumentative bargains belong in castan human, this category of essays explorations appeals, too; the person who manages to buy something at fifty percent off is castan human essay seizing an opportunity and coming out ahead of others. 7. Need to dominate.

This fundamental need is the well-defined statement, craving to be powerful-perhaps omnipotent, as in the Xerox ad where Brother Dominic exhibits heavenly powers and creates miraculous copies. Most of us will settle for castan rights essay, being just a regular potentate, though. Well-defined Thesis Statement! We drink Budweiser because it is the King of Beers, and castan here comes the powerful Clydesdales to prove it. A taste of transitional words for research Wolfschmidt vodka and The spirit of the Czar lives on. The need to dominate and control one's environment is often thought of as being masculine, but as close students of human nature advertisers know, it is not so circumscribed.

Women's aspirations for control are suggested in the campaign theme, I like my men in English Leather or nothing all. The females in human essay, the Chanel No.19 ads areoutspoken and cultural wrestle their men around. Male and female, what we long for human rights essay, is clout; what we get in its place is a Mastercard. 8. Need for essays, prominence. Here comes the need to be admired and respected, to enjoy prestige and high social status. These times, it appears, are not so egalitarian after all. Many ads picture the trappings of high position; the Oldsmobile stands before a manorial doorway, the Volvo is parked beside a steeplechase. A book-lined study is the setting for Dewar's 12, and Lenox China is displayed in a dinlng room chock full of castan essay antiques.

Beefeater gin represents itself as The Crown Jewel of England and temple dissertations uses no illustrations of jewels or things British, for the words are sufficient indicators of distinction. Buy that gin and castan essay you will rise up the prestige hierarchy or achieve the same effect on yourself with Seagram's 7 Crown, which ambiguously describes itself as classy. Being respected does not have to entail the usual accoutrements of wealth: Do you know who I am? the commercials ask, and we learn that the prominent person is an argumentative not so prominent without his American Express card. 9. Need for attention. The previous need involved being looked up to, while this is the need to be looked at. The desire to exhibit ourselves in such a way as to make others look at us is rights essay a primitive, insuppressible instinct.

The clothing and cosmetic industries exist just to serve this need, and this is the way they pitch their wares. Some of this effort is aimed at males, as the transitional words for research papers, ads for Hathaway shirts and Jockey underclothes. But the greater bulk of such appeals is targeted singlemindedly at women. To come back to Brooke Shields: this is where she fits into American marketing. Rights! If I buy Calvin Klein jeans, consumers infer, I'll be the object of law school dissertations fascination.

The desire for exhibition has been most strikingly played to in a print campaign of many years' duration, that of Maidenform lingerie. The woman exposes herself, and sales surge. Rights Essay! Gentlemen prefer Hanes the ads dissemble, and women who want eyes upon them know what they should do. Peggy Fleming flutters her legs for Leggs, encouraging females who want to be the star in their own lives to purchase this product. The same appeal works for cosmetics and lotions. For years, the little girl with the exposed backside sold gobs of Coppertone but now the essays an english, company has picked up the castan rights, pace a little: as a female, you are supposed to Flash 'em a Coppertone tan. Food can be sold the same way espe cially to the diet-conscious; Angie Dickinson poses for California avo cados and temple law school dissertations says, Would this body lie to you? Our eyes are too fixed on her for us to think to castan human, ask if she got that way by cognition eating mounds of guacomole.

1O. Need for castan, autonomy. Cultural Cognition! There are several ways to sell credit card services, as has been noted: Mastercard appeals to the need to castan, dominate, and American Express to the need for prominence. Well-defined! When Visa claims, You can have it the way you want it, yet another primary motive is being beckoned forward-the need to endorse the self. The focus here is upon the independence and integrity of the individual; this need is the antithesis of the need for guidance and is unlike any of the social needs.

If running with the castan rights essay, herd isn't your style, try ours, says Rotan-Mosle, and many Americans feel they have finally found the right brokerage firm. The photo is of a red-coated Mountie on beach essays descriptive his horse, posed on a snow- covered ledge; the rights, copy reads, Windsor-One Canadian stands alone. This epitome of the & explorations anthology, solitary and proud individual may work best with male customers, as may Winston's man in rights essay, the red cap. But one-figure advertisements also strike the strong need for autonomy among American women. As Shelly Hack strides for Charlie perfume, females respond to her obvious pride and flair; she is her own person. The Virginia Slims tale is of people who have come a long way from subservience to independence. Cachet perfume feels it does not need a solo figure to words for research, work this appeal, and uses three different faces in its ads; it insists, though, It's different on every woman who wears it. Like many psychological needs, this one can also be appealed to castan essay, in a negative fashion, by invoking the loss of independence or self-regard. Guilt and transitional for research papers regrets can be stimulated: Gee, I could have had a V-8.

Next time, get one and be good to yourself. 11. Need to escape. An appeal to the need for human rights, autonomy often co-occurs with one for the need to escape, since the desire to statement, duck out of castan essay our social obligations, to seek rest or adventure, frequently takes the form of well-defined statement one-person flight. The dashing image of a pilot, in fact, is castan human a standard way of anthology quickening this need to get away from it all. Freedom is the pitch here, the freedom that every individual yearns for whenever life becomes too oppressive. Rights Essay! Many advertisers like appealing to the need for escape because the sensation of pleasure often accompanies escape, and what nicer emotional nimbus could there be for a product? You deserve a break today, says McDonald's, and temple law school Stouffer's frozen foods chime in, Set yourself free. For decades men have imaginatively bonded themselves to the Marlboro cowboy who dwells untarnished and unencumbered in Marlboro Country some distance from modern life; ads, part of the same campaign, contain two strolling figures. In smokers' aching needs for autonomy and escape are personified by that cowpoke. Many women can identify with the lady ambling through the woods behind the words, Benson and Hedges and mornings and me.

But escape does not have to be solitary. Other Benson and Hedges Salem cigarette advertisements, it can be several people who escape together into the mountaintops. A commercial for Levi's pictured a cloudbank above a city through which ran a whole chain of young people. Castan Rights! There are varieties of escape, some wistful like the Boeing Someday campaign of dream vacations, some kinetic like the play and parties in soft drink ads. But in every instance, the consumer exposed to the advertisement is invited to an argumentative, momentarily depart his everyday life for castan human rights, a more carefree experience, preferably with the words, product in hand. 12.

Need to feel safe. Nobody in their right mind wants to be intim- idated, menaced, battered, poisoned. Rights! We naturally want to do whatever it takes to stave off threats to our well-being, and to our families'. Temple Law School! It is the instinct of self-preservation that makes us responsive to the ad of the St. Bernard with the keg of Chivas Regal. We pay attention to the stern talk of Karl MaIden and the plight of the vacationing couples who have lost all their funds in the American Express travelers cheques commercials. Castan! We want the omnipresent stag from Hartford Insurance to cognition, watch over us too. In the interest of castan human keeping failure and calamity from our lives, we like to see the durability of products demonstrated. Can we ever forget that Timex takes a licking and keeps on ticking? When the American Touris ter suitcase bounces all over the highway and essays & an english the egg inside doesn't break, the need to castan human, feel safe has been adroitly pluck.

We take precautions to diminish future threats. We buy Volkswagen Rabbits for an argumentative essay, the extraordinary mileage, and human MONY insurance policies to avoid the tragedies depicted in their black-and-white ads of widows and orphans. We are careful about our health. We consume Mazola margarine because it has corn goodness backed by & an english the natural food traditions of the American Indians. In the medicine cabinet is Alka-Seltzer, the home remedy; having it we are snug in our little cottage. We want to be safe and secure; buy these products, advertisers are saying, and you'll be safer than you are without them. 13. Needfor aesthetic sensations. There is an undeniable aesthetic component to virtually every ad run in the national media: the photography or filming or drawing is near-perfect, the type style is well chosen, layout could scarcely be improved upon. Advertisers know there is little chance of castan essay good communication occurring if an ad is not visually pleasing. Consumers may not be aware of the papers, extent of human rights essay their own sensitivity to artwork, but it is undeniably large.

Sometimes the aesthetic element is expanded and made into an ad's primary appeal. Charles Jordan shoes may or may not appear in the accompanying avant-grade photographs; Kohler plumbing fixtures catch attention through the high style of their desert settings. Beneath the slightly out of focus photograph, languid and law school dissertations sensuous in castan rights, tone, General Electric feels called upon to explain, This is an ad for the hair dryer. This appeal is not limited to & an english, female consumers: JB scotch says It whispers and shows a bucolic scene of lake and castle. 14. Need to satisfy curiosity. It may seem odd to list a need for information among basic motives, but this need can be as primal and compelling as any of the others. Human beings are curious by nature, interested in castan human rights essay, the world around them, and intrigued by beach tidbits of knowledge and new developments. Trivia, percentages, observations counter to conventional wisdom-these items all help sell products. Any advertisement in a question-and-answer format is strumming this need. A dog groomer has a question about long distance rates, and Bell Telephone has a chart with all the figures.

An ad for Porsche is replete with diagrams and schematics, numbers and arrows. Lo and behold, Anacin pills have 150 more milligrams than its competitors; should we wonder if this is better or worse for us? 15. Castan Rights! Physiological needs. To the extent that sex is solely a biological need, we are now coming around full circle, back toward the start of the list. In this final category are clustered appeals to sleeping, eating, drinking.

The art of photographing food and & explorations drink is essay so advanced, sometimes these temptations are wondrously caught in the camera's lens: the crab meat in the Red Lobster restaurant ads can start us salivating, the Quarterpounder can almost be smelled, the liquor in the glass glows invitingly imbibe, these ads scream. Some common ingredients of & anthology advertisements were not singled out for separate mention in the list of rights essay fifteen because they are not appeals in an argumentative about, and of themselves. They are stylistic features, influencing the way a basic appeal is presented. The use of castan rights humor is one, and the use of celebrities is another A third is time imagery, past and future, which goes to several purposes. Essays Descriptive! For all of its employment in advertising, humor can be treacherous, because it can get out of hand and smother the rights, product information. Supposedly, this is what Alka-Seltzer discovered with its comic commercials of the late sixties; I can't believe I ate the whole thing, the sad-faced husband lamented, and the audience cackled so much it forgot the antacid. Or, did not take it seriously. But used carefully, humor can punctuate some of the softer appeals and soften some of the harsher ones. When Emma says to the Fruit-of-the-Loom fruits, Hi, cuties. Whatcha doing in my laundry basket? we smile as our curiosity is assuaged along with hers. Bill Cosby gets consumers tickled about the children in law school dissertations, his Jell-O commercials, and strokes the need to rights, nurture.

An insurance company wants to invoke the need to thesis, feel safe, but does not want to leave readers with an rights unpleasant aftertaste; cartoonist Rowland Wilson creates an avalanche about to crush a gentleman who is saying to another, My insurance company? New England Life, of course why? The same tactic of humor undercutting threat is used in transitional words for research, the cartoon commercials for Safeco when the Pink Panther wanders from one disaster to another Often humor masks aggression: comedian Bob Hope in rights, the outfit of a boxer promises to knock out the knock-knocks with Texaco; Rodney Dangerfield, who can't get no respect, invites aggression as the comic relief in Miller Lite commercials. Roughly fifteen percent of all advertisements incorporate a celebrity, almost always from the fields of entertainment or sports. The approach can also prove troublesome for advertisers, for celebrities are human beings too, and thesis statement fully capable of the castan human, most remarkable behavior if anything distasteful about them emerges, it is likely to reflect on the product. The advertisers making use of Anita Bryant and temple law school dissertations Billy Jean suffered several anxious moments.

An untimely death can also react poorly on a product. But advertisers are willing to take risks because celebrities can be such a good link between producers and performing the social role of introducer. Castan Human Rights! There are several psychological needs these middlemen can play upon. Let's take the product class of beach essays cameras and see how different celebrities can hit different needs. The need for guidance can be invoked by Michael Landon, who plays such a wonderful dad on Little House on the Prairie; when he says to buy Kodak equipment, many people listen.

James Garner for Polaroid cameras is put in a similar authoritative role, so defined by a mocking spouse. Human Rights Essay! The need to achieve is summoned up by Tracy Austin and other tennis stars for Canon AE-l; the advertiser first makes sure we set these athletes playing to thesis, win. When Cheryl Tiegs speaks up for Olympus cameras, it is the need for castan essay, attention that is transitional words being targeted. The past and future, being outside our grasp, are exploited by rights essay advertisers as locales for the projection of well-defined needs. Castan Human Essay! History can offer up heroes (and call up the need to achieve) or traditions (need for cultural, guidance) as well as art objects (need for aesthetic sensations). Nostalgia is a kindly version of personal history and is deployed by advertisers to rouse needs for affiliation and for guidance; the need to escape can come in castan essay, here, too.

The same need to escape is sometimes the point of futuristic appeals but picturing the beach essays, avant-garde can also be a way to get at the need to achieve. When analyzing ads yourself for their emotional appeals, it takes a bit of practice to learn to ignore the product information (as well as one's own experience and feelings about the product). Castan Human Rights Essay! But that skill comes soon enough, as does the ability to quickly sort out from all the non-product aspects of an ad the chief element which is the most striking, the most likely to snag attention first and penetrate brains farthest. The key to the appeal, this element usually presents itself centrally and forwardly to the reader or viewer. Another clue: the viewing angle which the audience has on the ad's subjects is informative. Cultural Thesis! If the subjects are photographed or filmed from below and thus are looking down at castan human essay you much as the Green Giant does, then the need to be guided is a good candidate for the ad's emotional appeal If, on the other hand, the subjects are shot from above and appear deferential, as is often the case with children or female models, then other needs are being appealed to. To figure out an ad's emotional appeal, it is an argumentative essay wise to know (or have a good hunch about) who the targeted consumers are; this can often be inferred from the magazine or television show it appears in. This piece of information is a great help in human essay, determining the thesis statement, appeal and in deciding between two different interpretations. For example, if an ad features a partially undressed female, this would typically signal one appeal for human, readers of Penthouse (need for sex) and another for readers of Cosmopolitan (need for attention). It would be convenient if every ad made just one appeal, were aimed at just one need.

Unfortunately, things are often not that simple. A cigarette ad with a couple at the edge of a polo field is trying to hit both the need for affiliation and the need for prominence; depending on an english anthology the attitude of the male, dominance could also be an ingredient in castan human rights, this. An ad for & explorations, Chimere perfume incorporates two photos: in the top one the lady is being commanding at a business luncheon (need to dominate), but in the lower one she is being bussed (need for affiliation). Better ads, however, seem to castan rights, avoid being too diffused; in the study of post-World War II advertising described earlier, appeals grew more focused as the decades passed. As a rule of thumb, about sixty percent have two conspicuous appeals; the last twenty percent have three or more. Rather than looking for law school dissertations, the greatest number of castan human rights essay appeals, decoding ads is most productive when the loudest one or two appeals are discerned, since those are the appeals with the best chance of grabbing people's attention. Do They or Don't They?

Do the emotional appeals made in essays & an english anthology, advertisements add up to the sinister manipulation of consumers? It is clear that these ads work. Attention is caught, communication occurs between producers and consumers, and sales result. It turns out to be difficult to detail the exact relationship between a specific ad and a specific purchase, or even between a campaign and castan human rights essay subsequent sales figures, because advertising is only one of a host of influences upon consumption. Yet no one is fooled by this lack of perfect proof; everyone knows that advertising sells. If this were not the case, then tight-fisted American businesses would not spend a total of fifty billion doflars annu ally on these messages.

But before anyone despairs that advertisers have our number to the extent that they can marshal us at will and march us like automatons to the check-out counters, we should recall the resiliency and obduracy of the American consumer. Advertisers may have uncovered the dissertations, softest spots in minds, but that does not mean they have found truly gaping apertures. There is no evidence that advertising can get people to do things contrary to their self-interests. Despite all the finesse of advertisements, and all the subtle emotional tugs, the castan human essay, public resists the vast majority of the petitions. According to the marketing division of the an argumentative essay, A.C. Nielsen Company, a whopping seventy-five percent of all new products die within a year in the marketplace, the victims of consumer disinterest which no amount of advertising could overcome.

The appeals in advertising may be the most captivating there are to castan human rights, be had, but they are not enough to & an english anthology, entrap the wiley consumer.The key to understanding the discrepancy between, on the one hand, the fact that advertising truly works, and, on the other, the fact that it hardly works, is to castan human rights essay, take into account the enormous numbers of people exposed to an ad. Modern-day communications permit an ad to beach essays, be displayed to millions upon millions of individuals; if the smallest fraction of that audience can be moved to rights essay, buy the product then the ad has been successful. When one percent of the people exposed to a television advertising campaign reach for their wallets, that could be one million sales, which may be enough to keep the product in production and the advertisements coming. It is good to keep in mind that many of the purchases which might be credited to these ads are experienced as genuinely gratifying to the consumer We sincerely like the goods or service we have bought and we may even like some of the emotional drapery that an ad suggests comes with it. It has sometimes been noted that the most avid students of thesis advertisements are the people who have just bought the product; they want to steep themselves in the associated imagery This may be the reason that Americans, when polled, are not negative about advertising and do not disclose any sense of being mis-used.

The volume of advertising may be an irritant, but the product information as well as the imaginative material in ads are partial compensation. A productive understanding is that advertising messages involve costs and benefits at both ends of the communications channel. For those few ads which do make contact, the consumer surrenders a moment of castan rights essay time, has the lower brain curried, and receives notice of a product; the advertiser has given up money and has increased the chance of for research sales. Human Rights Essay! In this sort of descriptive communications activity, neither party can be said to be the loser.